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State Department of Archives and History 


NorlK Carolina Sfafe tiErary 

The Papers of 
William Alexander Graham 

Edited by 
J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton 

Volume Two 

State Department of Archives and History 


Carolina State Library 


t/f Cr- 7 



Executive Board 

McDaniel Lewis, Chairman 

James W. Atkins 

Gertrude Sprague Carraway 

Fletcher M. Green 

Christopher Crittenden, Director 

Ralph Philip Hanes 

Josh L. Home 

Daniel J. Whitener 



Foreword vii 

Letters written by William A. Graham printed 
in this volume ix 

Letters written to William A. Graham printed 
in this volume xi 

Speeches and other writings of William A. Graham printed 
in this volume : xvi 

Miscellaneous Letters printed in this volume xvi 

Miscellaneous Documents printed in this volume xvii 

Symbols used to designate depositories of Graham Papers xviii 

The Papers of William A. Graham 1 

Index 587 


This is the second in a series of approximately seven volumes 
containing the papers of William Alexander Graham. The first 
volume was published in 1957 and other volumes will follow as 
soon as funds become available. 

Dr. J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, professor emeritus of the 
Department of History of the University of North Carolina, who 
has edited three other series for publication by the Department, 
has edited this volume and looks forward to the time when all 
the Graham material will be published. 

William A. Graham was active in the political life of the State 
for many years. He was a Whig and served in the General Assem- 
bly, as Governor, United States Senator, Secretary of the Navy, 
and Confederate States Senator. This volume covers the period 
when he served in the House of Commons as Speaker, and as 
United States Senator. It also covers the period when he cam- 
paigned for Governor. The next volume will begin when he 
became Governor. 

September 1, 1959, D. L. Corbitt, Head 

Raleigh. Division of Publications. 




Letters Written By William A. Graham Printed in This Volume 




Jan. 9, 1838 


Dec. 4, 1838 


Dec. 8, 1838 


Dec. 10, 1838 


Dec. 23, 1838 


Jan. 6, 1839 


Jan. 13, 1839 


Feb. 3, 1839 


Feb. 23, 1839 


May 16, 1839 


June 1, 1839 


June 8, 1839 


Aug. 31, 1839 


Oct. 20, 1839 


Dec. 14, 1839 


Jan. 8, 1840 

Greensboro u 


April 18, 1840 


Aug. 15, 1840 

Surry Coun 


Sept. 15, 1840 

William sum 

Sept. 15, 1840 


Nov. 18, 1840 


Nov. 21, 1840 


Nov. 24, 1840 


Dec. 7, 1840 




Dec. 10, 1840 




Dec. 16, 1840 




Dec. 20, 1840 




Dec. 21, 1840 




Jan. 1, 1841 




Jan. 9, 1841 




Jan. 25, 1841 




Feb. 1, 1841 




Feb. 9, 1841 




Feb. 13, 1841 




Feb. 15, 1841 




Feb. 23, 1841 




March 4, 1841 


March 29, 1841 




June 4, 1841 




June 8, 1841 




June 12, 1841 




June 13, 1841 




June 19, 1841 

Written to 

Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 

James W. Bryan 
David L. Swain 

James W. Bryan 
Susan Washington Graham 

James W. Bryan 

James W. Bryan 

Richard C. Puryear and others 

James J. Williams and others 

James W. Bryan 

James W. Bryan 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

William Gaston 

James W. Bryan 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 

James W. Bryan 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 

James W. Bryan 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 
Susan Washington Graham 

James W. Bryan 
Susan Washington Graham 


Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
[Washington, D. C] 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 

Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 

June 26, 1841 
July 2, 1841 
July 4, 1841 
July 6, 1841 
July 18, 1841 
July 22, 1841 
July 24, 1841 
July 25, 1841 
July 26, 1841 
July 28, 1841 
July 30, 1841 
Aug. 1, 1841 
Aug. 6, 1841 
Aug. 8, 1841 
Aug. 13, 1841 
Aug. 16, 1841 
Aug. 17, 1841 
Aug. 22, 1841 
Aug. 27, 1841 
Aug. 29, 1841 
Sept. 5, 1841 
Sept. 12, 1841 
Sept. 13, 1841 
Dec. 5, 1841 
Dec. 22, 1841 
Jan. 6, 1842 
Feb. 10, 1842 
Feb. 23, 1842 
March 8, 1842 
April 11, 1842 
May 2, 1842 
May 10, 1842 
May 14, 1842 
May 20, 1842 
July 7, 1842 
Sept. 24, 1842 
Sept. 24, 1842 
Dec. 21, 1842 
Jan. 14, 1843 
Feb. 17, 1843 
April 30, 1843 
June 22, 1843 
July 22, 1843 
Aug. 5, 1843 
Aug. 31, 1843 
Sept. 1, 1843 
Nov. 26, 1843 
Dec. 18, 1843 
Dec. 28, 1843 
Jan. 26, 1844 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Charles Plummer Green 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

David L. Swain 

Susan Washington Graham 

James W. Bryan 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

William Gaston 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

Susan Washington Graham 

James W. Bryan 

David L. Swain 

James W. Bryan 

David L. Swain 

James W. Bryan 

John M. Morehead 

James W. Bryan 

James W. Bryan 

Messrs. Gales and Seaton 

David L. Swain 

James W. Bryan 

Paul C. Cameron 

Samuel F. Patterson 

Calvin H. Wiley and others 

Charles P. Green 

James W. Bryan 

James Webb 

Charles P. Green 

James W. Bryan 

Willie P. Mangum 

Weston R. Gales - 

Weston R. Gales 

J. H. Hedges 

James Graham 

James Graham 

George E. Spruill 

James W. Bryan 

James W. Bryan 


New York 





Feb. 16, 1844 
Feb. 19, 1844 
April 11, 1844 
June 20, 1844 
Nov. 25, 1844 
Dec. 15, 1844 

New Hanover Committee 
Democratic Whigs of New York City 

Richard Hines 

Susan Washington Graham 

James W. Bryan 

James Graham 

Letters Written To William A. Graham Printed in This Volume 


Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Nassau Hall 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Boston, Mass. 
Chapel Hill 
New York 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 
Brandon, Miss. 
Macon, Miss. 
Brook-Land [Ala.] 
Washington, D. C. 

Washington, D. C. 
Chapel Hill 
Washington, D. C. 
Davidson College 

Brook Land [Ala.] 



Van Buren, Ark. 


Jan. 6, 1838 
Jan. 21, 1838 
Jan. 26, 1838 
Feb. 20, 1838 
Feb. 25, 1838 
April 8, 1838 
April 18, 1838 
June 7, 1835 [1838] 
July 23, 1838 
Aug. 5, 1838 
Aug. 13, 1838 
Aug. 18, 1838 
Aug. 22, 1838 
Oct. 13, 1838 
Oct. 24, 1838 
Nov. 26, 1838 
Dec. 2, 1838 
Dec. 14, 1838 
Jan. 3, 1839 
Jan. 4, 1839 
Feb. 18, 1839 
April 1, 1839 
April 6, 1839 

April 15, 1839 
April 16, 1839 
May 13, 1839 
June 8, 1839 

Randolph Macon College Aug. 25, 1839 

Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 
Washington, D. C. 

Sept. 26, 1839 
Nov. 30, 1839 
Dec. 5, 1839 
Dec. 10, 1839 
Dec. 22, 1839 
Jan. 31, 1840 
Feb. 3, 1840 
March 19, 1840 
April 5, 1840 
April 8, 1840 

Written by 

James Graham 

James Graham 

J. McKay and J. J. Witherspoon 

James Graham 

James Graham 

James Graham 

Hugh Waddell 

James Graham 

Edward B. Dudley 

James Graham 

William R. Walker 

James Augustus Washington 

James Graham 

James A. King 

Victor Moreau Murphey 

Josiah T. Granbery 

Eliza B. Witherspoon 

James Graham 

James W. Bryan 

James Graham 

Clarke Moulton Avery 

James Graham 

Literary Societies of 
Davidson College 

Eliza Witherspoon Goldthwaite 

Weston R. Gales 

James W. Bryan 

Jesse Turner 

Jno. S. Wright, J. L. Smith and 
Jas. L. Mullen 

James W. Bryan 
James Graham 
James Graham 

Henry W. Miller 
James Graham 
James Graham 
James Graham 
James Graham 

Kenneth Rayner 
James Graham 



Washington, D. C. 


Washington, D. C. 



Washington, D. C. 

Washington, D. C. 

Washington, D. C. 

New York 

Washington, D. C. 



Saratoga Springs 









Dockery's Store 

Mobile [Ala.] 


Washington, D. C. 




Chapel Hill 



New York 

Washington, D. C. 

Washington, D. C. 

Chapel Hill 






Sandy Grove 

Brandon [Miss.] 


Washington, D. C. 




April 24, 1840 
May 10, 1840 
May 19, 1840 
May 20, 1840 
May 26, 1840 
May 30, 1840 
May 31, 1840 
June 16, 1840 
July 3, 1840 
July 7, 1840 
July 13, 1840 
Aug. 9, 1840 
Aug. 26, 1840 
Aug. 29, 1840 
Sept. 4, 1840 
Nov. 12, 1840 
Nov. 22, 1840 
Nov. 26, 1840 
Dec. 9, 1840 
Dec. 27, 1840 
Jan. 19, 1841 
Feb. 1, 1841 
Feb. 8, 1841 
Feb. 8, 1841 
Feb. 9, 1841 
Feb. 9, 1841 

Feb. 16, 1841 
Feb. 21, 1841 
March 25, 1841 
March 25, 1841 
April 3, 1841 
April 5, 1841 
April 7, 1841 
April 12, 1841 
April 8, 1841 
April 28, 1841 
May 31, 1841 
June 1, 1841 
June 4, 1841 
June 7, 1841 
June 8, 1841 
June 9, 1841 
June 15, 1841 
June 24, 1841 
June 30, 1841 
July 2, 1841 
July 7, 1841 
July 9, 1841 
July 10, 1841 

William H. Battle 

James Graham 

James W. Bryan 

James Graham 

James W. Osborne 

Charles Manly 

James Graham 

James Graham 

James Graham 

James A. Washington 

James Graham 

James W. Bryan 

James W. Osborne 

James W. Bryan 

James Graham 

Matthias E. Manly 

Maurice Q. Waddell 

Matthias E. Manly 

James W. Bryan 

William Gaston 

George E. Badger 

Cadwallader Jones 

Isaac Dockery 

Jesse Carter 

Thomas Ruffin 

Joel R. Poinsett and 
N. C. Paulding 

George E. Badger 

Daniel Moreau Barringer 

Charles L. Hinton 

James Phillips 

James W. Bryan 

Bartholomew F. Moore 

Nicholas Carroll 

Daniel Webster 

Nathaniel P. Tallmadge 

George E. Badger 

Robert B. Gilliam 

John Bell 

Thomas J. Hoi ton 

Duncan Cameron 

Frederick' Nash 

Henry W. Miller 

William R. Albright 

James A. King 

Matthias E. Manly 

Daniel Webster 

Priestley H. Mangum 

Edmund Strudwick 

Edward B. Dudley 


Washington, D. C. 

July 15, 1841 


July 20, 1841 


July 29, 1841 

Greensboro [Ala.] 

Aug. 6, 1841 

Aug. 15, 1841 


Aug. 19, 1841 

Boston [Mass.] 

Aug. 22, 1841 


Aug. 30, 1841 


Oct. 16, 1841 


Nov. 9, 1841 

Nov. 29, 1841 


Jan. 5, 1842 

Chapel Hill 

Jan. 11, 1842 


Jan. 18, 1842 


Feb. 14, 1842 

Chapel Hill 

Feb. 16, 1842 


Feb. 16, 1842 

Moon's Creek 

Feb. 17, 1842 


Feb. 20, 1842 


Feb. 26, 1842 


March 2, 1842 

St. Augustine, Flo. 

March 10, 1842 


March 11, 1842 


March 16, 1842 


March 19, 1842 


March 22, 1842 


March 25, 1842 


April 4, 1842 


April 7, 1842 


April 22, 1842 


April 22, 1842 


May 9, 1842 


May 12, 1842 

Yale College 

May 17, 1842 


May 24, 1842 

Panther Creek 

May 25, 1842 


May 30, 1842 

White Oak 

May 30, 1842 

Scotts Creek 

May 31, 1842 

Sandy Grove 

June 3, 1842 


June 7, 1842 


June 8, 1842 


June 13, 1842 


June 15, 1842 

Van Buren, Ark. 

June 15, 1842 


June 22, 1842 


June 23, 1842 


July 1, 1842 

German ton 

July 1, 1842 

James Graham 

William Gaston 
William F. Strudwick 
James W. Osborne 
William Gaston 
Henry K. Burgwyn 
Thomas S. Hoskins 
James W. Osborne 
B. Baker, H. W. Miller, 
C. L. Hinton 
David L. Swain 
William Gaston 
David L. Swain 
William W. Holden 
George McClellan 
Elisha Mitchell 
James C. Turrentine 
G. Robertson 
J. A. Norcom 
George C. Mendenhall 
Priestley H. Mangum 
Citizens of Florida 
David W. Stone 
Daniel S. Crenshaw 
James W. Bryan 
Ralph Gorreli 
Samuel L. Southard 
Charles L. Hinton 
John M. Morehead 
Tod R. Caldwell 
William R. Walker 
Thomas S. Hoskins 
Priestley H. Mangum 
Denison Olmsted 
James W. Bryan 
Nicholas Lanier Williams 
Priestley H. Mangum 
Giles Mebane 
J. Kerner 
W. R. Albright 
Henry K. Nash 
Hugh Waddell 
John W. Norwood 
William A. Johnson 
Jesse Turner- 
Jesse H. Lindsay 
James T. Littlejohn 
Weston R. Gales 
John F. Poindexter 


Washington, D. C. 

July 7, 1842 

W. Forward 

July 7, 1842 

J. H. Long 


July 8, 1842 

John A. Barnett 

White Oak 

July 10, 1842 

Giles Mebane 


July 12, 1842 

Charles L. Hinton 


July 13, 1842 

Frederick J. Hill 


July 14, 1842 

Daniel S. Hill 


July 16, 1842 

Edwin G. Reade 


July 20, 1842 

Samuel F. Patterson 


July 24, 1842 

John M. Morehead 

Chapel Hill 

July 25, 1842 

William H. Owen 

Mobile [Ala.] 

July 26, 1842 

James Martin 


July 27, 1842 

Frederick J. Hill 


July 30, 1842 

Charles Plummer Green 


Aug. 2, 1842 

Charles Plummer Green 


Aug. 5, 1842 

Richard C. Puryear 


Aug. 8, 1842 

Samuel F. Patterson 


Aug. 12, 1842 

Henry K. Nash 


Sept. 17, 1842 

From Committee 

Frankfort, Ky. 

Sept. 23, 1842 

Frankfort Whig Committee 


Oct. 5, 1842 

Charles P. Green 


Oct. 25, 1842 

James W. Bryan 


Nov. 20, 1842 

Charles L. Hinton 

Nov. 28, 1842 

George C. Mendenhall 

Columbia, S. C. 

Dec. 4, 1842 

William C. Preston 

Dec. 4, 1842 

George C. Mendenhall 


Dec. 5, 1842 

Edmund Strudwick 


Dec. 7, 1842 

George C. Mendenhall 


Dec. 8, 1842 

George C. Mendenhall 


Dec. 9, 1842 

John A. Young 


Dec. 10, 1842 

George C. Mendenhall 


Dec. 11, 1842 

George C. Mendenhall 


Dec. 13, 1842 

George C. Mendenhall 


Dec. 14, 1842 

George C. Mendenhall 


Dec. 14, 1842 

George G. Mendenhall 


Dec. 14, 1842 

Joseph B. Hinton 


Dec. 16, 1842 

George C. Mendenhall 


Dec. 18, 1842 

George C. Mendenhall 


Dec. 18, 1842 

Hamilton C. Jones 

Cincinnati [Ohio] 

Dec. 18, 1842 

~S. O. Butler 


Dec. 18, 1842 

George C. Mendenhall 


Dec. 19, 1842 

Charles L. Hinton 


Dec. 19, 1842 

Henry K. Nash 


Dec. 31, 1842 

Charles L. Hinton 


Dec. 31, 1842 

Susan Washington Graham 


Jan. 12, 1843 

George C. Mendenhall 


Jan. 12, 1843 

George C. Mendenhall 


Jan. 13, 1843 

George C. Mendenhall 


Jan. 16, 1843 

John Umstead Kirkland 


Jan. 20, 1843 

Charles L. Hinton 



Cottage Home 

Washington, D. C. 


Washington, N. C. 





Rockbridge County, Va. 



College, Va. 






Neuse River 

Washington, D. C. 


Washington, D. C. 


Chapel Hill 


V. Furnace 





New Orleans 


New York 


Pleasant Gardens 


Sommerville [Tenn.] 











Feb. 1, 1843 
March 6, 1843 
March 16, 1843 
March 26, 1843 
March 30, 1843 
April 20, 1943 
April 20, 1843 
May 23, 1843 
May 25, 1843 
Aug. 5, 1843 
Aug. 12, 1843 

Sept. 18, 1843 
Oct. 10, 1843 
Oct. 13, 1843 
Oct. 19, 1843 
Nov. 5, 1843 
Nov. 6, 1843 
Nov. 15, 1843 
Dec. 3, 1843 
Dec. 11, 1843 
Dec. 27, 1843 
Dec. 29, 1843 
Jan. 21, 1844 
Jan. 22, 1844 
Jan. 30, 1844 
Jan. 31, 1844 
Feb. 2, 1844 
Feb. 4, 1844 
Feb. 5, 1844 
Feb. 6, 1844 
Feb. 17, 1844 
Feb. 19, 1844 
March 1, 1844 
March 2, 1844 
March 6, 1844 
March 16, 1844 
March 21, 1844 
March 29, 1844 
April 6, 1844 
April 8, 1844 
April 13, 1844 
April 15, 1844 
April 15, 1844 
April 27, 1844 
May 4, 1844 
May 7, 1844 

Cottage Home 

May 7, 1844 
May 11, 1844 
May 13, 1844 
May 16, 1844 

Charles L. Hinton 

Robert Hall Morrison 

E. Dyer 

James Graham 

Joshua Tayloe 

Bartholomew F. Moore 

Bartholomew F. Moore 

Bartholomew F. Moore 

James Graham 

Charles P. Green 

George E. Badger 

John Howard 

Thomas P. Devereux 

James W. Bryan 

James W. Bryan 

James Graham 

Thomas P. Devereux 

Charles L. Hinton 

Daniel M. Barringer 

George E. Spruill 

Daniel M. Barringer 

John Steele Macnamara 

Reuben Clarke Shorter 

William Blanding 

James Graham 

Robert B. Gilliam 

Robert B. Gilliam 

New Hanover Committee 

John Y. Hicks and others 

Henry Clay 

Thomas Turner 

Henry E. Davies and others 

Hugh Waddell 

S. Bulow Erwin 

Thomas Ruffin 

Calvin Jones and others 

Hugh Waddell 

Hugh Waddell 

Paul C. Cameron 

John M. Morehead 

James W. Bryan 

Henry Clay 

Thomas P. Devereaux 

Robert B. Gilliam 

Haywood W. Guion 

Robert B. Gilliam 

Hugh Waddell 

Robert Hall Morrison 

John M. Morehead 

Bayles M. Edney 

Francis Joseph Kron 



May 30, 1844 

New Orleans 

June 4, 1844 


June 17, 1844 

Lincoln ton 

July 22, 1844 


Aug. 3, 1844 


Aug. 5, 1844 

New York 

Aug. 27, 1844 


Sept. 21, 1844 


Nov. 9, 1844 

Staunton, Va. 

Nov. 18, 1844 


Dec. 5, 1844 


Dec. 15, 1844 


Dec. 20, 1844 

W. E. Mills and others 

W. E. Mills 

James Graham 

William E. Mills 

Charles Cotesworth Henderson 

James W. Bryan 

John W. Cameron 

Nicholas Carroll 

George E. Badger 

Christopher C. Battle 

William D. Cooke 

Hugh Waddell 

Hugh Waddell 

John M. Morehead 

Speeches and Other Writings of William A. Graham Printed 

in this Volume 

Speech upon Election as Speaker Nov. 19, 1838 

Speech at Close of Session Jan. 8, 1839 

Speech in United States Senate on the Bill to Establish a Permanent 

Pre-emption System in Favor of Settlers on the Public Lands Jan. 7, 1841 

Speech in the Senate on Roanoke Inlet Jan. 29, 1841 

Speech in the Senate on Roanoke Inlet ... Jan. 28, 1842 

Speech on Lewis Williams in U. S. Senate Feb. 24, 1842 

Speech on the Loan Bill in U. S. Senate April 13, 1842 

Speech on the Distributing Clause of the Apportionment 
Bill in the U. S. Senate June 3, 1842 

Campaign Speech at Fayetteville June 1, 1844 

Miscellaneous Letters Printed in this Volume 





Members of the 


Jan. 12, 1839 

Lewis Williams 

Whig Party 

Edmund Deberry 
Aug. H. Shepherd 
Abraham Rencher 
James Graham 
Edward Stanly 

Walter Gwynn 

June 22, 1840 

Edward B. Dudley 

Sam F. Bridge 


April 10, 1841 

Daniel Webster 

William H. Owen 

Chapel Hill 

July 25, 1842 

"Dear Sir" 

James Graham 

Washington, D. 

C. Aug. 24, 1842 

The President of the 

U S 

James Graham 

Washington, D. 

C. Aug. 29, 1842 

The President of the 

U S 

Calvin H. Wiley, 

et als. 


Sept. 17, 1842 

James P. Espy 

Friends of Science 

Richard Hines 


Oct. 18, 1843 

Willie P. Mangum 

Weston R. Gales 


Nov. 2, 1843 

Hugh Waddell 

Robert Hall 


Cottage Home 

Mar. 9, 1844 

Susan W. Graham 

James Cornick 


Nov. 27, 1844 

John M. Morehead 


Miscellaneous Documents Printed in this Volume 

Party invitation complimental to Governor and Mrs. E. B. Dudley Jan. 1, 1839 

Resolution on Behalf of Henry Clay for President Feb. 27, 1839 

Address of the Republican Whig Members of the General Assembly 

of 1838 to the People of North Carolina No Date 

Newspaper Account of Speech declining Congressional Nomination May 31, 1839 

Broadside: Negro Evidence Against White Men July 1840 

W. R. Gales Raleigh July 23, 1840 James Iredell 

James Iredell Raleigh July 23, 1840 James Shepard 

James B. Shepard July 24, 1840 N. G. Rand 

Dempsey B. Massey 
James M. Mangum 

James Iredell Raleigh July 23, 1840 W. R. Gales 

Certificate relative to Iredell signed by Jno. M. Mason, Geo. W. 
Mordecai, Win, Boylan, Geo. Little, J. A. Campbell, Wm. Peace, 

Bernard Dupuy, James Litchford, and Geo. W. Polk No Date 

Political Invitation from Surry County Sept. 15, 1840 

Invitation to Speak at Williamston Sept. 15, 1840 

Arrangements for the Inauguration of the President Elect ._ March 4, 1841 

The Death of President Harrison April 4, 1841 

Memorandum June 24, 1 84 1 

Enclosure Voters at Hillsborough Election . Aug. 1841 

Invitation from President of United States to visit 
Ship "Delaware" Aug. 9, 1841 

Newspaper Comment Feb. 3, 1842 

Resolutions of the Whig Convention Dec. 8, 1843 

Plain Thoughts for the West [June (?), 1844] 

Notification of Election Dec. 10, 1844 


Symbols Used to Designate Depositories of Graham Papers 

A North Carolina Department of Archives and History 

U The Southern Historical Collection of the Univer- 

sity of North Carolina 

North Carolina Department of Archives and History 
The Southern Historical Collection of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina 

The Southern Historical Collection of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina 

The Southern Historical Collection of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina 

The Southern Historical Collection of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina 

The Southern Historical Collection of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina 

A Bryan Mss. 

U Gaston Mss. 

U Lindsay Patterson Mss. 

U T. J. Green Mss. 

U James Webb Mss. 

U Cameron Mss. 


The Papers of William A. Graham 1 

From James Graham. U. 

Washington, January 6th, 1838. 

*3r "?P tt "w ^ 

Congress is now actively employed. Calhoun's position is very 
unpleasant. The Whigs and he have dissolved all connection, and 
the leaders of the Van Buren ranks are obviously disposed to 
throw him over board. 

The friends of the administration are tardy in presenting their 
Sub Treasury scheme; they are trying to compromise with the 
Conservatives. I think their efforts will be unavailing. The Presi- 
dent and his party appear disponding. Some of the Whigs are 
desirous now to nominate a Candidate for the Presidency. I am 
utterly opposed to any nomination now or before next December. 
Whenever a nomination is made, the Whigs will be weakened 
and somewhat divided among themselves. Let us fight on there- 
fore for great measures; for a good and uniform Currency, for 
our equal share of the public Lands, and so on until after the 
Elections are over next Fall in the large States, and after we have 
enlightened public opinion on great principles and sound policy 
then let us select a suitable Candidate to carry out our principles. 
The want of a Candidate on our side will disarm all the little 
superficial politicians who never can discuss measures, but always 
trade on a borrowed Capital, and discourse largely upon the sup- 
posed merits or demerits of men. In this way next summer we 
may kill off a large number of the pickaune politicians in No. Ca. 
and the Country, and destroy the man-worship which has per- 
vaded the whole Country and created so much noisy & unprofit- 
able discussion. The first year of Mr. Van Buren's Presidential 
term has not yet expired. The Van Buren men are desirous and 
anxious to see the Whigs now nominate their man. 

I do not credit the reports that the Cabinet is to be reorganized. 
The President entertains in most splendid and sumptuous style. 
The City is now very gay and many strangers are still coming in. 

2 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Raleigh, Tuesday night, 

Jany. 9th, 1838. 

My Dear Wife 

... I then purchased Mr. Spencers (where Mr. Waddell for- 
merly lived) at $1175. and am to get possession the 1st. of Feby. 
Every one says that I have gotten a great bargain in it. Mr. C. 
Jones upon hearing of it, offered to exchange for it his house 
(formerly Maj Davies) and seemed anxious to do so. I have every 
prospect of being able to sell it again for at least an equal price, 
should we not like it on trial. There are three acres of ground, on 
which are all the necessary outhouses, stables, an office with two 
rooms, a garden, and yard somewhat improved, and near to a 
good Spring. The dwelling house is not as good as I could wish, 
but I hope with a little repair it will answer our present purpose, 
at least until our affairs are more settled. It has no rooms up- 
stairs, but four below, three of which have fire places. I took the 
dimensions of the rooms, supposing we could make some pro- 
vision of furniture when we meet. 

The Parlour is 19i/£ by 15i/£ feet 

dining room 20 by 15 1/% 

Bed room \bi/ 2 by \2i/ 2 " 

These have fire places, and I suppose we will want carpets at 
least for two of them. Of the kinds you will judge. I think you 
might as well have your beds, etc., boxed before you leave New B. 
and sent by the first opportunity. Such other furniture as we want 
immediately we can purchase now, and send for the residue to 
the North. I believe it will be better for us to go into the house 
soon after we return, as an agreeable boarding house cannot now 
be had, and we can now most advantageously lay in supplies for 
the year, and begin our garden in time to make it to our liking. 
I hope you may be better pleased with the place than I fear you 
now are. It is the best however that I can now do. I will write to 
Lincoln and have our kitchen ware and such other articles as can 
be procured there, forwarded at once. The servants you wish, 
from your own negroes, may be perhaps sent by the waggon 
which may bring your furniture. I am truly glad to learn that you 
will soon come to me; It seems long since I saw you & my Dear 

The Papers of William A. Graham 3 

Son. If Mary does not come with you I hope Mother will send 
her as soon as we get into our own house. I will meet you at any 
place and day you may name after the middle of next week. I am 
very busy here, and write you in great haste. 

#jfc jb jfe 4fc 

■7F w TP *7E* 

With ardent desire to see you, 
I am, my dearest Wife. 

From James Graham. U. 

Washington, Jany 21st, 1838. 

Ji. M. Jfi. Jfc. Jb 

-ft" W W *rt* TV* 

The contested Election from Missippi has engrossed the 
whole time and attention of the House. The result is quite doubt- 
ful. I think Prentiss 1 and Word 2 have some fair prospect of suc- 
cess. Prentiss is a dissipated lame man of fine talents, and made an 
able and eloquent speech in behalf of his claim. Parties are so 
nearly divided here that each side is afraid to move out and shew 
their plans. The Sub Treasury will come up after the contested 
Election and consume much time. I think it can't pass, tho' great 
efforts will be made for it. 

Washington is quite gay, and I have been out in company more 
than usual, and my health is better than it ever was. There is a 
strong disposition manifested among a few Whigs to nominate 
their favourite candidate for the Presidency. This would be sui- 
cidal. The large majority of the Whigs now say they will not fix 
upon their Candidate for 9 or 10 month yet, and in the mean time 
they will fight on great principles. I hope our friends in No. Ca. 
will act discreetly in this matter. The Game is our's if we play 
it with Judgment. Let us keep down men and push forth promi- 
nent measures. It requires some exertion on the Part of our influ- 
ential friends to keep down candidates for the Presidency, because 
small men (taking mind for standard) can't get along unless they 
have some man to applaud and another man to abuse, but this is 

1 Sergent Smith Prentiss (1808-1850), a native of Maine, educated at Bowdoin, 
a lawyer, who moved to Mississippi, and had served as a Whig in the lower house 
of the legislature. The contest resulted in his favor, and he served in this congress 
only. He later moved to Louisiana. 

2 Thomas J. Word, a native of Surry County, North Carolina, who, in 1832, 
before moving to Mississippi, was a member of the commons. He was seated, but 
served only in this congress. 

4 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

the way to enlighten the People and kill off demaguges by shew- 
ing them that we are going for the Country and not for a Party. 
I hope our friends in No. Ca. will bring out talented and popular 
candidates in all the Counties for the Legislature and spare no 
pains to carry the election. 

I am making an effort to get a great Daily line of Stages from 
Raleigh by Buncombe to Nashville in Ten. When the Rail Road 
is finished to Raleigh this line will be a great one and much used. 

I saw Badger here (one day only) on his way to Philadelphia. 
He appeared dejected. Shocco Jones is here living high and enter- 
taining largely. He is no favorite here in public or private. 

Mrs. Jos Gales gives us a splendid Party every friday evening, 
and we have 3 and 4 in the week beside. 

The Theatre is open every night and some fine Starrs on the 

From J. McKay and J. J. Witherspoon. U. 

Nassau Hall, Jany 26, 1838. 

As the organs of the American Whig Society, it becomes our 
agreeable duty to inform you of your election as an Honorary 
member of that Society. The objects of which are the promotion 
of Friendship, morality, and literature, objects which, we are con- 
fident will meet with your warmest approbation. Trusting that 
you will permit us to enroll your name in the Catalogue of the 
members of the A. W. Society. 

We remain with the highest respects, 

Your most obedient Servants. 

From J. J. Witherspoon. 

Dear Uncle 3 

If you can find a leisure moment if would give me great satis- 
faction in hearing from you. I received a letter from Pa, a few 
days since, He mentioned that the Family were all in good health 

I expect to graduate next August, if nothing should happen 
between this and that period, to marr my expectations. I find my 

Written on the same page by John James Witherspoon. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 5 

College exercises to become a source of pleasure to me every day. 
I have just reached that period, when my studies become inter- 
esting and useful. 

I hope you will permit me the pleasure, of enrolling your name 
in the Catalogue of which my Father, and Brother, are graduates. 
If you should find it convenient to answer this, I would request 
you to write on a seperate sheet, As I will have to read it in the 

Give my love to Aunt and to any of my relations with whom 
you may meet, 

Your Nephew 

P.S. We have 250 Students in College I believe it is in a more 
prosperous condition than it has ever been. 

From James Graham. U. 

Washington, Feb. 20th, 1838. 

On yesterday Clay spoke on the Sub Treasury. He gave Calhoun 
the most dreadful Castigation I have ever witnessed. I never be- 
fore saw Clay go into the Ring of debate with such bold defiance. 
He said, to use Calhoun's own words, in letter lately published in 
So. Ca. He Calhoun had left the Whigs because a victory was 
about to be won by the opposition but it would not enure to 
Calhoun and his party, and so Calhoun and all his party had gone 
over to the Administration. Yes all his party— horse, foot, and 
draggoon, and who are they? Why the Senator marched over to 
his new ally (T. Benton) Solitary and alone, Clay told him. He 
went over to his new Allies, suspecting and suspected. After Clay 
spoke 3 or 4 Hours he concluded. Calhoun rose and said Clay has 
misrepresented and perverted his argument out and out and he 
would at his own good time pay off and Settle the accounts be- 
tween them. 

Clay rejoined he would leave to the Senate wheather he had 
misrepresented or perverted him. He said he was always willing 
to receive debts due him; that he sought neither Contention or 
quarrel with any man and he was determined to avoid none with 

They were both as mad as they could be. On this day Calhoun 
will answer him, and the debate will be violent and bitter. I must 
go to the Senate to see the Giants fight. 

6 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From James Graham. U. 

Washington, Feb 25th, 1838. 

On last evening we had a Duel 4 miles from here in Maryland. 
Watson Webb 4 of N. York, editor of Courier & Enquirer, came 
here and challanged Cilly 5 (a member from Maine) for having 
said in debate he was bribed and bought by the United States 
Bank. Graves 6 of Ky. carried the challange to Cilley who refused 
to accept, alleging Webb was not a gentleman. Graves then chal- 
langed Cilley who accepted and selected Rifles to fight with. They 
fought at 80 yards distance and the third fire Graves shot Cilley 
through the body and he died instantly. Wise and Menifee 7 were 
the seconds of Graves, and Jones 8 of Wisconsin and Bynum 9 
were the seconds of Cilley. 

Watson Webb is desirous it is said here to get a fight out of 
Bynum or Duncan 10 of Ohio. 

The City is much excited and I apprehend we shall have some 
other fights. 

Congress is getting on very slowly, and I think very little will 
be done this Session. The Sub Treasury scheme is still under dis- 
cussion in the Senate but I think it cannot pass either branch of 

There are a great number of strangers here, and the City is 
very gay. 

4 James Watson Webb (1802-1884), of New York, journalist and diplomat, obtained 
a lieutenant's commission in the army, and served from 1819-1827. His usual title 
of General was purely honorary. He was a noted duelist, and consequently, fre- 
quently in trouble. Becoming editor of the Courier and Inquirer, he was shortly 
one of the most important figures in that day of personal journalism. From an 
ardent follower of Jackson he became a Whig, on the Bank issue. He was strongly 
anti- Abolition, but a Free-Soiler. Appointed Charge to Austria in 1849, he was not 
confirmed. Lincoln made him minister to Brazil, where he spent eight years. He is 
credited with inducing Napoleon III to withdraw French troops from Mexico. 

5 Jonathan Cilley (1802-1838), of Maine, a native of New Hampshire, where 
he was member and speaker of the lower house, who had entered congress in 1837. 

"William Jordan Graves (1805-1848), of Kentucky, Whig member of congress, 
1835-1841. He later served in the state legislature, and was an elector in 1844. 

7 Richard Hickman Menifee (1809-1893), of Kentucky, graduate of Transylvania, 
a lawyer who, after brief service in the legislature, was a member of congress, 
1837-1839, and an elector in 1840. 

8 George Wallace Jones (1804-1896), of Iowa, a native of Indiana, a graduate of 
Transylvania, lawyer, soldier in the Black Hawk War, who became territorial judge 
in Michigan, then delegate to congress, 1835-1837, delegate from Wisconsin, 1837- 
1838. Moving to Iowa, he was United States senator, 1848-1849, and minister to 
New Grenada, 1859-1861. 

9 Jesse A. Bynum. 

10 Alexander Duncan (1788-1853), of Ohio, native of New Jersey, who, after brief 
service in each house pf the legislature, was a member of congress, 1837-1841, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 7 

From James Graham. U. 

Washington, April 8th, 1838. 

I received your letter a few days since and regretted to learn 
you had been sick. I fear you don't take exercise enough now 
since you have a Lot. A little regular work with an Axe or Hoe 
every good day would raise your muscles and give you more 
vigerous robust health. I have lately had a bad cold, but my gen- 
eral health has been good. Judge Cameron was here on yesterday 
and Dined with me in company of a number of Members. I went 
with him to see Clay, and he was much pleased with the inter- 
view. Wm. B. Shephard is here in very bad health; He is Dis- 

I presume if you become a Candidate for Orange you will 
scarcely go to Tennesee this Spring or Summer. 

The Corn I sent you is the Baden Corn of Maryland and it is 
said produces from 4 to 8 ears to the stalk. 

The Sub Treasury is not yet taken up in the House. I think it 
cannot pass but great efforts will be made to carry it. The recent 
defeats in the elections have discouraged the administration. I 
fear the Whigs in N. Carolina will not be so active as they ought 
to be. They ought to have a Central Committee in each County, 
and one or two Committee-men in each Captain's Company who 
should be furnished with materials and points to make known to 
the people and expose the evil deeds of the party. 

I think the Whig Candidates ought not to come out on the 
presidential Candidates at this campaign, But denounce the acts 
and proposed measures of the administration. 

*Jfe Jf. Jfc J/, 


My negroes are doing badly and 3 of them have run off. No 
money can be made by farming during the derangment of the 

[P.S.] If I can be of any service to my friends in Orange by 
sending speeches I would do so, If had a list of names and Post 

Mangum ought to go out freely, I presume his acquaintance 
among the people is nearly worn out. 

I think the Expunging Question he should say nothing about 
to the people. It will be attributed to his former defeat. The 
Currency and pub Land are the 2 strong questions with the peo- 

8 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

pie. The discount and losses we sustain on our money is very 
great and the Farmer and Consumer pays it all finally. 

From Hugh Waddell. U. 

Greenesboro', April 18th, 1838. 

Jfe M? Jfc Jfe Jfc 

*VT TP* *K* TT •?¥• 

I know not in what language to express my distress at hearing 
of yr. late indisposition; it took me wholly by surprize. I had 
fondly hoped to have the pleasure of meeting you on my arrival 
here and there are many things which I had desired to say to you, 
in relation to the future, which made me anticipate more than 
the usual pleasure of meeting you. 

Altho' I confidently expect you will be much better before this 
reaches you, yet one of my present purposes in writing is to beg 
that you will not suffer a slight or even a great apparent amend- 
ment to tempt you to come here during this Court. 

In the first place, it is so generally understood that you are 
unwell that few of yr. clients will return and by the time you 
could get here, others will be employed in new business, and 
moreover I know that a long and fatiguing ride may be very in- 
jurious to a convalescent and may prevent your going to Rock- 
ingham. And above all, the present is a season of the year at which 
it behooves you as well as myself to take care how we tamper 
with cold or other affections of the lungs. 

From James Graham. U. 

Washington, June the 7th, 1835. [1838] 

I very much regret to learn from your last letter that your 
health is still delicate. If it is proceed from the consequences of 
the Fever you had last summer, as you apprehend, it will go off by 
degrees. After I had the Fever I was much debilitated and Dr. 
John McLean prescribed some Bay tree Bark; that is, the inner 
skin or membrane of the Coucumber tree: fill a bottle 2/3 full of 
the bark and then fill it up with good French brandy and after 
standing 24 hours take a small wine glass full before breakfast, 
and also before dinner. It gave my stomach tone and my system 

The Papers of William A. Graham 9 

strength; you can dilute it with a little water if you like. You 
ought to take regular exercise in the morning and evening as 
much as you can bear. Use the warm bath once a week when the 
weather is dry and warm and use the flesh brush every day. Ride 
on horseback to your Courts and Electioneering and when you 
tire the least in riding dismount and walk, 2 or 3 hundred yards; 
this will brace and strengthen you. This sedentary life we lead is 
very destructive to health and few constitutions will sustain it. 
Do not permitt the Doctors to give you too much medicine. If 
you resolve to go to the Springs write me when and where and 
probably I may meet you there. The White Sulphur and the Red 
I presume are the best. Congress will probably adjourn in or 
about the 9th. of July. I will be here until the 15 or 16 and then 
leave for N York and Boston— a short trip— and then return 
through here in August by the Springs home. 

We had as you have seen a fight in the House between Bell 
and Turney 11 from Ten. It was soon adjusted and the debate 
proceeded. Two day since we had another strange scene between 
Biddle 12 and Downing 13 of Florida. The former in debate applied 
the word falsehood and the latter supposed he intended it for 
him. He immediately sprung to his feet, picked up an Inkstand 
and moved towards Biddle, but was stoped by the intervening 
members. They are both Whigs and the debate was on the Bill to 
suppress Indian hostilities. Their mutual friends think they have 
reconciled the difficulty. This Indian Bill has given rise to a very 
wide debate, I participated in it on two occasions. I sustained the 
Treaty of 1835 and the policy of the Genl. Government towards 
the removal of the Indians; but did not justify the conduct of 
Georgia. I will write out one speech and publish it. It is rumored 
here the cabinet is to be much changed the last of this session. 
I believe it, but do not know who is to succeed. The sub Treas- 
ury is to be up next week. I think it will be rejected by a few 
votes only. 

I think Strange and Brown are both very uneasy since they 
voted against the repeal of the Specie Circular. 

u Hopkins Lacy Turney (1797-1857), of Tennessee, served in the legislature, 
1828-1837, as a member of congress, 1837-1843, and as United States senator, 1845- 

12 Richard Biddle (1796-1847), of Pennsylvania, a lawyer, member of congress, 
1837-1840. He was the author of "Life of Sebastian Cabot." 

13 Charles Downing (d. 1845), a native of Virginia, member of the legislative 
council of the Florida Territory, and delegate to congress, 1837-1840. 

10 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

The papers in N. C. ought to hold them up to the public indig- 
nation for that vote; distinctions and differences without cause 
are invidious and odious to our people. 

The Whigs here, you have seen, have determined to postpone 
the presidential question until next fall come a year. The object 
is to fight for principle and give the public mind time to cool. 
I do not think the Whig candidates in N. C. ought to be drawn 
into that question now, but expose the measures of those in 
power, and stand up for the Constitution, the union and the peo- 
ple regardless of any President. 

From Edward B. Dudley. A. 

Raleigh, July 23, 1838. 

In obedience to your message by Mr. P. Cameron, I send you 
herewith a half dozen reports of the Engineer in charge of drain- 
ing the swamp lands for the State. 

These lands are immensely rich Sc will be commensurately 
valuable when drained. 

I have no doubt the work will pay the State handsomely & 
releave the country from a very unhealthy atmosphere & impart 
comparative health & contentment to the Citizens. What now 
pays a tax on 614 to 12i/£ cents per acre value, will be increased 
to the value of 40 to 80 dollars! per Acre! the price which the 
improved lands now sell at. 

A very small amount of money has as yet been expended on 
this work. The time has been occupied in tracing titles & surveys, 
which preliminaries are mostly despatched & the Engineers are 
now employed in locating two Canals from Alligator & Pungo 
lakes & seeking contractors to engage in the work. 

The Money appropriated for the work has been loaned out 
by the Literary Board & paying into the Treasury interest every 
90 days, which has so far exceeded the expenditures. 

Any information which I can furnish you from this office or 
place, shall be done with great pleasure. 

With my sincere good wishes for your success in the election 
& good health through the firery ordeal of convassing. 

I am very truly 


The Papers of William A. Graham 11 

From James Graham. U. 

Boston, August 5th, 1838. 

I have been here one week and will stay 2 or 3 days longer 
when I will leave for Saratoga and perhaps Niagara. Providence 
never made a poorer Country; and the People never made a 
Richer country than New England. I ask myself every mile I 
travel how they live on such a sterile soil? Their Exports are 
Rock and Ice, Irish Potatoes and Onions. Every Body here (from 
the garrett to the cellar) works and makes money, and then 
takes care of it. I have been to Lowell and saw all the factories. 
I found them making steam Machinery for Russia! Printing 
Calico's, and all sorts of Machines at work. This place is a Mine 
of great Treasure to Massachusetts. The water power in North 
Carolina is superior to that of Lowell, but we suffer it to run to 
waste and buy of them. 

I have been to Lynn, the great Shoe town, and to Nahant, 
the celebrated sea bathing place, where I dined with a party of 
the Nobility of Boston. I have been very kindly received and 
treated in this City. The most opulent men here are as plain as 
our North Carolina people. Mr. Abbott Lawrence, 14 the late 
member of Congress, has shewn me great attention and all the 
City and environs. Prentiss of Missippi left here on yesterday. 

I hope before this day next week the Whigs in N. C. will be 
triumphant in the Elections and then I hope you will travel to 
the Virginia Springs— White and Red Sulphur; at all events be 
sure to take more regular exercise than you have done and acquire 
more robust health. 

If you determine to go to the Virginia Springs and write me 
to Washington I will try and meet you there. 

I spent one week in Newport, R Island, and bathed in the 
sea before I came here. I met Senator King of Alabama and much 
of the fashion of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Charles- 
ton there. 

I stoped only one day in the City of N. Y. & Phila. 

I hope to get home by the last of August or first of September. 

14 Abbott Lawrence (1792-1855), of Massachusetts, merchant and importer, a 
Whig member of congress, 1835-1837, 1839-1840. Member of the Canada Boundary 
Commission, 1842, refused a cabinet post under Taylor. He was minister to Great 
Britain, 1850-1852; founder of Lawrence Scientific School, of Harvard. 

12 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From William R. Walker. 15 A. 

Chapel Hill, August 13th, 1838. 

I was graduated a few months ago. And have determined to 
commence the study of law immediately. I did expect to read 
with Governor Swain. But the number of students here is so 
great as to occupy not only every comfortable room in college 
but also in the village. There is one however which I have in 
contemplation & I shall ascertain in a few days whether or not 
it can be procured. If not I must seek a situation elsewhere. My 
object therefore in writing to you is to ascertain whether or not 
I can read with you and upon what conditions. You will oblige 
me by writing as early as is convenient. I selected Governor 
Swain not because I esteemed him a better lawyer than all others, 
but because he is always at home and can bestow more attention 
upon a student than those whose practice calls them abroad. 

Permit me to congratulate you & the country upon your elec- 
tion. I regret very much that Messrs. Mangum & Waddell have 
not been equally fortunate. I regret it not only in consequence 
of their talents & politics, but also in consequence of the low 
and groveling means restorted to by their successful V. B. Com- 

Yours, Very respectfully 

From Dr. James Augustus Washington. A. 

New York, August 18th, 1838. 

#JJ, Af. Mm JL 

*7T •«* -Tr *Jr 

... I am very glad to see that Van Burenism is prostrate in 
N. C. and I wish that he were equally so in every county of the 
State. As Mangum was in favour of the sub-Treasury, it is not 
to be regretted that he was not elected, although otherwise a 
Whig, I have heard. It is highly honorable to yourself to have 
been the only one on your ticket who succeeded. How is it that 
the ticket otherwise failed? I am very sorry that your friend Wad- 
dell was not elected and I presume you must very much regret 
his failure as it will deprive you of a pleasant companion & valu- 
able friend. Wm. Haywood I understand is not a member of the 

15 William Richmond Walker of Caswell County. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 13 

next legislature, which is a matter of congratulation considering 
his subserviency to Van Buren. I wish that it would not too 
much interfere with your professional business to permit you 
to oppose successfully Montgomery's re-election to Congress. 

My love for N. C. makes me very desirous to see her no longer 
misrepresented by party collar men. I would however no doubt 
be far better for you not to go to Congress until you shall go as 
a Senator, as it seems to be impossible to attend satisfactorily or 
advantageously to the practice of the law and to the duties of 
Congress; such I believe is your own opinion. 

*4fa 4t* «lfr «M* 

W *?f* w w 

The Atlantic Steamers will create a revolution on the Sea as 
great as railroads upon land. They have brought Europe more 
nearly to us almost than New Orleans. It is astonishing, the 
regularity of the trips of the Great Western. Fourteen days is the 
time allowed & she has perhaps not varied more than a day from 
that time. Her last trip to New York was 14l£ & the trip before 
to Bristol was only 13 days. She sailed yesterday at the hour ap- 
pointed although the weather was quite unfavourable. It has 
been well said that old Neptune has been bearded at last. Mr. 
Biddle 16 was lately in New York and appeared to anticipate, 
I have understood, most extensive & important results from the 
influence of Atlantic Steam Navigation upon Europe & America. 
It was a subject which seemed to afford him the greatest pleasure. 
His financial operations will no doubt be very materially bene- 
fitted by the change, but he is a man of enlarged views & looked 
to its influence upon a much more extended scale. Emigration 
to this country will no doubt still further increase & will be com- 
posed of still greater numbers of intelligent & wealthy individuals, 
and fewer loco-focos proportionately it is to be hoped. I am very 
glad that the rail road will pass within forty miles of you; it 
will at least I trust enable me to see Susan & yourself here fre- 

My love to all. 

Yours sincerely 

10 Presumably Nicholas Biddle (1786-1844), of Pennsylvania, the distinguished 
scholar, financier, and author. A graduate of Princeton, after having been denied 
graduation at the University of Pennsylvania, because of his youth, he studied law, 
was secretary to the minister to France, travelled widely, and was apparently 
entered upon a literary career when he was drawn into public life during the 
War of 1812. After service in the state senate, he became a director of the United 
States Bank, and in 1822, its president. His connection with Jackson's attack on the 
bank is, of course, well known. 

14 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From James Graham. U. 

Saratoga Springs, N. Y., August 22d, 1838. 

I have been here one week and will stay one more. The water 
lias improved my health. The Crowd is very great of fashionables. 

This Country looks very much like the Flat Rock part of 
Buncombe. Gov. McDuffy 17 is here on his way to England to 
borrow Two Millions of Dollars for So. Ca. to build up Charles- 
ton. I have been very much in his company. He is the plainest 
man at the Springs, and says but little about politicks. He is 
rather inclined to the Sub Treasury by way of Experiment, but 
thinks when public opinion will justify it a U. S. Bank is the 
best mode of regulating the Currency. 

Van Buren is down in this State. He can't rise. The Whigs will 
carry the State in Nov' next. 

I have made a large acquaintance here, mostly of the people in 
the city of N. York. They are a social clever people without any 
very profound acquirements. The Grahams of that City are 
here and have expressed great pleasure at meeting me. 

On yesterday I visited the Ground where Genl. Burgoyne 
surrendered to Genl. Gates about 13 miles from here. I will 
go no further North but return by N. York and Philadelphia 
home in 2 or 3 weeks, so as to get home by the middle of Sep- 

If I get no letter from you at Washington stating you are out 
of Hillsboro I will probably return that way. 

Do take regular and active Exercise and improve your health. 

From James A. King. A. 

Brandon, Miss., Octr. 13th, 1838. 

You are doubtless aware that I removed to this State during 
the last Spring. 

I have settled in this place (Brandon) about twelve miles East 
of Jackson the seat of Government, and am in all respects pleased 
with the place. I have discontinued my operations as a farmer 
in Ten., & shall resume them in this I think with better prospects 
in the coming winter. 

17 George McDuffie. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 15 

I passed thro. Ten. & brought my negroes; now I have them 
(a few) hired upon advantageous terms. I have not yet determined 
whether I shall remain here, or Settle in Jackson during the 
winter. This is a more agreeable place to live in, but not so good 
a location for a lawyer as Jackson. The amt. of business done 
here is immense, at least so it seems to a N. Ca. Lawyer. In many 
of the Courts the returns vary from 1000 to 3000. The collection 
business is all that is worth anything here, and all that is requisite 
is that a man should know how to draw a declaration; there are 
comparatively few litigated cases. 

jg. jb jfc jfc jt. 

W TV" TV" TT 'Jr 

I congratulate you on the result of the elections in N. Ca. & 
in your County so far as your election is concerned. I regret 
Waddell's defeat & in this State all Whigs are much disappointed 
at Mangum. 

In the Space of a few weeks I hope that I shall hear that you 
are Speaker of the House of Commons. I am almost sorry that I 
did not remain in the State one year more. It would have afforded 
me sincere gratification to have been in the Majority one time, 
but I am content that the Whigs are in the ascendant. My health 
I am glad to say, has been entirely restored; indeed it has been 
better during the last Summer than at any time within the last 
six or eight years. I find no sort of inconvenience in attending to 
my business or from any cause whatever, so far as my health is 

I now expect, in fact, I have determined, to visit N. Ca. next 
Summer. I wish to go there for a variety of reasons, and amongst 
others I am not exactly sure but that I shall attempt some matri- 
monial enterprise, but of this curia vult advisari. 

#JL Jfa *U. ^£* 

•n* w *Jr tt 

From Victor Moreau Murphey. A. 

Macon, Miss., 

24th. Octo, 1838. 

After the most animated contest that ever occured in this 
County I have the pleasure of announcing to you my success over 
the "Brag Nag" of East Mississippi. Never has such a scene ol 
suspence, anxiety, and conjecture been witnessed since the days 

16 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

of the celebrated defeat of "Santa Anna" in Orange. It was nearly 
a dead heat. My Majority was only five votes. The Democrats 
have claimed a majority of forty in the County & since the result 
has been ascertained they are certainly the most haggard looking 
set upon earth. The race of Henry & Eclypse would have been 
equalled as to betting had I not dissuaded my friends from risking 
their money, being satisfied that the majority for either would be 

You may now throw open the old "Post office & kick up a 
little row to my especial honour. The great probability is that 
we shall now be enabled to prevent the reelection of Judge 
Trotter 18 —God grant it! He does not represent the wishes of 
a large majority of the people of this State— He is a real "Sub." 

I was compelled carry heavy weights, Henry Clay & a National 
Bank, and the vulgar prejudices of fools upon the subject of our 
local Banks was made to operate against me. 

I was determined to let you know the result, if success attend 
me, & after a real jollification with my friends must beg off from 
saying anything more. 

If I have done any good in my life, it was in adding something 
to the Whig strength in this County. 

Speech upon Election as Speaker. 19 

November 19, 1838 

Gentlemen of the House of Commons: 

I tender you my thanks for this mark of distinction. Without 
experience in the duties of the chair, I must needs bespeak in 
advance the generous indulgence of the House. If, however, 
by a diligent, faithful, and impartial administration of those 
rules and forms of proceeding which you shall adopt for your 
government, any requital can be made for your kindness, no efforts 
on my part shall be spared. What those rules of proceeding shall 
be, is yet to be ascertained by your sanction— and to that subject 

18 James F. Trotter (1802-1866), a native of Virginia, a Democrat, was, by appoint- 
ment, United States senator from February to July, 1838, when he resigned. Dr. 
Murphey's fears had no grounds, as he did not seek re-election. He had already 
seen service in both houses of the legislature, and later he was supreme court 
judge, and professor in the state university. 

18 From the Hillsborough Recorder, November 22, 1838. 

North Carolina State Library 

The Papers of William A. Graham 17 

I invite your attention. But all who are conversant with deli- 
berative assemblies will readily admit, that written rules, and the 
best intended exertions of a presiding officer, are of but little 
avail, for the preservation of decorum, unless a spirit of order 
pervades the House, — and, after all, greater reliance must be 
placed upon the mutual respect, the forbearance, and gentlemanly 
courtesy of members, than upon compulsory enactments. 

This is the first time, gentlemen, in the history of our State, 
when a session of the General Assembly has not been held for 
a period of two years. If the occasion shall not demand of us 
double the ordinary quantum of labor, it at least requires re- 
doubled zeal, fidelity, industry, and vigilance over the public 
interests. Whatsoever of wisdom and knowledge may fall to the 
lot of each individual member, will be no more than requisite, 
to the fulfilment of his duties here. "To make us love our country, 
it ought to be lovely," and a heavy responsibility attaches to those 
interested with its Government, if they contribute not all that in 
them lies to impart to it this character. But properly to discharge 
those high duties, it is necessary that prejudice shall be cast aside, 
passion subdued, personal collision avoided, and our minds left 
free to the impulses of patriotism and reason — thus conducting 
our deliberations we may confidently hope that they will proceed 
with harmony, and result in benefit to that people to whom our 
highest loyalty and best service are due. 

From Josiah T. Granbery. 20 U. 

Woodville, Novr 26th, 1838. 

Presuming on our early acquaintance & friendship, I have 
taken the liberty of asking your attention, as also to solicit your 
influence, in a small matter to the legislature, but of much impor- 
tance to me. 

There has been a petition gotten up in this County praying 
for the passage of a law to prohibit all persons from fishing within 
two miles of the mouth of Perquimans River and as Mr. Nixon 21 
and myself last Spring established one within that distance, it is 

^Josiah Thomas Granbery (1806-1862), of Perquimans, planter, and fishery 
operator, member, commons, 1835-1838. 

21 Possibly John Nixon, of Perquimans. There were many of the name in that 
section of the State. 

18 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

no more or less than a Prayer to abolish our fishery. The plea set 
forth is that we prevent the fish from going up the River, one 
which no man in this community, at all acquainted with fishing 
believes for one moment, as you will percieve from the counter 
petition. I will however mention a few facts connected with our 
fishing, with a view of enabling you to judge Correctly of the 
merits of their Petition. 

We fish on the Albermarle sound about one & a half miles 
from the mouth of Perquimans River. (Which now is some two 
miles and a half wide at its mouth) with a Seine sixteen hundred 
yards long, which is laid out entirely in the waters of the Sound 
at about the same distance from the Shore, where the Sound is 
from Six to eight miles wide We make some four hauls a day, and 
from the time the seine is laid out until the ends of the net are 
again at the Shore, it cannot be to exceed one hour and quarter, 
by which it will seen that the Seine is not in the deep water more 
than five hours in twenty four. So that the Short time the seine 
is in the deep water and so small a proportion of it that is utterly 
impossible that it can afford any obstruction whatever to the 
passage of the fish. I will farther remark that any restriction such 
as lay days will be tantamount to prohibition, for it must be 
obvious to every reflecting man that when the water is some eight 
miles wide and forty in length, that much time must necessarily 
be lost by Stress of weather as it is not infrequently the case, that 
whole days together are lost from high winds. 

As to the relative value both private and publick of our fishery, 
2c those on the river, I refer you to the counter petition. 

I am well aware, that I am addressing you on a subject that it 
is not expected you are acquainted with, but I hope, that I have 
made it inteligeble to your comprehensive mind. I am convinced 
that at the first glance, you will see the injustice of their petition, 
and that justice & truth will ever find an advocate in you. 

Your attention (in a small degree) to this matter will place 
me under lasting obligation to you. 

With the highest regard. 

N. B. When I say four hauls a day I mean the twenty four hours 
as they take a large portion of the night, for instance we start 
at 4 Oclock in the morning & stop about 9 at night. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 19 

From Eliza B. Wither spoon. A. 

Brook-Land, Dec. 2d, 1838. 

My Dear Uncle 

We were much pleased a a short time since to hear from you by 
Dr. Webb. 22 I was absent from home while he was here, or I should 
have written by him, & as Ma grows older Sc her cares increase, 
her aversion to writing seems to increase with it. We had an 
afflicted family the past Summer, during the months of August 
& Sept there was not a day but we had some severe sickness. 

*jfa . jfc jfc jfc 

W *K" TT TP 

I see by the papers you have been chosen Speaker of the House, 
although an honourable, , I should think a tiresome seat. I suppose 
you have your two little boys with you, to entertain you at night 
with their prattle. 

jfe jfc jfc jfe jfc 

W W W *7P W 

The crops are generally short except in the Cane Brake, the 
Droubt the last Summer was exceedingly severe. The crop upon 
our home plantation was almost entirely cut off. We have made 
a pretty good one in the Cane Brake. 

In late letters from my Brother John he seems to be doing very 
well at Princeton. Graham purposes going in the Spring. The 
schools around Greensboro are very inferior & it is difficult to 
get a private teacher to remain longer than six months, so that 
my Brothers labour under many disadvantages in entering a 
classical institution. 

Pa thinks of visiting Mobile in a day or two & I think it 
Probable I shall accompany him, he dislikes to travel alone & 
one of us generally accompanies him. I shall not remain very 
long. After spending a long Summer at home, it is quite a treat 
to spend a short time in a City. I made a short visit to Mobile 
last Spring. 

I was at the Marriage of William Webb a few nights since, 
he has married a clever girl, with a red head, but some of his 
friends I believe thought he might have done better, if he had 
waited awhile. 

^Probably Dr. Henry Y. Webb (1808-1878), of Greene County, Alabama, native 
of Hillsboro, or Dr. Robert Dickens Webb, of Marion, Alabama. Both attended 
the University of North Carolina, 

20 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Your old friends Mrs. Strudwick & Mrs. Young visit us occa- 
sionally. . . . Mr. Strudwick's family speak of spending the next 
Summer in Carolina & if I can get a good opportunity I shall 
except your kind offer in spending at least a part of the Summer 
with you. I am anxious to visit my Mother's relations, having been 
seperated from them the greater part of my life I feel a desire 
to know more of them than I do at present. ... I think you would 
feel quite at home in Ala. their are so many of your old friends 
here, but your ties to Carolina seem to increase so rapidly I 
almost despair of ever seeing you here, & particularly as our 
State adhears so minutely to the administration. I doubt if you 
would be so popular as you are at home. Pa is still a true friend 
to Henry Clay, & the Bank, & I believe almost prays he may live 
to see him President, political excitement runs higher hear now 
than I have ever known it, they are holding public meetings 
through out the State for the purpose of choosing Candidates for 
the Next Congress, but unless I cease this tyrade I fear you will 
think I am fond of Poly ticks. 

*Jg, Jf, Jf. M. 

tP . tP tp tp 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 


Tuesday night, Deer. 4th, 1838. 
My Dearest 

It is a dark gloomy night and I gladly avail myself of my leisure 
and the absence of Company to commune with my beloved. I am 
so anxious again to see you & my dear Boys that I had well nigh 
take the stage to visit you on Saturday. I was fearful however 
of a change of weather, and of my inability to return in time 
to open the Session of the House on Monday. This is one of the 
inconveniences of the station I occupy, but for which I would 
surely have gone. 

My bro. James and Mr. Morrison arrived in the stage on Satur- 
day night, and the latter is still here, staying with Dr. Mc- 
Pheeters. 23 His health is much improved, & promises an entire 

23 The Rev. William McPheeters (1779-1842), of Raleigh, native of Virginia, the 
first minister of the Presbyterian Church in Raleigh. A man of great power and 
influence, and much beloved, within and outside of his own denomination. He 
was a trustee of the university, and received the degree of D.D. from it. He was 
also a trustee of Davidson College, of which he was offered the presidency. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 21 

restoration. The object of his visit is to procure an act of Incor- 
poration for the College over which he presides. It is somewhat 
doubtful whether he will succeed to the extent of his wishes. 

Bro. James tells me that the spirit of emigration among the 
people of the West is more rife than ever; among others Uncle 
J. Davidson of Mecklenburg, and his whole family, will most 
probably move to Florida. Malvina Graham has reluctantly 
abandoned the idea of going with you to New Bern. 

The Plantation which I have been cultivating in Lincoln has 
been rented for the ensuing year, and I am endeavouring to have 
my negroes removed to Hillsboro' by the 1st. of Jany. to be 
hired there. I have written by this mail to Mr. Turrentine to hire 
out Charity (for I regret that you are troubled with her) and 
to dispose of the servants you leave on your departure as well as 
to overlook our Lot during our absence. I think you had better 
leave Alfred to take care of the houses &c with directions to pay 
strict attention to every thing, feed the cow and calf & keep the 
gates closed. You will please inform Mr. Turrentine soon of the 
servants you desire to be disposed of, and how long you will be 
probably absent. Regulate that by your own wishes. Your Br. 
insisted that I should go to Kinston as soon after the adjournment 
as practicable, to attend to the division of lands. He desires if 
possible to adopt some mode of division, by which land may be 
received by some of the Heirs in lieu of personal estate by others, 
and expressed a wish that the Egypt plantation 24 may be assigned 
to Mrs. Bryan. I fear such a mode may be subject to legal diffi- 
culties, but hope we may do all for the best, when we get to- 
gether. I hope you will allow yourself time to spend several 
days here, as it appears long since I saw you, and will probably 
be still longer untill we meet again. Genl. Barringer's family 
are still here. I have not yet sought lodgings for you but will do 
so, & let you know before you come. A Bill to divide Orange 
passed the House of Commons today. Whether it will get through 
the Senate I can't tell. Resolutions have been introduced cen- 
suring the administration of the General Government which will 
probably pass. There is much speculation here as to the course 
of our Senators in Congress, if they be adopted. 

When you leave home it will probably be best to come to 
Chapel Hill or Morings the first day, as it would require an early 

81 In Craven County. 

22 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

start to enable you to come through in a day. Let me know before 
hand, and I will endeavour to meet you a few miles from town; 
should you require more money than you have, apply to Mr. 
Kirkland, or let me know and I will send it. Mr. Walker will 
probably be willing to go & stay in the office during your absence 
if you desire it, that however I leave to you. 

4k dfc £fc dfe dfc 

W W W "W* TV* 

The Govr. is to give a large dance on Thursday evening; unless 
I can engage your ladyship for a set, I shall hardly venture to 
caper on my broken legs. 

Teach my babes to say "Father" and be assured of my unfailing 

My Dearest 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Raleigh, Deer. 8th, 1838. 

I avail myself of the politeness of Col Jones to write you, and 
send a toy with some kisses to Joseph. I fear however that unless 
I see him soon that I shall go entirely out of his recollection. 


Col. Preston & Genl. Thompson of S. C. were at the Govrs. being 
on their way to Congress. Of course they were quite lionized. 
Seawell Jones was master of ceremonies as usual. Some gentlemen 
have already arrived as delegates to the Convention on Internal 
Improvement, which is to meet here on Monday. I have not 
heard of the arrival of Mr. J. W. Bryan. My friend Mr. Clingman 
came on yesterday. He staid a night at Judge Ruffin's, & says 
that Miss Elizabeth was dangerously ill of pleurisy when he left 
— not expected to survive. 

We hear this evening from the North that the Legislature of 
Pennsylvania has been dispersed by a mob which went from 
Philadelphia to Harrisburg in consequence of a contest about 
the election at the former place. 25 It is a subject of the deepest 

25 Election day had seen rioting and violence in Philadelphia County, and Whigs 
and Democrats claimed fraud. When the legislature met to canvass the returns, 
a mob drove the speaker of the lower house from the chair, and threatened 
bloodshed. Governor Ritner, who had been a candidate for re-election, was refused 
troops by President Van Buren, and then called out the state militia. The matter 
was finally adjusted, and Porter, the Democratic candidate, declared elected. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 23 

concern to all friends of good Government, and may be attended 
with the most serious consequences. We wait with anxiety further 
particulars. Bro. James has arrived safely in Washington, as I 
learn by a document received from him this afternoon. . . . 

Kiss the dear little fellow for me, as I am unable to interest 
him by any thing I can send. How much I would be delighted 
to see you all this evening! 

Mr. Morrison is still here. His act of Incorporation for the 
College has passed the House of Commons with almost unanimity. 
The Baptist Church here is again in trouble. Last Saturday night 
I was applied to for leave to Mr. Jordan 26 to preach in the Com- 
mons Hall on Sunday which was given. Mr. Holland, who applied, 
stated that the adverse faction had locked up the doors of the 
Church and would not allow them to go in. 

Jt JL Jf. Jb 42. 


To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Raleigh, Deer. 10th, 1838. 
10 o'clock night. 

*Jfe Jfe *U> JA. 

W "W TP W 

Your Bro. John & Mr. J. W. Bryan arrived yesterday evening 
as delegates to the Internal Improvement Convention. They will 
remain untill you come & probably untill you may desire to 
leave here. Mr. Henry Bond 27 is with them. Mr. Thos, Burgwyn 28 
& Dr. Chapman 29 from New Bern & many other delegates from 
other quarters are also here. The Convention organized this 
evening by appointing Judge Saunders President. What they 
may do, I do not know, but it seems a respectable body in num- 
bers and character. 

The Gov. of Pennsylvania has ordered out the militia to sup- 
press the mob which disturbs the assemblage of the Legislature. 

*jfc jfa JL* jfa 


26 The Rev. William Hill Jordan (1803-1883), a native of Bertie County, graduate 
of the university, who, in addition to this pastorate, filled others in Wilmington, 
Wadesboro, Lilesville, in North Carolina, Clarksville and Petersburg, Virginia, 
Sumter, South Carolina, and Morristown, Pennsylvania. 

^Probably Henry Francis Bond (1814-1881) of Kinston. 

28 Thomas Pollock Burgwyn of New Bern. 

29 Samuel Edward Chapman (1807-1862), a graduate of the university, M.D. of 
the University of New York. 

24 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

I can't yet form an idea of the time of adjournment of the 
Legislature, though probably about the 1st. or 2nd. week in Jany. 

You can give Abram my cloth vest if you think proper, or the 
older velvet one. Please have the clothes for Isaac & the other 
servants attended to. 

I shall probably not write you again till I see you. 

From James Graham. U. 

Washington, Deem, 14th, 1838. 

I have seen the Resolutions before your Legislature. 30 They 
are well drawn and will make an impression before the People. 
There should be little time consumed in the discussion. The 
Whigs should select only 3 or 4 speakers to debate them; and let 
the best speeches be written out with care and published in 
pamphlet form for distribution among the Members to scatter 
among their constituents. The speeches will be commentaries 
on the propositions contained in the Resolutions, and explain 
the doctrines and principles of the Republican Whig party. 

The Whigs in Congress begin to think they must give up Mr. 
Clay. The Ohio Members say their preference for Clay caused 
them to loose Ohio in the last election. In Pennsylvania, Indiana, 
Illinois, and Michigan too, it is said Clay cannot run success- 
fully, but will destroy the Whig ticket, if he is their Presidential 

The Anti Masons will not vote for Clay or any other Mason. 
In the new States it is said Clay has injured himself very much 
by denouncing the settlers in harsh and bitter terms on the public 
Land. Clay having been twice run & defeated for the Presidency, 
and there being a strong prejudice in the minds of "the many 
voters" against him: his prospects are diminishing rapidly. Harri- 
son's 31 friends say they are unwilling to split the party, but that 

80 The resolutions, introduced by Kenneth Rayner, condemned as a violation of 
the Constitution, and an act of party servitude, the action of the Democrats in 
expunging the resolutions of censure of Jackson, and demanded its repeal. They 
further condemned the Sub-Treasury plan, the right of preemption of public 
lands, the power and patronage of the President, and the extravagance of the 
administration. They demanded the distribution of the proceeds of sale of public 
lands. Without a direct statement of the fact, they amounted to instructions to 
the North Carolina senators to vote for such action, but the use of the word was 
studiously avoided. They passed by practically a party vote. 

31 William Henry Harrison, later President. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 25 

Harrison never having engaged in the active and animated party 
topicks of the Country has no political prejudices against him, 
and having won many military Laurels in the Late war, he is 
the only man who can defeat Van Buren. There is a strong dis- 
position here to bring into the field another and new candidate, 
and I am among that number. In a great contest like the approach- 
ing one for the Presidency, it is difficult to satisfy all parts of the 
Country, and we must all make reasonable sacrifices to sustain 
such men as will advocate correct principles. I can't now say 
that any one, or if any one who, will be brought out, but the 
Whigs all admit that every thing depends upon a popular Candi- 
date. It is in vain for the Politicians to coerce the people into the 
support of any Candidate. They must take the most available 
candidate of their own views and principles. I am very desirous 
to start some candidate upon whom No. Ca., Virginia, Georgia, 
and Tennessee could unite upon Republican Whig principles. 
The Whigs in N. C. can maintain their ascendency in the State, 
if they do not attempt to carry and force upon the people some 
candidate whom they do not desire, and as N. C. has always been 
overlooked and neglected by all Presidents, I see no reason or 
policy which should induce us to sacrifice our principles and 
prominent men at home to render Homage to any candidate 
not of our own views. Heads they win, tails we loose. I am and 
shall remain uncommitted until I am better satisfied about the 
presidential candidate. Clay's friends in N. Carolina I know will 
be slow to surrender him. The New Jersey Delegation in Con- 
gress say they were very near loosing all their Elections by attempt- 
ing to carry Clay in the last contest. John Sergeant says in Pennsy- 
lvania the strength of the Whigs, or rather whatever strength the 
Whigs have there is owing to the popularity of Gen. Harrison. I 
mention these opinions to shew you the present aspect of popular 
sentiment so far as developed here from different States. I think 
now (what I wrote you last Spring) , the Whigs in N. C. should 
not pledge themselves prematurely to any one, but go in solid 
Column against Mr. Van Buren and the Sub Treasury. Our 
Editors in N. C. are the greatest fools I ever met with; they asked 
my opinion last Spring as to the time and manner of coming out 
for the next President, I advised them not then to stir that Ques- 
tion; and forthwith they began to hoist the Clay Flag, and I have 
no doubt lost 15 or 20 Whig members to the Legislature by so 
doing. Gales led the way being flattered and wheedled into it by 

26 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

some sap headed South Carolinians, who used N. Carolina as a 
feeler to sound public opinion to the South. Van Buren has no 
hold upon the people of N. C, and can't get the vote of the State, 
unless some unpopular Candidate be taken up by the Whigs and 
then his rash enemies may give him the vote of the State. The 
prominent Whigs in N. C, should consult together with deference 
and respect for the opinions of each other on this question. I 
see no reason for hasty & rash action but wait until a candidate of 
sound principles and fair prospects shall be announced as brought 
out not only to run but to beat. Then if we can go for him we 
will do it, and if not we will still maintain our principles. 

I do not believe from present or past indications Clay can get 
the vote of N. C, or a majority of the Whig States. Members 
who last Spring said he could, now give it up. I think he will 
be withdrawn from the contest before next March. Some of his 
friends from Kentucky have intimated as much to me. 

I have apprised you of the movements and signs here that our 
friends in N. C. may act with prudence & discretion and not be 
disappointed or distracted in going for a candidate for the next 
presidency. My present impressions are not favourable to Harri- 
son, but still I will wait untill I learn his history and character, 
his principles and policy. I am told he will come out as strong 
as aqua fortis against Abolition & the Sub Treasury. 

I do not desire to be prominent or public on Presidential mat- 
ters, but I have droped you these suggestions because public 
opinion is unfolding new lights and in search of men whose 
popularity will forward (not retard) good and successful results 
in the future. 

I wish the Legislature would direct a recognisance survey and 
Estimate by an able civil Engineer from Beaufort Harbor to 
Ashville in Buncombe to ascertain if a Rail Road cannot be 
constructed through the heart and centre of our State. I would 
examine the ground from Beaufort to some point on the Cape- 
Fear a little below the Junction of Haw & Deep Rivers and then 
continue on the Ridge South of all the Waters of Deep River and 
Cross the Yadkin either at Stoke's Ferry, or a little lower down 
at the mouth of the Uwharre and then, (either up to the Island 
Ford on Catawba River and Morganton,) or on to the Ridge 
north of Long Creek in Mecklenburg to the Catawba River 3 
Miles above Tuckesege ford and the south fork north of Long 
creek in Lincoln and up to Robert Winters or Jacob Fulenweders: 

The Papers of William A. Graham 27 

near that join the Charleston Rail Road. If the Rail Road from 
Raleigh were extended so as to join this line below the junction 
of Haw and Deep Rivers then would a direct and great High 
way for Travellers from New York to Neiu Orleans be through 
North Carolina and Tennessee. One Central western Rail Road 
we ought to have in N. C. and I would make a Road to Beaufort, 
which is a healthy place and a much better Harbour than 

The Defaulcation of Sub Treasury officers is alarming to the 
Party. The public money is going going going, and I fear will 
soon be all gone to Europe. 

No wonder the Government is insolvent when the Treasury 
is constantly robbed by our Agents and officers as fast as they can 
get their britches Pockets full. 

The Van Buren Party here look drooping and dejected, they 
are obviously waiting and hoping for a division in the Whig 
Ranks. They are drilled Regulars; we are Raw and undisciplined 

I hope you take regular active exercise every good day. farewell 

To Susan Washi?igto?i Graham. A. 

Raleigh, Deer. 23rd, 1838. 
My Dear Susan 

I send you this as a Christmas gift, a poor one, it is true, but 
still valued, I doubt not, as a testimonial of the fidelity & affection 
of your chere ami. It is now Sunday night, and I have the pleasing 
hope, that my letter will reach you on Christmas day, & remind 
you, that you are not forgotten though absent. I promise myself 
no extraordinary pleasure during the holidays. Several members 
of the Legislature are visiting their homes, and those here are not 
much disposed to business. I can't yet say how long the Session 
will continue but think it will be at least two and probably three 
weeks. The resolutions of Mr. Rayner 32 passed the house of Com- 

32 Kenneth Rayner (1808-1884), of Bertie, member of the commons, 1835-1836, 
1846-1850; state senator, 1854; delegate to convention of 1835, member of congress, 
1839-1845; member of commission on "Alabama" claims, solicitor of the treasury, 
1877-1884. An ardent Whig, he became a leading member of the American (Know 
Nothing) party, and wrote one of its secret degrees. After the war, he supported 
President Johnson, and wrote anonymously a campaign life of him. He then 
became a supporter of Grant, and a Republican. 

28 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

mons last Friday by a majority of 7 Votes, No regular speech hav- 
ing been made after that of Mr. Hoke, 33 which was in progress 
while you were here. They are confidently expected to pass the 
Senate. What course our Senators in Congress will take, we have 
as yet no means of knowing. The more general impression is, 
that they will resign. Gov. Swain has tendered his resignation to 
the board of Trustees, to take effect next June. 34 He is uncertain 
as to his future destination. Genl. Barringer's family have ap- 
pointed the day after Christmas for their departure. Three mem- 
bers of the Legislature have been bound by Mr. Justice Badger 
to appear at the next term of the Court of this County for cruelly 
beating a free negro, on a charge of having stolen a watch from 
one of them. Of which it is since ascertained that he was alto- 
gether innocent. 

#£fe dfe =& 4fc 

tv" "a" w "7r 

I am exceedingly glad that you have had clear days since you 
left & hope, that you journied without accident. With Sister 
Eliza's kind aid I doubt not but you were as much relieved of 
the trouble of the children as circumstances would allow. If you 
do not wish any of the servants from below, and you can ascertain 
that they have been well treated the past year, please ask your 
Bro. John to hire them for us again. If he thinks they will not be 
abused on the Rail road I would not object to their going there, 
although I would prefer to hire them to planters; those in Lin- 
coln I will have bro't to Hillsboro & hired there. 

How are my dear Boys? 35 Would that I could see them, & your- 
self, tonight. 

I heard today a good sermon from Mr. Lacy 36 who was assisted 
in the services by Mr. Merideth. 

83 Michael Hoke. 

34 Swain evidently withdrew his resignation. I have found no public notice of 
the resignation, and the minutes of the Board of Trustees contain no mention of it. 

36 Graham's second son, John Washington, was born July 22nd., 1838. In later 
life he was a graduate of the university and a tutor there, a lawyer, Confederate 
major, delegate to the convention of 1868, and state senator, 1870-1872, 1877-1879, 
and 1907-1909. 

38 Presumably the Rev. Drury Lacy (1802-1884), native of Virginia, who attended 
Washington College (now Washington and Lee University), and was graduated 
from Hampden-Sydney. After teaching for a time, he attended the Union Theo- 
logical Seminary there. He held pastorates at New Bern and Raleigh, was president 
of Davidson College, 1855-1861, Confederate chaplain, and then taught in Raleigh 
from 1865 until shortly before his death. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 29 




Will be given Complimented to the GOVERNOR and MRS. 
DUDLEY, at the Eagle Hotel, on FRIDAY EVENING next, 
to which the Managers request the pleasure of your 
Company, at 7 o'clock. 

L. D. Wilson/ W. W. Cherry/ 

R. K. Speed/ J. T. Morehead, 

M. A. Wilcox/ Kenneth Rayner, 

H. L. Robards/ Wm. P. Williams/ 

T. G. Scott, E. H. Wingate, 

S. W. Whiting/ C. C. Battle/ 


January 1st. 1839. 

From James W. Bryan. U. 

Newbern, Jany. 3d, 1839. 

I hope the Whigs will by no means repudiate the idea of send- 
ing Delegates to Harrisburg; if we are to cut ourselves loose from 

1 Louis Dickson Wilson (1789-1847) of Edgecombe County. He was a member of 
the commons, 1815-1819, state senator, 1820, 1824-1832, 1838-1846, (speaker, 1842); 
delegate to the convention of 1835, and several times a presidential elector. He 
rose from captain to colonel in the Mexican War. 

2 Rufus King Speed (b. 1810), of Chowan and Pasquotank counties. A native of 
Virginia, with Indian blood, a physician who was active in politics. He repre- 
sented Chowan in the state senate, 1838-1840, 1870; and Pasquotank in the conven- 
tion of 1861, and in the senate, 1866. 

3 Major A. Wilcox, member of the commons, from Halifax. 

4 Horace Lawrence Robards (1814-1867), of Granville, graduate of the university, 
a miner and hotel proprietor, member of the commons, 1838. 

e Seymour Webster Whiting, of Raleigh, treasurer of the Raleigh and Gaston 

6 William W. Cherry (1805-1845), of Bertie, teacher, merchant, and lawyer, and 
state senator. He served in the commons in 1844. 

7 William P. Williams, of Franklin, a member of the commons. He was a senator, 
1830-1832, 1842. 

8 Christopher Columbus Battle (1814-1859), of Edgecombe, Governor Dudley's 
private secretary. He was a soldier in the Mexican War, and later moved to 

30 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

the Whig party of the North let us hear it from some one who 
can speak by authority, for as to the prevalent opinion that the 
dictu of isolated persons, as it were, are to constitute our rule of 
action, I myself cannot come into it. Our strength and success 
consist in Union & as this Harrisburg Conv. was proposed as a 
sort of middle ground upon which to reconcile the distracted 
opinions and preferences of the Whigs, let the South meet them 
there and I guarantee that the Meeting will be productive of 
most beneficial results. We Croak too much and are disposed to 
condemn without a hearing. 

I argue with you upon the subject of nominating Mr. Clay; he 
is my first and I may almost say my only choice, for however 
highly we may think of the other gentlemen, you know they 
cannot run at the South. Leave the question of nomination 
therefore at present to the Convention & if we fail there, it will 
not then be too late to nominate him here; we will run a ticket 
for him at all events in this State. 

Whilst personally I am pleased with the nomination of Mr. 
Morehead for Govr., I must express to you the opinion that 
Judge Settle would have obtained in our part of the State one 
third more votes, but we will leave nothing undone for Morehead 

If you do not shove the Beaufort road along pari passu with 
the rest we will Kick up a tremendous dust here! I expect the 
whole scheme will fail & the failure here would be more accep- 
table than the partial success in another part of the State as they 
seem determined that these projects shall go hand in hand. 

From ]dmes Graham. U. 

Washington, Jany 4th, 1839. 

Our Senators received their Resolutions from Raleigh on or 
before last Tuesday (New Year's day) . Brown told me he had 
received them at that time. He also asked me if I had any news 
from Raleigh? I told him none, except the Legislature would 
adjourn on Monday next the 7th. I gave that information to him 
that he might have no excuse to say "he did not know When the 
Legislature would adjourn". I have said nothing to our Senators 
myself, but Stanley 9 talks every day to them about their resigning 

Edward Stanly. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 31 

and I understand they are much confused & consulting their 
friends as to the proper course to take. I still think they will not 

They are higgling and harping about the word Instruct not 
being inserted, but that is all prevarication. The Legislature have 
told them modestly and decently to "Go out of my House" but 
they seem to think the Legislature should have said "you Damned 
Rascals I instruct you to go right straight out of my House." I 
think nothing short of one of Paddy's hints will remove them. To 
resign would be a bitter Pill to them. It would be like drawing 
their eye tooth. It is much better for the Whig cause they should 
not resign. And our Editors should open their batteries forthwith 
upon them and their party for violating their own doctrines— 
they preach one text and practice another, they give medicine to 
others which they will not take themselves. They keep the word 
of promise to the ear, while they break it to the sense, they con 
sider Instructions and Resolutions a very good Ladder to climb 
into power on, bat altogether inconvenient to go out of power 
upon that very same Ladder. This is the forked-tongue-doctrine of 
the Spoils Party who have the people constantly in their mouths 
and never in their hearts. 

The two legged Sub Treasury advocates must have two ways 
to deceive the people: 

one to cheat them out of their votes: 
the other to defraud them out of their money. Our Sen- 
ators are both very Aristocratic Democrats ! ! 

you had better say but little about them, let time develope 
what they intend to do. They are in deep distress, and may God 
increase their pain, untill they repent of their sins and pitiful 
party devotion. 

They may, in time, feel so unworthy and guilty as to resign; 
their pride (not their principle) may at last come to this con- 

Charles Shepherd 10 has just published a Primmer to his con- 
stituents in which "he gives in his political Experience": his 
matchless discovery of the sinful nature of Banks, that Abolition 
is for the North, and the Sub Treasury for the South, and there- 
fore he swears allegiance to Van and the Spoils! 

10 Charles Shepard (1807-1843), of New Bern, graduate of the university, a member 
of the commons, 1831-1832, now completing the first of two terras in congress. 

32 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Raleigh, Jany 6th, 1839. 

Sunday night. 
My Dear Susan 

I reed your kind letter of the 30th. ult. at a time when I stood 
somewhat in need of your comfort. On the day it came to hand, 
I had a severe boil which confined me to my bed with a high fever, 
but as I was exceedingly desirous to attend to my duties in the 
House during the few remaining days of the Session, I have man- 
aged to keep my feet every day except that one, though it has 
been with much pain and fatigue. I am decidedly better however 
today, and hope that I shall get through the remainder without 
much difficulty, though I anticipate quite a trial tomorrow. It has 
been appointed as the day for adjournment, and the meeting will 
be at sunrise in the morning. From the quantity of business on 
the table, the Session will probably continue all day, & then a 
portion will probably be unfinished. 

The past week has been quite an important one. A Bill has 
passed giving the aid requested to the "Raleigh & Gaston Rail- 
road Company,"— enabling them to borrow $500,000 and pledg- 
ing the credit of the State for its payment. Also a Bill appro- 
priating $750,000 to assist in building a Railroad from Fayette- 
ville to the Yadkin River, And making an appropriation to survey 
the proposed Inlet at Nagshead. On Friday evening letters were 
received by the Speakers of the two Houses from Messrs. Brown 
& Strange, Senators in Congress saying that they had learned 
from correspondents at Raleigh, that Resolutions had passed the 
Legislature on some subjects of Federal politics, & desiring to 
know whether such resolutions were intended to instruct them. 
Resolutions were promptly passed by both Houses declaring that 
the Resolutions are sufficiently plain & intelligible to be under- 
stood by any one desirous of understanding them, and that it 
would be inconsistent with the self respect of the General As- 
sembly to make any reply to the Communication from the Sen- 
ators. A most amusing debate took place afterwards on a motion 
to enter it on the Journals, in which explanations were given of 
charges against two members of the administration party of eaves- 
droping at a meeting of the Whigs. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 33 

I proposed yesterday in Committee a plan for common schools 11 
which was unanimously approved in the House of Commons; it 
will go to the Senate in the morning. I forget however that you 
are not a politician and perhaps take but little interest in what 
I have been writing. 

A public Ball was given to the Gov. & lady at Guion's last 
Thursday & a party at Mr. Iredell's to Miss Mary Jones of Hills- 
boro on Friday evening. My state of health prevented my from 
attending either. 

I ventured last night to the theatre with Judge Gaston & Mr. 
Battle to witness the performance of Miss Davenport an English 
girl of 1 1 years of age, who is truly a surprising actress. 

Mr. Turrentine writes me that he has hired our negroes & laid 
in 1900 lbs of Pork [for] me. He entered the house with a key 
of his own, and obtained there the smoke House & cellar keys. 
Mr. Walker is staying in my office. Mr. Palmer of Hillsboro was 
here yesterday. There is nothing new there. 

I have nearly finished without saying any thing of my Boys. I 
wish I could see them & my dearest this evening. I have not heard 
from your Bro. & Mr. B. and am somewhat at a loss whether to 
go to New Bern as soon as the Assembly rises or wait to argue my 
cases in the Supreme Court. I would prefer the latter and think 
I could promise to be in Kinston a fortnight hence with cer- 
tainty. If they think it indispensable that I shall come earlier how- 
ever I will do so, say the last of this week, & write me. 

Genl. Barringer's family will leave tomorrow for Ten. 

# * 

New Bern. 


Speech at Close of Session. 

January 8th., 1839. 

Gentlemen of the House of Commons: 

I beg leave to detain you a moment, whilst I express my grati- 
tude for the flattering terms in which you have been pleased to 
approve my conduct as your presiding officer. I wish I were con- 
scious of having deserved such unqualified commendation. I 

11 North Carolina Laws, 1838-1839, Chap. VIII. 

12 From Hillsborough Recorder, January 17th, 1839. 

34 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

appreciate it, however, as a not unmerited testimonial of the 
purity of my motives of action, and my unfeigned desire to do 
right. The scenes through which we have passed have been often 
of an exciting character, but I have been gratified to observe 
that there has been no interruption of the kindest personal rela- 
tion between individual members; and with the utmost pleasure 
I declare, that I have never been associated with any deliberative 
assembly in which there was exhibited so little asperity of temper, 
and so much of kind and cordial feeling, as has been uniformly 
manifested in the present House of Commons. 

Though this occasion has been impatiently expected as the 
moment which was to relieve us from public cares, and restore 
us again to the objects of our affection, that heart must be in- 
sensible to the best feelings of human nature, which is not in 
some degree saddened by the malancholy reflection that we part, 
many of us, no doubt, forever. On the great ocean of life our 
courses lie in different directions. For a brief season we have met 
here to deliberate on the public weal. We now renew the voyage, 
and each one resumes the way from which he has been for a time 
diverted. Whatever fortune may await us, I, trust, gentlemen, we 
shall recollect with pleasure the social intercourse we have en- 
joyed here— that our acquaintance has been extended, new 
friendships have been formed, and our knowledge of the moral, 
and intellectual, as well as the physical resources of our common 
country, enlarged. 

Wishing to you, each and all, health, happiness, success in your 
various pursuits, and a safe and speedy return to your families 
and friends, I bid you a respectful and affectionate farewell. 

Reprs. from 
North Carolina. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 35 


Jan'y 12th., 1838. [1839] 13 
To, The Honorable Messrs 

Lewis Williams 
Edmund Deberry 14 
Aug. H. Shepperd 
Abraham Rencher 
James Graham 
Edward Stanly 


At a meeting of the members of 
the Whig party, held before the adjournment of the recent Session 
of the General Assembly of this State, the subject of nominating 
a Candidate for the next Presidency of the United States was 
considered, and the series of resolutions inclosed herein was 
unanimously adopted. 

In compliance with the second Resolution, the undersigned 
have been appointed a Committee to communicate to you the 
opinions of those who were there assembled from all parts of the 
States, and have supposed that they could most effectually dis- 
charge the duty thus devolved on them by transmitting the 
Resolutions in extenso, that you may be informed not only of the 
Whig party here upon this important subject, but that you may 
be apprized of the plan of operations which is deemed best cal- 
culated to insure success. We deem it proper further to add that 
in our opinion Mr. Clay is the only Candidate of the Whigs who 
has the least prospect of uniting the party throughout the State. 
Indeed, several members of the General Assembly declared openly 
that he was the only Candidate whom they themselves were 
willing to support, and certainly the only one who could expect 
to receive the vote of their constituents. 

13 Draft in Graham's handwriting. There is no indication as to the other members 
of the committee. 

14 Edmund Deberry (1787-1859), a native of Montgomery County, who was state 
senator 1806-1811, 1813-1814, 1820-1821. Whig member of congress, 1829- 
1831, 1833-1845, 1849-1851. 

36 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

We have not deemed it expedient to make a public nomina- 
tion because it was believed to be premature, and that such a 
mode of presenting a Candidate was not approved by our people. 
But we deem it due to candour to say, that unless Mr. Clay shall 
be our Candidate, we believe it will be useless to form an oppo- 
sition ticket in the electoral Canvass. And the main purpose of 
this letter is to request you to urge upon our friends in other 
States the necessity [of] uniting with us upon this question. It 
will [be] seen that we have thought it expedient to defer a final 
nomination untill November, but this is merely to await develop- 
ments in other States, and with no expectation of the adoption of 
a different Candidate. 

We are, Gentlemen, with utmost Respect, 

Your Obed't Serv'ts, 

Resolutions 15 

1. Resolved— that the members of this meeting do express 
their decided preference for Henry Clay of Kentucky, as the 
Candidate of the Whig party for the next Presidency. 

2. That a Committee of 13 gentlemen be appointed by the 
Chair to correspond with the Whig members of Congress from 
this State, and such Whigs elsewhere, as they may deem judicious, 
insisting on the nomination of Mr. Clay, and informing that he 
is the unanimous choice of the Whigs in this Legislature, and 
that no other Candidate now in nomination has a reasonable 
prospect of receiving the Electoral vote of North Carolina. 

3. That the members of this meeting will recommend to their 
constituents, (and do pledge themselves to each other zealously 
to endeavor to procure their approbation of the same) to appoint 
delegates in primary assemblies to meet in Convention in the 
City of Raleigh on the 2nd. Monday of November next, to pro- 
pose Candidates for the offices of President & Vice President of 
the United States, and also of Governor of North Carolina. 

16 These resolutions were adopted just before the adjournment of the legislature 
by the Whig members of the two houses. The copy is in Graham's handwriting, 
and presumably, he was the author. They were first published by the Standard, 
and then several Whig papers published them. They can be found, for example, 
in the Star and North Carolina Gazette, Feb. 27, 1839. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 37 

4. That the said Convention when assembled, shall allow a 
representation to each County in proportion to its ratio of repre- 
sentation in the House of Commons— and shall be invested with 
power to determine on the expediency of sending delegates to the 
National Convention proposed to be held at Harrisburg in De- 
cember, 1839, for the purpose of nominating a Candidate for the 
Presidency, and if they shall deem it proper, to appoint delegates 

4. That Charles Manly, Weston R. Gales, Charles L. Hinton, 
Thomas J. Lemay, John H. Bryan, & Henry W. Miller, Esqs., be 
requested to act as a central Committee, and to disseminate such 
intelligence among the several Counties as they shall deem calcu- 
lated to advance the Whig cause in this State. 16 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Raleigh, Jany. 13th, 1839. 
My Dear Wife 

I hope this letter will be the last that I shall send, before I have 
the pleasure to see you. I have been hurrying my business in 
Court, & hope that I can leave here on Wednesday morning, so 
as to reach New Bern, if you are not at Kinston on Thursday 

I feel wearied with my long stay here, and am getting exceed- 
ingly impatient to share again the society of my own family. My 
health is much better this week, than it was last, & is still im- 

Our Session closed on Tuesday morning, and all seperated, I 
believe, with kind personal feelings. My Valedictory in return to 
a vote of thanks was exceedingly brief, as you will perceive in the 
papers. We have heard nothing from Washington since the last 
Resolution in relation to our Senators, except that they are in a 
great tribulation as to the course they will pursue, and are asking 
the advice of friends, etc. Mr. Badger will leave here tomorrow 
for the City of Washington to appear in the Supreme Court of 
the United States, on behalf of our State in a suit for large bodies 
of land in our Western Counties. We are of course all anxious 

16 On August 29th, 1839, this Committee, as will be seen later, issued a call to 
the Whig party. 

38 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

that he shall succeed in the cause, and make a display which shall 
be creditable to the State. 

I have declined going to Hillsboro', before I go down the 
Country, as Mr. Turrentine has been kind enough to attend to 
our affairs there. Though it has been so unseasonably warm for 
four or five days past, that I am somewhat apprehensive about 
our Pork. 

Franklin Grist 17 arrived here last night but there is so much 
travel in the Hillsborough stage although it goes daily, that he 
will not be able to get a seat untill day after tomorrow. He is 
quite well, and desirous to get on. I will write to Mr. Walker to 
get his Books, etc., for him. As also to attend to your requests 
about the smoke house. 

Your two letters written since you left me have been a long- 
time on the road or in the office here. The last dated 2nd inst. I 
did not get untill yesterday. I do not see your Bible in the room 
but will endeavour to have it gotten for you. My time has been 
so much occupied in endeavouring to make my stay here as short 
as possible, that I have not been in society, nor heard any thing 
in the way of news. 

Gov. Swain's family left yesterday for Chapel Hill. He has 
determined to leave that place in June, but has not concluded 
what to do. 

Your Bro. John wrote me a note by the mail of last night, 
saying that Sister Eliza had been there a few days ago, and had 
Joseph with her. Tell him that Father will get a little waggon 
for him when he goes home. I am the more anxious every day to 
see the dear little fellows & their still dearer Mother. A few more 
days I hope will restore me to them again. 

Miss Mary Jones will leave tomorrow for Hillsboro'. I am told 
she has made quite a sensation in the beau monde of the me- 

[P.S.] Judge Gaston who is with us, was robbed of his trunk as 
he came up. He supposes it was cut off the stage near Waynes- 
boro. The season here for four or five days past, has been as mild 
as the latter part of April. 

I hope you have sent the Carriage to the Shop & had such 
repairs done to it as it needs. You can make any arrangement in 

17 Franklin R. Grist (1828-1912), the son of Mrs. Graham's sister, Elizabeth 
Heritage Washington (Mrs. Richard Grist), 

The Papers of William A. Graham 39 

relation to the sale or exchange of negroes with Mother, that you 

Gov. Iredell is selling off his servants. He had sold a good cook 
before I heard of it, or I would have purchased her for you. 

*•&£ 4fe Jt J/. 

w w w w 

Address of the Republican Whig members of U. 

the General Assembly of 1838 
to the People of 
North Carolina. 18 

Fellow Citizens: 

Among the acts of the last session of the General Assembly, 
you find a series of Resolutions, upon subjects of great interest 
in our National affairs. These were not adopted without violent 
opposition from the minority, who supported the present admin- 
istration of the General Government, & who, of course, with few 
exceptions, uphold that which the resolutions condemn, and 
reject that which they recommend. This opposition has lost none 
of its zeal, but appears to have much increased in acrimony, 
since the adjournment of the Legislature. First, the proceedings 
of "a party meeting" of members at the Capitol, was put forth, 
next came the address of a Committee of members of that meet- 
ing. Circular letters have been published, public meetings called, 
and popular harangues delivered, in which the course of the 
General Assembly has been denounced in terms of bitterest cen- 
sure. That all this indicates alarm on the part of the minority, 
lest the doctrines and practices of our Federal rulers, which have 
been thus rebuked, shall be no longer tolerated, is sufficiently 
evident, but that the resolutions of the majority afford any ground 
for alarm to the people, is, we think, incapable of demonstration. 
On the contrary, there is far more reason to dread that unless 
the sentiments they express shall be carried out in the practical 
administration of the Government, the balance of that Govern- 
ment will be overthrown, and the free constitution of our Fathers 

18 From a rough, and evidently incomplete, draft, in Graham's handwriting, 
found in the Graham papers. (See letters of Weston R. Gales to Graham, April 
16th, 1839, and Graham to the North Carolina Whig members of congress, Jan. 
12th, 1839.) So far as I can discover, the address was never published, or completed. 
It bears no date. 

40 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

degenerated into an elective monarchy. The undersigned Com- 
mittee were appointed by their Whig brethren in the Legislature 
to address you in vindication of these Resolutions, at such time 
as they might find convenient. Although it has been longer de- 
layed than they had desired, they now proceed to acquit them- 
selves of that task. For the sake of easy reference, a copy is inserted 
of the 


relating to the General Government. 

Whereas, we believe that a great crisis has arrived in the politi- 
cal history of our country, on the issue of which, we conceive the 
safety of our free institutions to depend: And whereas, we con- 
sider it our bounden duty, as the representatives of the freemen 
of North Carolina, to express in calm and dispassionate language, 
our opinions on the great questions which have been for some 
time, and some of which are still agitating the public mind: 

I. Resolved therefore, That this General Assembly do condemn 
in the most decided manner, that act of the Senate of the United 
States expunging the records of that body, as a palpable violation 
of the plain letter of the Constitution, and as an act of party 
servility, calculated to degrade the character of the Senate. 

II. Resolved, That resolutions ought to be passed by the Sen- 
ate of the United States, condemnatory of that act, and rescinding 
the resolution authorizing it to be done. 

III. Resolved, That this General Assembly do condemn the 
Sub Treasury system which this Administration is endeavoring to 
establish, as another item in that series of fatal experiments of 
this and the past Administration, which are the main source of 
that derangement of the currency, and prostration of commercial 
credit, that have been so severely felt of late in every branch of 
industry, and which, if suffered to become a law, will, by its 
tendency to augment Executive power, to unite the purse and 
the sword in the hands of the Executive, and to destroy the credit 
system by the exaction of specie in the Government dues, ulti- 
mately change the real character of our Government, and place 
in peril the liberties of our country. 

IV. Resolved, That we consider the Public Lands of the 
United States as the common property of all the States, and that 
we therefore condemn the late Act of Congress allowing settlers 

The Papers of William A. Graham 41 

on the Public Lands, the right of pre-emption at the minimum 
price, as an act of gross injustice to the old States, who originally 
ceded them, or who contributed to a common fund for their pur- 

V. Resolved, That we believe that the proper and equitable 
disposition of the public domain, is to divide the proceeds arising 
from their sales, among the several States of the Union, according 
to the ratio of their federal population. 

VI. Resolved, That we do most solemnly protest against the 
wasteful extravagance of the present Administration, and their 
profligate expenditure of the public money, which not only 
creates a demand for heavy taxation in order to meet the exorbi- 
tant appropriations of the General Government, but which tends 
to the corruption of public morals, and the degradation of the 
national character. 

VII. Resolved, That the power and patronage of the Executive 
Department of the Federal Government have increased to an 
alarming extent, and ought to be diminished. 

VIII. Resolved, That our Senators in Congress will represent 
the wishes of a majority of the people in this State, by voting to 
carry out the foregoing Resolutions. 

IX. Resolved, That the Governor of this State be requested 
to forward a copy of these Resolutions to each of our Senators in 
Congress, with a request that they lay them before the Senate of 
the United States; and one to each of the Governors of the several 
States of the Union, with a request that they lay them before 
their respective Legislatures. 

It will be seen that they relate 1st. to 
Expunging the Journals of the Senate. 

The Constitution enjoins that "Each house (of Congress) shall 
keep a Journal of its proceedings, & from time to time publish 
the same, excepting such parts as may, in their Judgment, require 
secrecy, and the Yeas and Nays of the members of either house 
on any question, shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, 
be entered on the Journal." This plain declaration of the duty 
"to keep a Journal," It appears to us impossible to misunder- 
stand. It is one of the most ordinary duties of a deliberative body, 
required in written Constitutions, that the proceedings of that 
body may be clearly manifested to its constituents. Its end is not 
wisdom, but truth. When made out and published, the Journal 

42 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

of the Senate becomes as much the property of the Nation as the 
Library of Congress, as a vessel in the Navy, or as the Capitol in 
which Congress holds its deliberations. And with as little pro- 
priety might either house of Congress attempt to explode or 
destroy any of these, as to mutilate, to alter or expunge it. That 
they may repeal or rescind, any previous resolution of their own 
body is not denied, but when the Senate, in 1837 did violence to 
the Journal of 1834, they acted not only without the warrant of 
the Constitution, but in direct violation of it. It is not, however, 
as a merely literal violation of the Constitution that we condemn 
that act. But because it, in effect, sanctioned the monstrous doc- 
trines set up in the Executive protest, that he is the only consti- 
tutional keeper of the public Treasure, and that the Senate, a 
coordinate branch of the Legislature, representing the sovereign 
States of the Union, had no power to express an opinion of his 
conduct, unless upon an Impeachment instituted by the other 
House. It was, moreover, avowedly designed to humble and 
degrade that body for having dared to do so by resolution, and to 
be to them in future times a beacon and a warning never to do 
the like again. Without undertaking to review the question first 
in dispute between the President and the Senate, (which is no 
less than the momentous one, whether the Executive or the Legis- 
lature has the authority to controul the custody of the public 
funds) we affirm that the Senate, as one of the attributes of its 
Legislative power, has a perfect right to form and to declare its 
opinions, in relation to the official conduct of the President upon 
any subject. This freedom of tli ought & of speech, in regard to 
all the acts of Government, is not only guaranteed to every citi- 
zen, but its full and free exercise is one of the highest duties of 
a Legislature. Their office is not merely to enact new Laws, but 
to look into the practical execution of the old,— and, if found to 
be either improperly expounded or administered by any Judicial 
or Executive officer, from the highest to the lowest, either branch 
of the Legislature may, and ought to, express its dissent, either by 
proposing a new Law, or declaring that the old has been mis- 

This is equally true of infractions of the Constitution, although 
they are not armed with power to enforce their own construction, 
they are nevertheless authorized & bound to notice any material 
violation of either the Constitution or Laws, that public attention 
may be directed to it, and that it may undergo examination, at 

The Papers of William A. Graham 43 

least in the public mind. This necessary right in a Legislative 
Assembly of a few people, would never have been questioned to 
the Senate of the United States but for its being also invested with 
certain judicial powers. These, we submit, are added to, but do 
not impair or abridge either its Legislative powers or duties. 
Senators are not to be less vigilant & faithful in investigating the 
acts of public officers, nor less bold in avowing their opinions 
respecting them, than the members of the House. Otherwise the 
intention of the Constitution is but half fulfilled, and the pecu- 
liar rights of the States committed to their charge, may be 
trampled under foot with impunity. That they may err in the 
performance of this duty is admitted, but to that, they are liable 
[as] in all other acts. But whether, in any particular instance, 
they may be right or wrong, we assert the authority of the Senate 
whenever, in their belief, the Constitution or Laws have been 
infringed by the President, or any subordinate officer, to speak 
out in the language of freemen, as the Commons and even Lords 
of England, on so many memorable occasions, have been accus- 
tomed to speak of the acts of the King and his Ministers, as our 
ancestors in their consecrated struggles for liberty, did of the 
sovereign & Colonial Governors, and as every free citizen feels 
it his birthright to do, of the acts of all public servants. The 
sedition Law of 1798, subjecting to indictment any person who 
should publish matter deemed libellous of the President, or other 
high officers of Government, was justly condemned by popular 
indignation, though it allowed the truth of such matters as a 
sufficient defence. But the construction of the Constitution im- 
plied in the act of expunction, & maintained by its advocates, will 
not permit the representatives of the twenty-six States of America, 
charged in an especial manner, with the care of their interests, 
to pass any resolve as to the conduct of the President, though 
however true, just or merited; even, maybe, to reprove usurpa- 
tion, correct error, or protect their body in the just enjoyment 
of its rights. In that construction Your General Assembly was 
invited to concur by a communication from the Legislature of 
the State of Missouri, approving the mutilation of the record of 
the Senate, & highly commending the efforts of one of her Sen- 
ators for his agency in procuring its accomplishment. Being thus 
called to the consideration of the subject, and unwilling by silence 
to give an implied assent to an act, which we verily believe has 
degraded the character of the Senate, & deprived it of much of its 

44 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

usefulness to the Country, and to doctrines which, if generally 
concurred in, will at no distant day, concentrate in the President 
all the powers of Government, we deemed it proper to declare 
our disapprobation in unequivocal terms. That our Senators, 
whether present or future, may perceive that they are required to 
be vigilant sentinels, as well as diligent, faithful lawgivers. That 
the Senate, (so far as it can be aided by us) may be raised from 
its self abasement, & restored to the confident exercise of its Con- 
stitutional powers & duties, and that it may be manifested to our 
sister States & to the world, if this orb in our political system is 
to be stricken out, or to remain in the dim eclipse into which 
[it] has been cast by the devotion of party, to an Executive magis- 
trate, that it will not be with the concurrence, or without the 
solemn protest of the Sovereign State of North Carolina. 

2nd. The Subtreasury System. 

This is the new plan proposed for collecting & keeping the 
public monies of the United States, which has been urged upon 
the Country with so much pertinacity by the Executive & his 
partisans, although it has been twice rejected by the representa- 
tives of the people in Congress, and as is well known, would have 
shared the same fate again at the last session, had not its advo- 
cates prudently declined to call it up for a vote of the House. 
Its outlines may be briefly stated. It requires, 1st., that all the 
public revenues shall be paid by the people in Gold & Silver 
coins, and, 2ndly., that they shall be kept by individuals until] 
they are wanted for disbursement, and not deposited in Bank as 
heretofore. However, it may be attempted to vary its features at 
different times, to make it more comely to the public eye, these 
are its prominent characteristics, as recommended by the Presi- 
dent and Secretary of the Treasury, and without which it has 
been pronounced by its ablest advocate, Mr. Calhoun, "a solemn 
farce." And it is argued with most fervid eloquence, that this is 
not only the wisest plan which has ever been devised, but that it 
is the only one which is allowed by the Constitution, that all 
former systems which have been pursued were not merely inferior 
to this in point of utility, but were not justified by the limited 
powers conferred on the General Government. Those who accuse 
Washington & Jefferson and Madison of not understanding the 
Constitution, or not administering the Government according to 
its provisions, and who hold that Hamilton & Gallatin & Dallas 

The Papers of William A. Graham 45 

& Crawford all failed to perceive and to adopt any scheme of 
finance equal to this modern discovery, ought [to] be at least 
expected to be charitable to others, who, perceiving the subject 
in a different light, see quite as numerous & as fatal objections 
to their theory as they do the practices of their predecessors. This 
is more especially to be expected when it is remembered that, 
with exceedingly rare exceptions, the same persons who are now 
so strenuous in support of the Independent Treasury were, but 
little more than two years ago, as vehement & clamorous in favour 
of the State Bank deposit system. When that experiment com- 
menced in the autumn of 1833, they predicted, with the most 
undoubting confidence, that those Banks would not only keep 
the public money safely, and pay it out whenever wanted, but 
would furnish a currency which should be at par every where in 
the Union, afford exchanges, & give accommodations to trade 
upon better terms than had been done at any time before. 
Through their agency it was said, that the circulation of small 
notes was to be suppressed, & Gold & silver made sufficiently 
abundant to supply at least all the demands of Commerce under 
twenty dollars. Every Farmer was to have his purse full of Gold, 
and it was to circulate as freely as "the waters flow down the 
Mississippi." Not only are these promises to be found in the 
prophetic declaration of party Orators, but were put forth with 
equal boldness in Executive documents, & echoed in the reports 
of the Committees of Congress. Look through the Messages of 
the President, V. B., and the long, blundering reports of the 
Secretary of the Treasury in 1833, 4, 5, & 6, and you will see, 
not merely what was hoped and expected, but triumphant boast- 
ings that the Golden age, which had been foretold, was now at 
hand, and that "the experiment had succeeded." Scarcely had the 
last of these congratulations ceased to vibrate in our ears, untill 
the explosion took place. The Banks everywhere suspended specie 
payments, those which had been so much praised and patronized 
by the Executive being the first to lead the way. That that ex- 
periment would fail, we were prepared to expect. Although, did 
the occasion permit, we think it might be shewn that the sudden- 
ness of the catastrophe, as well as the extent of its ruin, are fairly 
attributable to its administration. Its authors, confessing their 
failure, now insist on a new experiment. If this shall be allowed 
them, it will hardly be for the skill in finance which was exhibited 
in administering their late system, or the success which attended 

46 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

it. Their project may therefore be judged of, without encounter- 
ing infallible authority. Does it derive any recommendation from 
its success elsewhere? What State of the American Union has 
applied it to its own fiscal affairs? None? In those foreign Coun- 
tries where it has been tried, have industry & enterprize been 
encouraged, are the people as prosperous, and are their Agricul- 
tural manufactories or commerce as flourishing as in those Na- 
tions who have pursued other systems? If so, its advocates are 
bound to tell us where. It is difficult to foresee the result of great 
pecuniary experiments, and hence the greater the propriety of 
relying upon experience, rather than mere speculation, but as far 
as we are able to anticipate, the practical workings of this plan 
we see in it nothing to be desired. 

1st. As to the exaction of specie in all payments to Government. 
This, we believe, would produce incalculable mischief. The 
precious metals are not sufficiently abundant to afford a currency 
for all the business of the world. In modern times especially large 
quantities, both of Gold and silver, which might have been coined, 
have been consumed in the arts, both useful and ornamental, 
whilst the supplies of these which were formerly derived from 
Mexico and South America have, in the last thirty years, greatly 
diminished. In the mean time, the labor of a larger portion of our 
race than ever was before employed in like manner, (aided by 
every species of improvement in machinery) has been employed 
in producing articles for sale, and requiring an additional supply 
of money to give them circulation. Hence paper currency has 
been invented as a representative of, & in part, a substitute for, 
coin, and hence Banking has been allowed as a legitimate branch 
of business. Banks have been established in all the States of the 
Union, and their paper constitutes by far the largest portion of 
our actual currency. That this will continue to be the case in all 
transactions of business among the people, where large sums 
change hands, we presume no one will deny, who adverts either 
to the scarcity of the precious metals, the power of the Legisla- 
tures of the States to establish Banks, and the free exercise of that 
power in every member of the Confederacy. No one State can 
prevent this, even within her own limits. For, although in ours, 
the circulation of the Banks of the State does not furnish the 
entire currency, the residue is not specie, excepting a small 
amount, but consists of the notes of the Banks of other States. 
So long as this currency is founded on a sufficient specie basis, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 47 

and is convertible into specie on demand, it answers every pur- 
pose of Gold & silver, and is more convenient in many respects. 
To compel it to be always redeemable in specie & therefore equal 
to it, is the first duty of the States granting a Charter, and the 
failure so to redeem should be visited with the heaviest penalties. 
But we are not now inquiring whether such ought to be the cur- 
rency of the Country, but stating the fact that [it] is, and our 
opinion founded on the necessity of things, and the nature of our 
Confederacy, that it will in all probability, continue to be. If, 
therefore, we are not to have hard money for the commerce and 
business of the people, why is it to be exacted from them in pay- 
ment of dues to Government? It is sometimes alledged that it is 
to prevent fraudulent & dishonest Banking. If this be the design, 
why place the honest and knavish on the same footing? Why 
reject the Bills of those Banks who adhere to their Charters in 
every particular, & always pay specie on demand, and thus depre- 
ciate their credit equally with those who make no attempt at 
redemption? To reject those which are not redeemed, is not only 
just but salutary, but to reject all, because some are spurious, is 
to destroy instead of endeavouring to correct. If the injury reached 
only the Banks, it might be matter of less moment. But is it not 
at once perceived that when so large a money dealer as the Gov- 
ernment of the United States will take nothing but specie, that 
the best Bank notes depreciate in comparison with it, and whilst 
the Government officers & employees are receiving payment in a 
superior currency, thus adding directly to their salaries as estab- 
lished by law, that the people whose servants they are, must be 
content with an inferior one, and when called on to make pay- 
ments to Government, must pay a premium in addition to the 

Suppose that your Legislature, instead of protesting against 
this system, had passed a Law applying it to our State affairs, & 
requiring all County and State taxes to be paid in Gold & silver. 
Would it not have been denounced with universal indignation? 
The whole County and State tax may be estimated at $300,000. 
annually. The State tax alone at $75,000. The former sum could 
not be yearly collected from the people in specie, without great 
sacrifice. Imagine, however, that our Sheriffs only collected the 
State taxes, 75 or 80 thousand dollars in Gold & silver, and pay it 
into the Treasury at Raleigh. This operation would be severely 
felt by the people in the progress [of] a few years. Its direct effect 

48 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

would be to accumulate specie at the seat of Government, but to 
drain it from the Country, paying the taxes. True, it would go 
out again, in payment of Gov't expenses but in much larger 
sums than those in which it came in, and but little of it would 
ever reach the great body of those by whom it was contributed, 
except at a premium. 

The subtreasury system is only the same thing on a larger 
scale. The revenues of the General Government are derived from 
sales of the public lands, and from duties on foreign goods. They 
amount at present to 30 or 35 millions of dollars per annum. If 
they should be required to be paid in specie, would not the 
consequence be, to gather a greater amount of the precious metals 
at the lands offices on the frontier, and the custom Houses of the 
great Cities, which would be withdrawn from the general circu- 
lation of business. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Raleigh, Feby 3rd, 1839. 
My Dear Wife 

I arrived here last night in safety in company with Mary and 
Eliza & Laura Washington from Waynesboro. The latter has 
come to Raleigh to school & her sister accompanied her to stay 
a few days. 

You have, I presume, learned from Mr. Bryan that I had the 
misfortune to lose my pocket Book, and to have it robbed of the 
money it contained. It has perplexed me much, and I almost 
despair of ever being able to regain it. We had a most uncom- 
fortable ride from New Bern, and I was very much exhausted 
from fatigue when I reached Waynesboro, at 10 o'clock P.M., and 
after a little refreshment at the house of our kind friend Mr. R. 
Washington I retired and slept soundly. In dressing the next 
morning I discovered that the Book was missing from the pocket 
of my pantaloons, which were more shallow than I have been 
accustomed to wear. It no doubt escaped on the ride from Kin- 
ston to Waynesboro, during which I several times drew my 
watch, to observe the time by the light of the moon. After in- 
quiring at the Tavern I took a horse & sulkey, which Mr. W. 
kindly lent me, & returned to Kinston, stopping and making 

The Papers of William A. Graham 49 

inquiries & search at the only place at which I had gotten out, 
Walters. I waited at Kinston untill the return of the stage next 
day and your acquaintance, Capt. Swift, who was a passenger, 
had the goodness to hand it to me. It was discovered by him & 
the other passengers just after they had taken their seats in the 
stage after breakfast at Maples 12 miles from New Bern on Trent 
road. You will recollect that it was in the mail stage that it was 
lost, which travels Trent road, into which I had been forced at 
Kinston by the stoppage of Guion's line there. Mr. Swift knew it 
to be mine by the papers it contained, being the bills of sale from 
your Mother, sundry notes due to me for near $200., and receipts, 
etc., all of which were left in it Sc uninjured. On the night 1 lost 
it there were passengers with us, a Baptist clergyman Mr. Gardner 
& Mr. Williams a New York merchant, an acquaintance of Mr. 
Burgwyn— neither of whom could be suspected— they went on to 
the Hotel at Waynesboro & took the Wilmington line next morn- 
ing. If it was not discovered by the bookeeper & servants, it went 
unmolested at 4 o'clock next morning on return to New Bern. 
Mr. Cutter and Mr. Carraway were passengers down all the way 
from Waynesboro, and as neither of them could be capable of 
the theft, the only persons on whom suspicion can rest are the 
drivers of Wiswel's line, untill the arrival at New Bern, when 
possibly servants might again have an opportunity. I have regret- 
ted ever since I left Kinston that I did not return to New Bern 
for the purpose of conferring with Mr. Cutter which I could have 
done before the return of the stage on Saturday night. But I had 
kept Guion's stage waiting to carry me to Waynesboro on Friday 
evening, and the weather was so exceedingly wet, that I returned 
to the latter place. I wrote to Mr. Cutter from Waynesboro urg- 
ing him to have such steps taken for the recovery of the money 
as he may deem best. The book contained 3 Gold pieces of $5. 
Bechlers coins, of which you have some. These I hope may lead 
to the detection of the thief, there were 2 silver half dollars, and 
I think a 20 cent piece, 3 Bills of $100, 3 of $50, as well as I 
recollect & smaller Bills, all of the Banks of this State amounting 
in the whole to about $650. I have a distinct recollection of a $4. 
Bill reed, at Kinston, also of 2 of $20. on Bank of C. Fear. If I 
were well acquainted along the line I should not despair of re- 
covering it, but at present I have but little hope. I regret the loss 
the more, as the most of it is a portion of your patrimony, all of 
which I had hoped to preserve for you & my little ones. If any 

50 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

prospect of discovery is seen write me immediately. I have written 
to Mr. Bryan & Mr. Cutter, and desired to do so to others but 
dislike to trouble them, and do not know that it would be of 
any advantage. 

*fr HT ^n? Wf tp 

I shall remain here tomorrow and go to Hillsboro' on Tuesday; 
the roads are said never to have been worse. Dr. Scott, dentist, 
came down today from Chapel Hill; the trustees have suppressed 
the disorders there & suppressed the third society which had re- 
cently sprung up. The French teacher there, Mons. Maret, has 
drawn a draft on the Trustees & received monies from Mr. Hooper 
in Charleston, and it is believed, has run off with the whole. The 
example of the Government officers at New York & elsewhere 
seems to be making rogues of the whole country. 

The Supreme Court will sit two weeks yet. If I succeed as well 
in some other cases as I have done in two already decided I hope 
to repair some portion of my recent losses. 

* # # # * 

The Stockholders of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad Co. 
meet here tomorrow to determine whether they will accept the 
terms of assistance offered them by an act of the last Legislature. 
New Bern. 

From Clarke Moulton AveryP A. 

University of N. Ca., Feb. 18th, 1839. 

The Dialectic Society over which I have the honor of presiding 
has instructed me to make you the within communication: 

In accordance with a regulation subsisting between the two 
literary associations at this place, whereby an annual orator is 
chosen alternately by these two bodies, the members of the Dia- 
lectic Society have proceeded to an election and I take great 
pleasure in announcing to you your appointment by a unanimous 
vote, to deliver an oration before the two literary societies of the 
University on Wednesday the day preceding the ensuing Com- 
mencement day. 

18 Clarke Moulton Avery (1819-1864), a native of Burke County, educated at the 
university. He was elected a delegate to the state convention that the people 
rejected in 1861. He rose from captain to colonel in the Confederate army, and 
was killed in the Wilderness. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 51 

Your fellow members express through me, their sincere hope 
that you will accept of the nomination thus tendered and permit 
me to add my individual wish that their proposition may meet 
at your hands a favourable reception. 

For I doubt not but you will do honor not only to yourself, to 
the Society of which we are proud to claim you as a member, but 
also to your native state. 

Under the expectation of being informed of your determination 
at as early a period as convenient, I remain with great respect, 
Your humble & obedient servant. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Hillsboro', Feby. 23rd, 1839 

* jfc jfc jfe jfc 


I also regret that no discovery has yet been made in relation to 
my loss. Could I have any reasonable proof of the guilt of the 
persons suspected I would go down and institute a prosecution. 
It is lamentable to think that the deed would be perpetrated by 
such persons. It has long since been said that "justice though 
slow of foot, seldom fails to overtake the guilty."— I shall there- 
fore "bide my time" and possibly it may yet arrive. 

I have been exceedingly busy ever since my arrival from New 
Bern. Have had the greater part of the Garden turned up with 
the spade, a few seeds planted, fences repaired, Bacon hung up 
and smoking, Lots ploughed, etc. My hands arrived with the 
waggon from Lincoln on last Monday while I was absent at Guil- 
ford Court, and I wish I had the benefit of your counsel in dis- 
posing of them. There are eight children among them, who will 
interfere very much with the hiring of the others, and yet cannot 
be kept about the Lot. I have partially bargained for the Lot 
opposite us, as the family there have become a great nuisance, 
and think I shall place one of the women & children there for the 
present. I have been able to procure no suitable farm. I went last 
Saturday to look at one two miles from town above the race 
course, which would have suited well as to situation & buildings 
but had not a sufficiency of wood to fence it, and was exceedingly 
poor. I have two horses and a waggon which were brought from 
Lincoln; the waggon is one of the best I have ever seen. I wish to 

52 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

sell the whole, but am apprehensive that I cannot get a sufficient 
price for them. Bro. John has sent you some more Flower boxes, 
but as that is not in the culinary department, I shall leave them 
unfilled untill you return. 

I took the stage to Guilford Court, and was gone but three 
days. On my return it was upset in the night about 8 o'clock, by 
running on a high bank near the road. I fortunately received no 
serious injury, though I am somewhat bruised on the side of the 
head, shoulder and hip. The horses did not run, & we lifted it up 
again, and came in, about 12 o'clock at night. 

I went with Mary to attend the concert of Mons. and Madame 
Couderbeck last week; there was quite a large audience, but I 
thought the music was rather refined for our tastes. 

# jj, Jfc JU JU 

TP ^P ^P ^P 

A young gentleman from Granville named Lassiter is now 
reading in my office. 

w *w ^P •«• "IF 

From James Graham. U. 

Washington, April 1st, 1839. 

# * # # # 

The City is full of street news about changes and removals in 
the offices here and in the Departments. It is all Conjecture yet; 
but there is no doubt of many removals in Contemplation, and 
soon as the Elections in Virginia are over the work of Decapita- 
tion will commence. One report is that Forsyth is going to Eng- 
land; Poinsett 20 to be Secretary of State, and Stephenson 21 to 
return and be Secretary of War. And it is said, (which may 
Heaven grant) old Woodbury is going to Russia, He is a Bear 
and Russia is his climate. Kendall, it is said, is going into the 

20 Joel Roberts Poinsett (1779-1851), of South Carolina, diplomat and statesman. 
Educated in Europe, he travelled widely. He was diplomatic agent to South Amer- 
ica, 1810-1814. Returning to South Carolina, he began to practice law. He was a 
member of the South Carolina assembly, 1816-1818, chairman board of public 
works, 1818-1821, member of congress, 1821-1825. He developed an intimate friend- 
ship with Jackson, who sent him on a special mission to Mexico in 1822, and then 
appointed him minister in 1825. He returned in 1830, in time to become a leader 
in the Anti-Nullification party in South Carolina, acting also as Jackson's confiden- 
tial agent. He served as secretary of war, 1837-1841. He opposed the Mexican War, 
and the movement for secession, in 1850-1851. 

21 Andrew Stevenson. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 53 

Treasury Department. This is swaping a fool for a Knave, or 
rather a Bear for a Wolf. 

From Literary Societies of Davidson College. U. 

Davidson College, N. Ca., 
April 6th, 1839. 


The Literary Societies of this Institution, through us their 
committee, request you to address them publickly, at the close of 
the present college session, which will be the last of July next, or 
on the first of August. 

This choice has been made heartily by the members, and under 
the conviction that your compliance will afford much gratification 
to a large surrounding community. 

Anxiously hoping for your consent, we only add the expression 
of our high regard for your personal character. 

Very Respectfully, 

Wm. H. Moore, 22 
R. N. Davis, 23 
O. D. McNeely, 24 
R. E. Sherrill, 25 

Joint Comm. 

22 William H. Moore, of Lancaster County, South Carolina, after graduation, 
attended the Columbia (S. C.) Theological Seminary, became a Presbyterian 
minister, and died while very young. 

23 Robert Newton Davis (1818-1871), of Hopewell, Presbyterian minister, pastor 
at Lincolnton, 1850-1870. 

^Oni Davis McNeely (1811-1881), of Mecklenburg County, later attended the 
Union Theological Seminary at Hampden- Sydney, Virginia, became a Presbyterian 
minister, and moved to Alabama. 

25 Richard Ellis Sherrill (1816-1897), of Lincoln, after graduation taught for four 
years, and then became a Presbyterian minister. The rest of his life was spent in 
Tennessee, Texas, Mississippi, and Kentucky, where he held various pastorates. 

54 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From Eliza Witherspoon Goldthivaite. U. 

Brook Land, April the 15th, 1839. 

You will doubtless be much surprised, My dear Uncle, at the 
contents of this communication. When I wrote you last Dec I 
was upon the eve of a visit to Mobile, intending only to remain 
a few weeks, but upon my arrival I found so many of my old 
friends, & schoolmates, that I was induced to remain the entire 
winter. Whilst there, I renewed an acquaintance of several years 
standing with Judge Goldthwaite, 26 & became so much pleased 
with him as to be induced to give him my hand on the 10th. inst. 
(last Wensday) We were married very privately in the morning, 
& went to my Brother's in Greensboro, & dined with a few 
friends. Although the affair had been on hands all winter, I was 
married very unexpectedly, or I should certainly have written 
you about it before it took place. 

As I am now married it would not be expected for me to give 
you an impartial description of my "liege Lord," he was 37 years 
of age on the tenth, is a short, stout man, something Pa's size with 
light hair & blue eyes, & I have the pleasing satisfaction I believe 
of saying that my friends were all gratified. 

I expect to remain at home until the first of July. We expect 
then to leave for the North, by way of Nashville, Lexington, by 
the Lakes, on as far as Canada, & hope to return through the 
Middle States, & I trust My Dear Uncle I shall be able to spend a 
week with you in Hillsboro. We will most probably settle in Mo- 
bile. We would leave earlier in the season for the North, but the 
Supreme Court meets the first of June & will necessarily detain 
us until July. 

w ^F ^ "Op Wr 

My Father is much engaged at this time planting, he is very 
much interested in the Morves Multicoulis, 27 has also a number 
of Silk Worm, & to hear him expatiate upon it, you would fancy 

26 Henry Barnes Goldthwaite (1802-1847), a native of New Hampshire, who 
moved to Alabama, by way of Richmond. A lawyer of distinction, he was also, 
for a time, editor in Montgomery, and a member of the legislature. He moved to 
Mobile in 1831, was on the supreme court from 1836-1843, when he resigned to 
make an unsuccessful race as a Democrat for congress. He returned to the supreme 
court for the short period before his death. He was the brother-in-law of Justice 
John A. Campbell. 

27 Moms multicolorus, a variety of mulberry, presumably suitable for feeding 

The Papers of William A. Graham 55 

you could almost see the Money growing. I have been at home but 
a short time, & know very little about the news of the up Coun- 
try. I spent a gay & pleasant winter, the City was unusually gay a 
series of Balls & parties, & an unusual number of Stars at the 
Theatre, & I believe I participated in most of the amusements. I 
heard of you occasionally through the medium of the News Pa- 
pers. I flattered myself a part of the winter, that I should have 
the pleasure of spending a part of the next Summer with you, but 
so it is, you see young Ladies are uncertain characters, & instead 
of the giddy girl, I suppose / shall have to be the stayed Matron 
in future. 

From Weston R. Gales. A. 

Raleigh, April 16, 1839. 

At a meeting of the Whig Central Committee last night I was 
directed, as Secretary, to drop you a line enquiring when we may 
expect the Address to the People of the State, which you were 
selected to prepare, and in anticipation of which provision was 
made for a large edition. Be good enough to write me immedi- 
ately on this subject. Enquiries from all quarters of the State have 
been addressed to us, on the subject, and the necessity of speedy 
action insisted on. We should have it in our power to publish it 
immediately on its reception. 

I had the pleasure of receiving your recent letter on the subject 
of our Congressional Candidate, and though I regret exceedingly 
your determination, I cannot object to your reasons. Similar 
considerations, but more imperative, in their nature, will inter- 
pose a barrier to my becoming a Candidate. We have taken steps, 
however, to have a District Convention and will endeavour to 
have some one in the field. 

From James W. Bryan. U. 


May 13, 1839. 

The man who was suspected of having your money, etc., has 
had quite an affair in town today & made an attack upon Mr. 

56 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Washington and myself about it. He armed himself with his 
pistols and dirk and announced that he intended to "do execu- 
tion" as soon as he could meet with us. We met opposite the 
Church Corner in the Street and had a "bout" on the spot. He 
believed that I was the instigator of the matter & that I had made 
the attempt to have him indicted, etc., he says he intends "to 
write you on the spot" and demand your author, etc., and I have 
thought it prudent to advise you of the same; he demanded the 
name of the persons who gave the information from Mr. Wash- 
ington, but he, deeming it imprudent to divulge them as the in- 
vestigation is still going on, refused to gratify him. So you see we 
are likely to have something of a war about your money at last. 

The Bishop 28 has been with us, preaching to admiring and de- 
lighted audiences. On Sunday night he preached to the negroes, 
who crowded the Church to suffocation & if he never saw "nod- 
ding" in perfection before he must have been gratified that night 
to his heart's content; his most appropriate and admirable dis- 
course was lost upon one half of his sable congregation. 

Newbern is most wofully dull and I often wish that I could en- 
joy the luxury of inhaling the pure and invigorating air of your 
mountain country. 

I received a letter the other day from the Philanthropic Society, 
requesting me to deliver the address before the Alumni and grad- 
uates at the ensuing Commencement, and T should have consented 
to do so but for a prior engagement in N. York about that time, 
and I could then have done mvself the pleasure of visiting Hills- 
boro' once more "but as it is" I do not know when I shall see 
you all "at home." 

The contest waxes warm between Mr. Shepard 29 and Col. 
Biddle 30 and the better opinion seems to be that Col. B. will beat 
him; it is however in my opinion impossible to arrive at any 
correct conclusion in the matter, although I believe Col. B's. 
prospects are improving every day. 

28 Bishop Tves. 

28 Charles Shepard, the incumbent, who was successful in retaining the seat. 

80 Samuel Simpson Biddle (1811-1873), a graduate of the university, and a 
prominent business man of New Bern. He was a member of the state senate at 
this time. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 57 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Hillsboro', May 16th, 1839. 

My Dear Wife 

I reached home from Caswell on Saturday afternoon after your 
departure. Sister Eliza and the children were all well, but the 
House was quite solitary to me in the absence of my Susan. I re- 
mained with them untill the afternoon of Sunday, and then went 
on horseback to Person whence I have returned today. 

#al Jfc 4b Jt. 

*7P W TP W 

Mr. B. also mentions that the Grand Jury of Craven had had 
quite a laborious and searching investigation relative to the thief 
who stole my money; they made no presentment, but strongly 
suspected the individual who is generally believed to have it. He 
hopes that a little more time may make further disclosures on 
the subject. 

Joseph and John have both had severe colds this week and I 
learn were quite sick on yesterday. I am happy to say that they 
are both better today. Jo is running about the office (where I 
write) quite cheerfully, amusing himself at the people passing 
who have been to see a show of wild beasts in town today. Col. 
Jones' carriage has just gone by. He says "It ain't Abe & Tom, 
Derry." He still clings to his Aunt and does not appear to miss 
you much, but looks sad when asked, "where has Mother gone?" 
I will have his carriage put up for him tomorrow. John has been 
sleeping soundly ever since I came home, which I hope will re- 
lieve him entirely from his cold. 

We have had plentiful rains, and our Garden vegetables appear 
to be growing luxuriantly, but running to vine too much. 

JZ. Jfc, J*. M. 4£. 


. . . Nothing has been determined as yet, by the Whigs of this 
district, relative to the canvass for Congress. I still fear that I shall 
be embarassed by a nomination, but must persist in my determina- 

Mr. Bryan writes me that it will be a warm & close contest 
between Shepard and Biddle, and that the better opinion is that 
the latter will succeed. 

58 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

The New Bern Spectator says that the Report of the duel 31 of 
Jo. Jones is all a Hoax. 

Mr. Pollock 32 has left no will as is now generally believed, and 
his property will therefore be divided equally between Mrs. 
Devereux and the Burgwyn family. Mr. Burgwyn has already re- 
moved into the "Stanly House," and left Henry in possession of 
his. I shall go next week to Guilford County Court & close the 
week after with the Court here. The Convention of the Episcopal 
Church will sit next week in Raleigh. I believe Mr. M. is quite 
disappointed in not having to go to New Bern. 


New York. 

Newspaper Account of 
Speech declining Congressional Nomination.** 

May 31, 1839. 

Mr. Graham then addressed the Convention, and said, he had 
had the honor to be informed by the committee of his nomina- 
tion; and the position he now occupied was one of greater em- 
barrassment than had fallen to his lot since he had been in any 
way connected with public affairs. To be deemed worthy of the 
station by so respectable an assembly, was a distinction which he 
highly valued, and for which he expressed his profoundest grat- 
itude. He was aware that many of his friends had been pleased to 
speak of him, among those from whom a candidate would be 
selected by the Whigs of the district. He had, therefore, reflected 
on the subject, with every disposition to comply. He trusted that 
he had not been backward in making personal sacrifices when it 
was believed that his services might be useful to his countrymen; 
and nothing now should prevent his acquiescence in the wishes 

81 There was, in 1834, considerable publicity with respect to a duel supposedly 
fought by Jones in Rhode Island. The governor took notice of it, in a public 
proclamation, offering a reward of five hundred dollars for his arrest. Jones then 
issued an absurd counter-proclamation, ridiculing Governor Francis, and offering 
a reward of a barrel, and forty pounds of feathers, for a delivery of the Governor 
to him at Cape Lookout. See Marshall DeLancey Haywood, in Biographical History 
of North Carolina, VI, pp. 333-334. 

82 Thomas Pollock, of Craven, a very wealthy member of a family long prominent 
in North Carolina. The bulk of his estate was inherited by Thomas P. and Henry 
K. Burgwyn, and Thomas P. Devereux. 

33 From the Hillsborough Recorder, June 6th, 1839. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 59 

of the Convention, but what was, to him, a moral necessity. Cir- 
cumstances of a merely private and domestic character had im- 
posed on him duties which it would be criminal to neglect, and 
which absolutely forbade his acceptance of the nomination. These 
he had stated to the committee, somewhat in detail, and had the 
satisfaction to believe that they would be deemed sufficient by 
them, for the course he had adopted. But, sir, said Mr. G., this 
affords no cause for dispair or discouragement,— "Sparta has many 
a worthier son than he," who stands before you. The great prin- 
ciples which he, in common with this convention, advocated, de- 
pended not for their success upon any individual candidate. He 
hoped that no one would do him the injustice to suppose that he 
was actuated in his determination by any apprehension of an 
unfavorable result in the election. Knowing that it would be out 
of his power to accept, even if the seat in Congress were tendered 
to him, he had made no inquiries as to the probability of his 
success. But humble as were his claims, he would have no hesita- 
tion in placing them before the people of the district, in accord- 
ance with the desire of the Convention, but for the causes to 
which he had before alluded. Again thanking his fellow-citizens 
here present, as well as those whom they represented, for this 
manifestation of their continued confidence, he begged leave, 
most respectfully, to decline their nomination. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Saturday Evening, 

June 1st, 1839. 
My Dearest Susan 

It is Saturday evening, the Court here has ended, & with it my 
Circuit for this Spring. I have come home, played with my Boys, 
and dined, and you only are wanting to make me entirely satis- 
fied. I always experience a feeling of vacancy at the close of a 
Court, especially at the end of a long circuit unless I can retreat 
to the bosom of my family. 

*dfc jjl «&£. 4£> 

•w *7f tp "JiF 

The Convention to nominate a Candidate for Congress in this 
district met here on yesterday, and I have never in my life been 

60 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

more embarrassed than by their solicitations. They had urged the 
nomination upon me individually before they met, and I thought 
assented to my refusal. But on my return to the Court House 
yesterday afternoon I met a numerous committee on their way 
to my house to announce that I had been selected by the unani- 
mous voice of the Convention & that they would take no refusal. 
I retired with them to Mr. Waddell's office, and there for an hour 
it was pressed with renewed zeal. Nothing but the most deliberate 
determination, which I had formed beforehand, and the promise 
I had made to you, prevented me from yielding. I am not entirely 
satisfied that my course is the proper one— I fear it has given 
offence, as I have no doubt it has disappointment and mortifica- 
tion, to many pure patriots & as disinterested friends as man ever 
had. And more may depend on it, than might at first be imagined. 
I thought however of my home and family, the orphans commit- 
ted to my care and my numerous engagements arising out of 
these relations. At the request of the Committee I appeared before 
the Convention and made my apology in person. Mr. G. W. Hay- 
wood was then nominated, and a Committee appointed to write 
him. It is not yet known whether he will accept. The Whigs will 
generally vote for him here, and with an extensive personal 
popularity in Wake, he may, I hope, succeed. 

Bro. James writes me that he has no opposition. Bro. John will 
be here with Malvina & Julia Scott in a few weeks. He went with 
them to the celebration of the 20th. of May at Charlotte, where 
the girls attended a ball. Dr. Webb has his house now full. His 
son and son in Law & their families having arrived from Alabama. 

The Episcopal convention abandoned all hope of continuing 
their school at Raleigh, and resolved to sell out the lands about 
the buildings, and propose to the Diocese of S. C. to join them 
in establishing a Theological Seminary there. 

■M. «M» «tt» «M- Jf. 


[P.S.] Mr. Pollock is said to have died much indebted— so much 
so that many of his negroes will be required to be sold, of whom 
there is only about 1200 in all. 
New York. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 61 

From Jesse Turner?* U. 

Van Buren, Ark., 

June 8th, 1839. 

It is a long time since I saw you, though I have a distinct and 
vivid recollection of you. Occasionally through the medium of 
the Newspapers I see accounts of your course as a public man. 
I am gratified to find you doing battle so manfully in the Whig 
ranks, and fervently hope should you again be a Candidate for 
Congress that you may obtain the object of your wishes, a seat 
in the next Congress. When I left North Carolina I little thought 
ever to hear of the election of Dr. Wm. Montgomery to Congress 
but alas! Sir the times are sadly out of joint, the dark and turbid 
waters of Jacksonism alias loco focoism have swept over the land 
like a tornado, and oh! my Country how much of merit, of worth, 
of talent and of high souled patriotism have been lost in that 
bitter flood, while the putrid fungi of democracy have been borne 
upon the surface of that broad stream to station, wealth, and 

My father and many other relatives reside in Orange, and there 
my own eyes first opened on the light, and I have all that Nation- 
ality about me so characteristic of N. Carolinians, and having 
been wedded to the Whig cause since boyhood, you can probably 
form some conception of the ardour of my desire for the success 
of the Whigs in N. C. What position my relations occupy in re- 
gard to parties I know not, my father is far advanced in life and 
I presume takes little interest in politics but he should be a Whig 
as he had the honor to be a Whig and a soldier of the Revolution. 
I hope they are with you in your elections. If not, apprize them 
of my views and wishes on the subject;— perhaps it may have some 
little influence with them. 

I had the honor to be a member of the last Genl. Assembly of 
Arkansas and flatter myself that I made altogether a favorable 
impression. But the Potent democracy are in the ascendency here, 
though we are giving them war to the knife, and the knife to 
the hilt. 

34 Jesse Turner (1805-1894), of Van Buren, Arkansas, a native of Orange County, 
who studied law at the university and later under Archibald D. Murphey. He moved 
to Alabama in 1830 and to Arkansas in 1831, where he was a Whig state legislator, 
able judge, Federal district attorney, and a delegate to the secession convention 
and the convention of 1874. 

62 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

I should be pleased to hear from you on matters and things 
in general. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Hillsboro', June 8th, 1839. 
My Dear Susan 

This is the anniversary of our wedding day, and I undertake 
the task of writing you with even more pleasure than usual. Were 
I a poet, I would forthwith indite for you an epithalamium. As 
I am not, I must content myself in simple prose with assuring 
you, from my inmost heart, that my affection yet "goes hand in 
hand even with the vows I made to you in marriage." Our three 
years dwindle in my imagination to a few months, and the whole 
scene is present to my memory as if it were but yesterday. The 
gathering of friends, the illumined hall, the group of attendants, 
the maiden blush of my bride, the junction of hands, the plight- 
ing of vows, & sealing kiss, are all before me in vivid remem- 
berance. Would that you could be with us today, that we might 
talk over each trivial event of the occasion, & imprint them more 
deeply in our memories. May we be apared to witness many 
happy returns of this day & never be separated on the recurrence 
of another. 

Let me not however consume my letter in expatiating on the 
recollections inspired by the return of the 8th. of June. 

Sister Eliza and the children are well. . . . Sister has had them 
out several evenings to ride with her. She took Jo a few days ago 
out shopping with Mary & herself. I found them at Mr. Kirk- 
land's store, & walked with them to Mrs. Vassines; he was quite 
delighted with the boys & good things there, some of which we 
bought for him, and soon began to feel quite at home. Begining 
however to daub his dress with Icecream, his Aunt took the Glass 
out of his hand; this threw him into a furious rage, and he set up 
a savage squall, which he kept up through the street untill he 
reached home, showing more indomitable passion than I had 
ever before seen in him. His Aunt had then I believe to give him 
a switch, he all the while threatened to tell Pape. His health is 
very fine, and he has improved in talking, but will still not do it 
except when he is in the humour. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 63 

I have sold one of the horses, but have not been able to dis- 
pose of the extra negroes. 

Mr. G. W. Haywood 35 accepts the nomination for Congress. 

Mr. Allen, the cher ami of Miss Cain, was here last week, and 
by some sudden whim of the lady was discarded. He went off 
apparently much mortified. Albert Anderson was married this 
week in Perquimans to a sister of his former wife, and is expected 
in a few days at Mrs. Palmer's. 

You have probably heard from New Bern of the engagement 
of Miss Julia Burgwyn to Mr. McRae. 

• # # # # 

Since I commenced writing my Cask of Madeira which I im- 
ported has arrived. If you were here I would broach it that we 
might take a bumper to the day we celebrate. 

I shall go to the Supreme Court the latter part of next week, 
& remain perhaps a fortnight. . . . 

We have an abundance of cherries and fair prospects for every 
kind of crop & vegetable. A waggon has brought your Saddle, 
clock, & Tea Caddy from New Bern. 

Jfc Jfc Jt Jfe J*. 

•ap *Jr W TP TP 

[P.S.] A young gentleman by the name of Myers from Anson 
arrived today, and is to read in my office. 

Mr. C. Shepard was at the Convention in Raleigh & I hear 
from good authority is engaged to Miss Watson. It is near night. 
I must bid you, 

New York. 

Election to Literary Society. U. 

Randolph Macon College, 25th. August, 1839. 


It affords us insurpassable pleasure to inform you of your 
election to Honorary Membership in the Franklin L. Society of 
Randolph M. College : And much more would our pleasure be 
increased, could your reply to this but bring us the gratifying 
intelligence of your acceptance. 

35 George Washington Haywood (1802-1890), a son of "Treasurer" John Haywood. 
He was a lawyer of Raleigh. 

64 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

And we, the appointed, feel ourselves highly honored in being 
the humble organ by means of which you are made acquainted 
with your election. 

Jno. S. Wright 
J. L. Smith 
Jas. L. Mullen 




To James W. Bryan. 

U. Bryan Mss. 

Hillsboro, Aug. 31st, 1839. 

Your letter came to hand as I was setting out for my first Court 
since my return, and our Court here occurring this week has 
delayed a reply untill now. 

jfc. jfc jfc jfc jfc 

•Tr *7T "7V* *7T TV" 

Mrs. Washington left us a week ago for Raleigh, whence she 
was to go to New York with Mr. R. Washington. . . . She left 
Charity here, and we supposed though she was hardly willing to 
admit it, that her only object in coming, was to get her again into 
Carolina. Many attempts were no doubt made to decoy her off, 
and she would perhaps eventually have yielded. 

* jfc 4fe *5£* -4£- 


I arrived in the County just in time to vote, but it was of no 
avail. I think however, all things considered that this district & 
especially this County has shown no decline of Whig strength. We 
shall keep our forces rallied, and have no idea of a surrender. 

You will see by the papers that the Guilford people have ap- 
pointed delegates to the Raleigh Convention on the 2nd Monday 
of Novr. to nominate Candidates for the Prest., Vice Prest., & 
Gov. of the State, & proposing J. M. Morehead for the last. I 
hope your counties below will send delegates to that Convention 
& that some of you who are capable regulating affairs will come 
up. There will probably be a diversity of opinion as to the Vice 
Presidency, and perhaps as to sending delegates to Harrisburg. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 65 

What think you of Seward 36 of N. Y. for V. P? Would he do as 
well as Talmadge, and be exempt from the sin of expunging? 
Morehead will come out as strong as aqua fortis against Abolition 
and can get 2000 votes in Guilford to begin the race. I hope my 
friend Col. C. Jones will not allow the V. B. party to run him. 
A gentleman from Raleigh says that Brown and Haywood are 
more spoken of, than any body else on that side. 

Our Court this week has appointed Commissions on the sub- 
ject of schools under the act of Assembly. 

The Bishop is preaching here, on his way from Buncombe. 
Judge Bailey 37 is to begin our Circuit next week at Granville. 
He has been here some time, looks badly & says he will stay here 
this winter and may come to reside among us. We have more 
lowlanders here this season, than have been for some time past. 
J. B. Skinner 38 and family are among them. He has told us of 
many marvellous matters, such as dining with a friend in Phila. 
on a feast which had been prepared every article in Paris, and 
imported in Glass hermetically sealed, etc. 

I shall go to Granville next week by request and will probably 
take it into my Circuit. 

We have the most abundant crops of every thing, but money, 
and are feasting on the finest fruits imaginable. 

Our Love to all. 

From James W. Bryan. U. 

Newbern, Sept. 26, 1839. 

The late Storm which was a very severe one Came near "mak- 
ing a finish" of your Warehouse. The river runs up a north 

36 William Henry Seward (1801-1872), of New York, graduate of Union College, 
who had served in the state senate, 1830-1834, had been defeated for governor in 
1834, and was now governor. He was elected as a Whig to the United States senate 
in 1849, and served until 1861, becoming a Republican in 1852, and after being 
defeated for the Presidential nomination in 1860, served as secretary of state under 
Presidents Lincoln and Johnson. 

87 John Lancaster Bailey (1795-1877), a native of Pasquotank County, educated 
at the university, lawyer, member of the commons, 1827-1829, state senator, 1832- 
delegate to the convention of 1835, a judge of the superior court, 1837-1863. 

^Joseph Blount Skinner (1780-1851), of Edenton, a brilliant lawyer, effective 
legislator, successful planter, and pioneer in the fishing industry on Albemarle 
Sound. After a short stay at Princeton, he read law under Samuel Johnston and 
after twenty years of practice, retired. He represented the borough of Edenton in 
the commons in 1807, and 1814-1815. He represented the County in the state 
senate in 1833, and in the convention of 1835. 

66 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

course from it about a Mile or more & it is in one of the most 
bleak and exposed situations in the town. The wind and the 
rain & waves came down upon it with fury & violence with noth- 
ing to obstruct them for a mile or more & away went a part of 
the Wharf & the underpinning of the House; the windows were 
' 'Stove in" and I expected that it would be a mass of ruins. I 
have had it raised to a proper level and underpinned all round 
with blocks at a cost of $25.91 which I have charged to you in the 
administration a/c preserving the bills & recpts for you. But this 
is but a beginning of the repairs. I have had the wharf examined 
and an estimate made of the necessary expenses to be incurred in 
preserving it and they fall but little short of $100. I have been 
unwilling to incur the responsibility of having the repairs made 
without consulting you. Wharfing is the most expensive of all 
kinds of labour; it is laborious, the materials are costly and diffi- 
cult to be procured. The repair, however, of the wharf is essential 
to preserve the House. The high tides now will wash the Wharf 
away as the storm has cut it up very much. It will however afford 
me pleasure to do in the premises whatever you may deem best, 
etc. I should however be glad to hear from you about it, as I can 
now obtain a workman (no easy matter here) & I have promised 
to let him hear from me, as soon as I could learn your wishes on 
the subject. 

We are very much like the English gentlemen who met each 
other at the Cheltenham Springs on their return from India after 
amassing great fortunes, looking at the gold or copper in each 
other's skins, With this difference that they lost their ruddy hue 
in amassing wealth & gold, & we ours in sucking miasma & getting 
poorer both in body and purse, but never mind as soon as the 
white frost comes we will get fat like the Rabbits & forget it all! 

The news from the N. Y. money market seems to Create Some- 
thing of a panic here & our Banks will be compelled it is feared 
to Curtail their discounts & consequently to produce both a pres- 
sure in the small way & disable our Merchants from buying at 
fair prices the coming in Crops. Our Notes are at 5 pr. Cent 
discount and from the large quantity of N. C. money Carried on 
this season by N. C. Merchants in Consequence of the Banks not 
being able to furnish them with Northern funds, I should not be 
surprised if they got to 10 pr. ct. discount— a fine shave of them 
will be made in N. Y. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 67 

We are not doing much in the way of politics. Our friends 
insist on my going to Harrisburg, but I really do not see how I 
can do it. I am so much engaged and have so much of one thing 
or another to attend to that a trip there in cold weather, would 
seem to be the ultima thule of all my jaunts, and besides I need 
rest and quietude above all things and do not care to have any 
thing more to do with public life, although I shall "go my death" 
for Clay. We shall hold a District Meeting & also send Delegates 
to Raleigh. 

We are dragging on slowly with our Courts and have thus far 
had a poor harvest of it. Settle says that he has seen us on this 
Circuit for the last time & that he intends to resign etc. Donnell 
talks of coming to the Bar again & I reckon would like to take 
his old post, but I suppose Candidates for Judicial appointments 
will hereafter be as thick as blackberries. 

*jfe jfe jfe jfc 

W W *7P T? 

To David L. Siuain. A. Swain Mss. 

October 20th, 1839. 

I have just rec'd your note, & send by the Stage my N. C. 
Journal, and file of Minerva for 1815, 16, & 17. I purchased them 
from Dr. Murphey, with a portion of his Father's Library. You 
will therefore be kind enough to take especial care of them, & 
have them returned to me as soon as you are satisfied with their 

Can you afford me any aid in reclaiming my Father's manu- 
scripts which were lent to J. S. Jones? If I knew where he made 
deposit of his effects (if there be any such place) I would cause 
search to be made there. 

My family is now well, though we have lost two little negroes 
within the last week. We hear from New Bern that Mr. James 
Bryan has lost his eldest son. 

68 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From James Graham. U. 

Wilmington, N. C. 

Nov. 30th, 1839. 

I am now on the Steamer Vanderbilt within sight of Wilming- 
ton on my way to Washington. I was up set on the Cumberland 
Mountain in Tennessee and had my Right Arm injured. I found 
I could not go up the Ohio River, and my injured arm prevented 
me from travelling by Stage, so I floated down the Missippi River 
to N. Orleans; by Mobile, Pensacola, Augusta, and Charleston to 
this place. 

I am in company with two Senators, Fulton 39 of Arkansas and 
Walker of Missippi, and a very fine fellow, Judge Cross, 40 a new 
member from Arkansaw. My Arm is nearly well. We expect to 
reach Washington on next Monday morning, after which I will 
again write you. 

From James Graham. U. 

Washington, Deem. 5th, 1839. 

I reached this City on last Monday morning about day light. 
The Members met on Monday about 12 oclock in the Capitol. 
The Clerk began to call the Members elected and proceeded 
until he came to N. Jersey When after calling one Member 
elected, he stated there was a contest about the remaining Seats 
and he refered that question to the House to decide. The debate 
has now on that question been progressing in a most desultory 
manner, and no one can tell when it will terminate. The debate 
thus far has been decorous and free from much excitement, but 
I think it will wax warmer before the close. 

Brother Joseph you know left Five children : George, Lydia 
Ann, Albert, Mary Sophia, and Joseph. I have never seen Five 
more promising children. I made diligent inquiry to find some 

^William Savin Fulton (1795-1844), a native of Maryland, soldier of the War of 
1812, moved to Tennessee, and was military aide to Jackson in Florida in 1818. He 
moved to Alabama in 1826, was appointed secretary of Arkansas Territory in 1835, 
and elected United States senator in 1836, serving until his death. 

40 Edward Cross (1798-1887), a native of Tennessee, went to Arkansas Territory in 
1826, and was Federal judge. He was a Democratic member of congress, 1839-1845; 
a judge of the state supreme court, 1845-1855; a railroad president, 1855-1862, and 
state attorney general, 1874. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 69 

suitable person to become their Guardian, and came to the con- 
clusion that Buckly Kimbrough was clearly the best appointment 
that could be made in that quarter. He is a plain man of good 
moral character and fair business habits. He is said to be out of 
Debt and is no speculator. He consented reluctantly to become 
their Guardian. 

There are 32 negroes belonging to the Estate all named in the 
Inventory returned by the Administrator About 2/3 of the 
negroes are working the farm and this year will make about 56 
Bales of Cotton. The remaining 1/3 are Hired out. They have 
had a worthless overseer who is now discharged. I have advised 
Sister Sarah if she can find a competent Lady to teach, to employ 
and introduce her into her house to teach her children and also 
be some company for her. Sister Sarah's health is pretty good and 
she is doing quite as well as could be expected in her situation. 
But still her task and trials are extremely difficult & embarrassing. 

4fc Jh jfc jfc jfc 

w *«• "n* w *3v i 

From Henry W. Miller* 1 U. 

Philadelphia, Deer. 10th, 1839. 

I am here on my way home from the National Convention. I 
doubt not but you have heard before this that Genl Harrison was 
nominated for the Presidency & John Tyler for the Vice Presi- 
dency, by the Convention. I know that our friends in North 
Carolina will feel much disappointment at not getting the man 
of their choice. But could they have been present during the de- 
liberations of the Convention, they would have been satisfied, 
that, though Mr. Clay enlisted the partialities of a large majority 
of the members who were present, he could not under any cir- 
cumstances command a majority of the electoral votes of the 
States represented. The New York Delegates alleged it was im- 
possible to carry that State for him and they could not be pre- 
vailed on to cast their votes for him. The Delegates from North 
Carolina were the last to yield. Kentucky, Maryland and Virginia 
gave up Mr. Clay as hopeless and pledged their zealous support 

41 Henry Watkins Miller (1816-1864), a native of Virginia, who settled in Raleigh 
after graduation from the university. He became a distinguished lawyer, was an 
enthusiastic and influential Whig leader, and had a widespread reputation as an 
eloquent public speaker. 

70 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

to the nomination before our Delegation could be induced to 
surrender their preferences. It was then our duty to offer in behalf 
of our Whig friends at home a zealous cooperation. You shall 
have a copy of the proceedings as soon as they are printed and I 
have but little doubt that Mr. Clay's letter to the Convention 
thro' the Kentucky Delegates will be satisfactory to all his friends. 
It is confidently believed that Genl. H. will carry New York, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana. Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jer- 
sey, Kentucky, Vermont, Deleware, Rho: Island, & Michigan and 
Connecticut, Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina put down 
as doubtful but the first considered by their Delegates as strong 
for Harrison as Clay. The nomination was received with great 
enthusiasm by the Convention. Mr. Tyler was nominated unani- 
mously on the first ballot. 

I fear that the disappointment of our friends in N. C. will 
induce them to denounce the nomination before they give it 
proper reflection, but I hope they will pause. I know when they 
hear all that can be said in justification of the course taken by the 
Convention they will be content. They should remember that 
the object of the Whig party is to break down the corrupt powers 
that rule. I have been mistaken in the character of Genl H. He is 
with us on all the great questions of the day— Against abolition, 
Voted against the Missouri restriction, is for Mr. Clay's land bill, 
and opposes the Sub Treasury. Messrs Tyler, Leigh and in fact 
the whole Southern Delegation declared that the Whigs of the 
South would be perfectly satisfied with his political principles. 
It is hoped that the true friends of the Whig cause will exert 
themselves to the utmost to counteract, or forestal, any precipitate 
opposition to the Nomination. It was the best could be done— all 
that could be done, except to break up the party, & give the 
Spoilers unmolested possession of the Country. The Delegation 
join in the request that no exertion may be spared. 

My respects to all friends. 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Hillsboro, Deer. 14th, 1839. 

. . . I have now vacation for a few weeks, after having been absent 
nearly all the fall. My receipts for the year have been good, but 

The Papers of William A. Graham 71 

there is a dull prospect for the next. I have been desirous to get 
a plantation in this vicinity on which to settle my hands or a part 
of them next year, but have not done so as yet, and the weather 
has been so unfavourable as not to allow one to go out to examine 
those offered. 

Judge Bailey passed around our riding very pleasantly. We 
learn from very authentic sources that Judge Saunders is to be 
the V. B. Candidate for Governor. If so, I presume, that delicacy 
would compel him to vacate the bench. Morehead is diligently 
preparing ammunition and expects an actual Campaign through 
the State, though in this he will probably be governed by the 
course taken on the other side. Congress, I fear, will go near a 
dissolution of the Government at this session— if such it may be 
called; there seems no prospect of organizing the House at present. 

I last night reed, a letter from Miller on his return from Har- 
risburg announcing Harrison and Tyler. We would, of course, 
have all much preferred Clay, but I hope will unite cordially in 
support of Harrison. His letter is written at the request of the 
N. C. delegation and urges that the nomination be at once adopt- 
ed. Our friends here will be satisfied, & make a strong effort for 
him. My brother has always told me that Harrison was much 
stronger in the mountain district than Clay. And I am far from 
believing the chances in the State desperate. The calculation at 
Harrisburg elects him without any vote South of Potomac. Mr. 
Leigh declares that he, H., has no principle adverse to the South. 
He is in favour of Clay's land policy against abolition and the 
Subtreasury. I hope you will see our friend Moore and get him 
to take him up with zeal. Wadsworth of Craven was against him 
last Session; I presume he will not prefer V. B. to him, and that 
is now the question. 

I reed, with deep sensations of sorrow the intelligence of the 
loss of your son, 42 and would have early offered the assurance of 
my sympathy, but that I knew you possessed sources of consola- 
tion far more assuaging to grief than any that I could afford. 

My family is well & all join in tendering their best wishes. 

John Washington Bryan, who died at the age of five years. 

72 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From James Graham. U. 

Washington, Dec. 22d, 1839. 

I have been very much confused since Congress met as no one 
could tell one moment what course of proceeding might be adopt- 
ed the next. We succeeded you perceive in preventing the Van 
Buren men from electing their Speaker. But they have gained 
their Clerk by the unholly Allience of Nullification and Loco- 

Genl Harrisons nomination was not unexpected to me, or 
rather I did not believe Mr Clay would be nominated. The gen- 
eral prejudice which was lodged in the public mind against that 
distinguished Statesman induced the convention to surrender his 
name. I mentioned this same idea to you in a letter last winter 
while you were in the Legislature, and objected the Whigs nom- 
inating Mr Clay in advance of the decission of the general Con- 
vention, because it presented a false issue to the people and 
roused old political prejudices which would operate against the 
Whigs. Harrisons friends are very sanguine. I am not intimately 
or sufficiently acquainted with his public life to know what im- 
pression he will make before the people. My intention is to sup- 
port any respectable man against whom no serious charge can be 
sustained in opposition to Mr Van Buren. Abolition is charged 
upon Harrison, His friends say the charge is false and I have seen 
nothing yet to satisfy me it is true. His whole History will be re- 
viewed and presented to the people, and we shall soon learn all 
his views opinions and policy. I believe the people will take him 
up much sooner than the politicians. He was a soldier in his boy- 
hood and A Major General in his Manhood and never sustained 
a defeat from the enemy. He was appointed Gov of the N W 
Territory by Mr Jefferson. He was Representative k Senator in 
Congress from Ohio. He has for the last nine years been in retire- 
ment on his Farm on the Ohio River, where I am informed by 
one of his Nbrs., he labours with his own hands a portion of every 
day. This gives him a robust constitution and a green old age. He 
is poor, but comfortable in his circumstances, and that is clear & 
conclusive evidence of his Honesty. His Ambition has been to 
serve the people, not to steal their money. When He served the 
Country, "the spoils did not belong to the victors." The public 
Treasury did not belong to the Sub Treasury office holders. I am 

The Papers of William A. Graham 73 

trying every opportunity to learn truly Harrisons whole character 
and opinions and to act and declare for him if his conduct is 
free from objection. I am glad to find the Whigs are all united 
against Van but some will not go for Harrison. 

If it be ascertained N Carolina will not go for Harrison we had 
better let the Presidential go against us by Default, and stand by 
and mentain our Principles. I think the S. Carolina Whigs and 
Georgia will pursue that course. 

Still if Harrisons principles when Developed will justify it, 
they may go for him. In N. Carolina the great Contest and deci- 
sive battle will be fought next August for the State Legislature. 
And the Candidates should arm themselves from this time to 
that, by laying by Extracts from N. papers and Documents to use 
when needed. 

I wish I was better pleased with Harrison than I am, but I am 
apprehensive those who are not well pleased with his nomination, 
will have to reverse and change the Question, and ask themselves 
which is the Worst? and make up their opinions and decissions 
on that Question. 

I was very much pleased with my visit to New Orleans. It is 
very far superior to any thing I anticipated. It is a great and de- 
lightful City. I spent two days there. 

Genl. Henderson of Texas passed here a few days on his return 
from France. He is a polished gentleman and recently married to 
a Lady of Philadelphia. 


To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Raleigh Jany. 8th. 1840. 

My Dear Wife 

I arrived here safely at 1 o'clock on yesterday, though I trav- 
elled in considerable apprehension as the drivers had no lamps 
& received no light except what was afforded by the snow. Just 
after daylight, about half a mile from Morings the stage broke 
down & I was obliged to get out, & walk about i/ 4 of a mile. The 
latter however was done while they were fixing up the stage, 
which soon overtook me. The stages on that line are old and 
crazy and it is not surprizing with their customary bad manage- 
ment that accidents should often occur. 

74 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

I am staying at Rogers', as yet in a great crowd as the V. Buren 
Convention is in Session here & pretty fully attended. It will prob- 
ably dissolve tomorrow when I hope to be more comfortably sit- 
uated. Judge Saunders, it is ascertained, will be their nominee 
for Gov, Messrs. Haywood 1 & Henry 2 declining. The former is 
at New Bern, but expected here daily. 

*At* 4U 4fr Jg- 

"«• *fr W TT 

Mr. Bennehan, 3 who is here tells me that Judge Cameron's 
family have gone to St. Augustine, & will not return untill May. 
Miss Ann is no better, but all the rest improved. 

•& •&> - •& •& •& 

■7V- W W W W 

I hope to finish my business here in the course of next week, 
but am not sure that I can do so. Raleigh is improving. Mr. Free- 
man is constructing a handsome house near Judge Camerons. A 
very large Engine house of brick is being built at the depot below 
the Hotel. 

From James Graham. U. 

H. of R., 

Jany 31st, 1840. 

I have reed your two letters from Raleigh. I am pleased to 
hear you have a third son. 4 Surely you have luck for Boys. 

I have induced Rayner to write to Anderson on the nomination 
of a Judge You see from the Papers Congress will do very little 
this Session. The disorder and loquacity increases. We have stoped 
Abolition for this Session by refusing to receive their Petitions. 
This unfortunate subject has generally been used here by Dema- 
gogues to try and make political Capital to trade and trafick upon 
at home. I am happy to see the Raleigh Register is edited with 
more spirit than formerly— The paragraphs are short and pithy. 
That takes and sticks with the people, 

1 William H. Haywood. 

2 Louis D. Henry. 

3 Thomas Davis Bennehan (1781-1847), graduate of the university, planter, and 
merchant of Orange County. He was the brother-in-law of Judge Duncan Cameron, 
and was a highly respected and influential citizen. 

* William Alexander Graham, Jr. (1839-1923), later a student at the university, 
graduate of Princeton, Confederate major, farmer in Lincoln County, state senator, 
1874-1876, 1879-1881, commissioner of agriculture, 1908-1923. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 75 

Harrison is rising and gaining ground in all quarters every 
day. The more he is slandered and libeled, the more his character 
& conduct are elevated. If each County in N. C. would in due 
season nominate proper ardent candidates for the Legislature, 
who will well inform themselves as to Harrison's History and 
present it truly to the People there is no doubt he will carry the 
State in August which will decide the complexion of the State for 
8 or 10 years. The August Election will determine, the presiden- 
tial Contest in N. C, the next Senator in N. C. and the future 
policy of the State. Harrison will carry the Farmers and Boys, 
who have no file-leader and winn all the wavering and doubtful. 
It is fair in war to refer to the gallant deeds and noble sacrifices 
of Harrison in defence of our Country and those who oppose and 
abuse him will run great risk of being called Tories. 

We in N. C. should begin in time and inform and enlist the 
young men who are full of enthusiasm and patriotism. Try and 
secure the officers of the Militia and Civil officers. The Battles of 
H. will tell after they are recited and understood. 

I have made the above suggestions for you to improve on. This 
contest between Power and Right; or the President against the 
People requires the friends of freedom to start the Ball Rolling 
in time to effect useful purposes. 

From James Graham. U. 

H. of R., 

Feb. 3d, 1840. 

I think the Republican Whigs in N. C. should quickly organize 
in each County in the State. Appoint about 3 Persons, in each 
County at or near the Court House as a central Committee to 
collect and distribute information among the People. Then ap- 
point 2 or 3 popular and influential men in each Captain's Com- 
pany to inform their neighbours of public measures and public 
men. Particularly of Harrisons life, and long and eminent public 
services. The Whigs are very wrong in keeping up their war and 
abuse of Jackson. He is an old man out of office, and it only 
strengthens Van. We ought not to go out of our way to grapple 
with a Lion when we are Fox-Hunting. The Whigs have the 
game in their own hands if they will play it well. 

76 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

I£ the young and ardent men are once informed of "old Tip's" 
many brilliant victories they will break loose from their Fathers 
and Leaders and go for that man who has served his Country 
long and faithfully and grown poor to make his countrymen free 
and independent. Very much can be done now before the canvass 
commences by giving information to certain influential men and 
securing them as leaders. Many of our best Citizens say Party 
Spirit has got too high, and they want a retired Farmer to come in 
and go for the people a while, as the Party has been served long 

The Whig papers in N. C. should look to the Madisonian and 
quote Extracts from it. It is conducted with spirit and ability. 
[P.S.] If men who once supported Jackson would come out for 
Harrison they will win over many. 

From James Graham. U. 

H. of R., 

March 19 th, 1840. 

I have ordered the Papers you last directed and herein inclose 
the Rect. I have also sent to each of the persons on your List a 
brief Life of Harrison, And will forward more when you send me 
more names. Send a full proportion of the names of young men 
who belong to Van Buren families. You know young men are apt 
to be struck with Military Glory. 

The Van Party will tell the Whigs they did not like a military 
man when Jackson was President! That you know is a two edged 
sword. And as they once went for Jackson why will they not sup- 
port Harrison? 

Be careful in selecting your Candidates. Two or three of them 
should be talking men and the others selected for their family 
connections, sectional interests, and personal popularity. New 
Candidates have one advantage over old ones, that is they have 
no charges against them for old scores. 

I think the Republican Whigs do themselves great injustice in 
attempting to justify the conduct of all the Banks. I have never 
done it. I denounce the Bad Banks and advocate Gold and Silver 
and good Specie paying Banks and I denounce the Administra- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 77 

tion for refusing good Bank paper and by its oppressive measures 
injuring all the Banks by drawing out and hoarding up Specie. 

The Hard Times, the Reduction of Wages and prices of pro- 
duce and property & stagnation of business will do much to 
awaken & inform the people. The People should be reminded 
continually of this. Van Buren has had and now has a Majority 
in both branches of Congress and must be responsible for the 
present state things. The Sub Treasury is and has been in partial 
operation and all without any Law or rule but the President's 
will. In 34-5 Levi Woodbury reported to Congress the State 
Banks were good Agents for the Government and had lost less 
than any agents ever employed. Now in 1840 the said Levi Re- 
ports the State Banks have lost more than any agents we ever had. 
He is like an old Jockey's Son, who when about to mount a Horse 
always asked his "Daddy must I ride him to sell, or to buy." I 
will write soon to Morehead. He ought to propose to Saunders 
to go into the distant parts of the State. Morehead is unknown 
personally at a distance & Saunders is known all over the State. 
I disapprove of indiscriminate and violent opposition of the 
Whigs to all the acts of the administration. That course strength- 
ens the Tories and injures the Whigs. The people love fair play. 
This constant cry of Wolf won't do. No charges should be made 
but those that can be sustained clearly. I do not know much of 
Morehead, but I fear he will charge too much without proof. Van 
Buren was opposed to the war, and tried to elect Clinton 5 over 
Madison; 6 And He was opposed to the admission of Missouri into 
the union without restricting slavery. While old Tip was for our 
Country and our Country's Cause against Great Britton, and for 
the South against Abolition. 

The Sub Treasury and the enormous Defaulcations are the 
crying sins of his Majesty. All power in the hands of one man and 
no Accountability. Van Buren asks Congress to issue 5 Millions 
more of Treasury Notes for 2 years and no longer! This is the 
old song and the old tune. Two years and no longer!!!! This is 
the fourth time his Majesty has thus importuned us with those 
seductive words two years and no longer. Treasury Notes are the 
Nest Eggs for the Treasury Bank over which the President is to 

B George Clinton (1739-1812), of New York, member continental congress, 1775- 
1777; brigadier general of militia, and later of the continental line; governor of 
New York, 1777-1795, 1801-1804; president of convention of 1788; vice president, 

e James Madison. The reference is to the election of 1808. 

78 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

set hatching more power and whenever opposed in his grasping 
measure He, like an old Hen, is to Cluck and say ''two years and 
no longer" until the Treasury Government Bank is hatched and 
presented in full form 

Mr Clay speaks of [page torn] and entering [page torn] from 
Congress, but has not Resolved to do so yet. He is cordial in his 
support of Harrison. I board with his Colleague Crittenden' 1 and 
Corwin 8 of Ohio: and Clay dined with us after his return from 
Richmond. He appears quite sanguine of Va., but stated perhaps 
his opportunities were not so good as others to form correct opin- 
ions. Very much may be done before Candidates are announced 
by enlisting certain influential persons. And if the first man in 
the Neighbourhood be against us, try the Second, and divide the 
influence. Much may be done by appealing to the pride of people 
to act for themselves, and not permit any would-be leader to 
dictate to them. 

-V- -\L" 4£> 4f- »\£- 

w w w w w 

I wish you would write to some person in Person County and 
tell them to send a written list of influential persons and their 
post offices to me and I will send them documents. 

The Whigs should have a Ticket in every County next August. 
It will bring out the people to vote for Governor. 

From Kenneth Rayner. U. 

Washington City, April 5th, 1840. 

I received your letter some time since, touching the executive 
appointment, of a Judge of the Superior Court of our State; and 
should have replied to it at the time, but that I could not have 
done so in a matter satisfactory to yourself, inasmuch as I had 
been previously requested by several friends, to interpose as far as 

7 John Jordan Crittenden (1787-1863), of Kentucky, student at Washington Col- 
lege (now Washington and Lee University), was graduated from William and 
Mary; attorney general of Illinois Territory; aide to Governor Shelby in the War 
of 1812; member lower house of the state legislature, 1811-1817, (speaker), 1825, 
1829-1832; United States senator, 1817-1819, 1855-1861; Federal district attorney, 
1827-1829; attorney general of the United States, 1841, 1850-1853; U. S. senator, 
1842-1848; governor of Kentucky, 1848-1850; member of congress, 1861-1863. 

8 Thomas Corwin (1794-1865), of Ohio, native of Kentucky, lawyer, member of 
the lower house of the legislature, 1822-1823, 1829; Whig member of congress, 
1831-1840; governor, 1840-1842; elector, 1844; United States senator, 1845-1850; 
secretary of the treasury, 1850-1853; Republican member of congress, 1859-1861; 
minister to Mexico, 1861-1864. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 79 

my humble aid could avail any thing, in favour of Mr. A. H. 
Shepherd 9 for the same appointment, not knowing at the time, 
that the name of Mr. Winston 10 would be before the Council. So 
I concluded to remain silent on the subject, between the two ap- 
plications, coming as they both did from my friends. This, I hope 
you will accept as an apology, not only for my failing to comply 
with the request of your kind letter, but also for my silence at 
the time. 

Congress is still "Dragging its slow length along," doing but 
little (in fact, nothing) for the benefit of the Country, but sink- 
ing itself more and more every day in the estimation of the 
sober and reflecting portion of the Community. Sir, it is lament- 
able to see to what a depth of degradation the Congress of the 
U. S. is sinking, and has already sunk. The Senate has long since, 
surrendered its high character for independence and character, 
and has for years been bowing in abject submission at the foot- 
stool of power; and the House of Reps is "following in its foot- 
steps," with as much exactness as is Mr. Van Buren in those of 
his "illustrious predecessor." And I believe the alarming increase 
of executive power, within the last few years, is mainly owing to 
the low standard of character and publick morals, which prevail 
in Congress; for as the latter has lost power, and publick confi- 
dence, the former seems to have grasped it. The scenes of violence 
and disorder that prevail in our house, are much more befitting 
a bear-garden, than the legislative Council of a great and (self- 
styled) free nation. I assure you that I never saw disorder, such 
indecorous conduct, such want of independence, such servile sub- 
jection to party leaders in the legislature of No. Ca. even in its 
most partizan and Van-Buren-devoted days, as I have witnessed 
in our house, and I believe I might add such dearth of character 
and talent. And you know that you and I have served together in 
the Legislature of our State, when party tyranny ruled us with 
a "rod of iron," and when virtue and independence seemed to 
constitute a crime in the possession. I was then disposed to under- 
value the character of our people, and the intelligence of our 
State. Since I came here, I have discovered my error, and I am 
now more devoted to my own State, and have more confidence in 
the virtue & intelligence of her people, than I ever had; for I 
find that other States, those too that make great professions in 

8 Shepperd. 

w Patrick Henry Winston of Rockingham County. 

80 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

regard to character and talent, send men here, of whom the old 
North State would be ashamed. The violence and disregard for all 
order peculiar to the present session, seems mainly to have orig- 
inated in the outrageous course practiced in regard to the N. 
Jersey election. That conduct was in utter violation of all law, 
all precedent, all order; habits of disorder were then contracted, 
which still adhere to us, which clog our progress at every step, 
and which in fact impart a revolutionary character to ail our 
proceedings. When is this thing to end? When will the people look 
for succour and protection, when instead of looking upon Con- 
gress with veneration, they look upon it with contempt? Had 
Congress been sitting in a large City, long ere this the members 
would have driven by a mob from the doors of the Capitol. The 
V. Buren presses say the Whigs are equally to blame for this, 
with the other party. I deny the fact, for although some of the 
Whig party have acted with violence, yet it was defensive, in its 
character. It was for the purpose of repelling violence. The course 
of the present Ho. of Reps, has been revolutionary during the 
whole Session, and we have been compelled either to defend our- 
selves with nerve and vigour, or to yield the contest, and retire in 
disgrace from our seats. I ask when is this to end?— The people 
must come to the relief of our free institutions, through the 
peacful medium of the ballot box; or else we have the alternative 
of revolution on the one hand, or the yoke of bondage on the 
other. For a more practical despotism never existed in any age or 
country, than that which represses all the talent and energies in 
our house, and weighs down the prosperity and commerce of this 
once free people. 

But is there no hope that the people will come to their own 
relief? There is. If there is any thing in the "signs of the times," 
the eyes of the people are opening, their fears are arousing, their 
indignation is exciting; and in a few months more, this corrupt 
dynasty will be hurled from the high place of power, which they 
have so long desecrated, and honest men will occupy their places. 
The accounts which we receive from all parts of the Union daily, 
all concur in stating the rapid progress of Harrison and reform. 
We are in high spirits here, and are cheered not only with the 
hope, but the absolute belief of an overwhelming victory. "The 
party" are evidently alarmed, and well they may be, for from 
all sections from Maine to Florida, we receive the same "glad 
tidings," that we are not only maintaining our ground, but that 

The Papers of William A. Graham 81 

we are making heavy inroads upon the enemy. As to N. York, Mr. 
Tallmadge says it is certain for 20,000 Majority for Harrison. The 
late rupture between the Radicals & the Moderates of "the par- 
ty" in Pennsylvania, render that state safe for us by 10,000, as I 
am correctly informed by men who know. 

We are all looking with great anxiety to the Connecticut elec- 
tions which take place next week; the Whig members from that 
State assure me, they will carry it by 3,000 majority. Massachu- 
setts and R. Island are considered equally safe; the V. Buren party 
give up Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, & Michigan, & Kentucky. Vir- 
ginia, N. Carolina, Maryland, Delaware, & N. Jersey, & Louisiana 
are debateable ground. In these States however, all the accounts 
state that the Whigs are fully organized, and prepared for action. 
So far as No. Ca. is concerned, we can carry it, and we must carry 
it. I know we have the power, if we can make it available. The 
only difficulty will be in getting our friends to the polls, and in 
order to do this no pains should be spared, "no stone left un- 

There is one thing I think of the utmost importance. The Whig 
Electors should by all means, Canvass their districts,— not in July, 
for the Candidates for the Legislature can do that, except perhaps 
in Counties where there is no Whig candidate, but in the months 
of September and October, just previous to the Presidential elec- 
tion. For no matter how high may be the spirit of our friends in 
August, it will cool off before Nov. unless means are used to keep 
it up. Recollect the election 4 years ago. With a majority of near 
5,000 in August, we were beaten more than 3,000 in Nov. And the 
V. Buren party will not forget that; they even now speak of our 
apathy as the grounds of their success. There is also another mat- 
ter of great moment, The Whigs should run Candidates for the 
Legislature in every County in the State, whether there is any 
prospect of success or not. It will be a means of aiding us in the 
Governor's election, and then it will keep up the district organi- 
zation of our party in each County preparatory to the great battle 
in Nov. I know it will be in your power to do much in regard to 
these suggestions, while riding your Circuits, and by correspond- 
ence and conference with the leading men of our party. 

Why not the lawyers in your Circuit address the people at 
each Court, and actually preach a Crusade against the corrup- 
tions of the times. The times require it, patriotism requires it, 
the suffering situation of the Country requires it. 

82 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Now I know you are "an older, and abler soldier" than myself, 
and need not any suggestions from me; you will however pardon 
my zeal, when you reflect that comes from an old friend, and co- 
labourer in "the good cause." And do not, I beseech you, suffer 
the Legislature to go against us. Of all political matters dearest 
to my heart, after defeating V. Buren, is to turn "neck and heels" 
out of the Senate of U. S. the "noble pair of brothers" who now 
m ^-represent our good old North State in that body. Could you 
once witness their attempt to "break a lance" with such men as 
Clay, Webster, Crittenden, etc (and they are both remarkable for 
it) as a North Carolinian, you would hang your head in shame. 
May the Lord deliver us from their clutches is my prayer! 

From all parts of No. Ca. the news is good, and some of us 
receive news daily. Fisher's is the only district that gives me any 
uneasiness, and I hope Morehead will devote much of his time 
to that section of the State. 

The treasury Note bill has passed, after a long and stormy de- 
bate. The party attempted to force it through without suffering 
the Whigs to debate it, as they did in their final action on the 
N. Jersey case. We however had it in Committee of the whole, 
and there we were determined to keep it, and there we did keep 
it, 'till every Whig who wished it, had spoken on the subject. 
'Tis true we suffered much from privation and exposure, but 
then we gained our point, which was discussion. The speeches 
of Thompson of So. Ca., Biddle 11 of Pen., & Barnard 12 of N. York 
were of great power, and can not fail to have their influence before 
the Country. 

We remained in Session, at one time for 29 hours, meeting on 
Tuesday 12 M., and not adjourning 'till Wednesday 5 P.M., and 
then we forced them to adjourn, without taking the question, 
although they swore when the house met on Tuesday that they 
would have the question before they adjourned. As often as they 
attempted to report the bill to the house, by a party vote, our 
friends refused to vote, and thus left them without a quorum, and 
whenever we moved to adjourn, or to report progress, they de- 
feated us by a party vote. 

For the better part of the past week, the House has been dis- 
cussing Bell's favourite measure to prevent the interference of 

11 Richard Biddle. 

"Daniel Dewey Barnard (1797-1861), native of Massachusetts, who, after gradu- 
ating at Williams College, practiced law in Rochester. He was a member of con- 
gress, 1827-1829. He moved to New York, was a member of the assembly, and 
from 1839 to 1845 was again in congress. He was minister to Prussia, 1850-1853. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 83 

office holders in elections. Bell made a very strong speech on the 
subject. The bill cannot pass, for while the V. Buren party will 
oppose it in a body, there are many Whigs who do not like some 
of its provisions. 

The Sub-Treasury will soon be up, and then there will be 
another warm and protracted debate. It will pass, if the party 
wish to pass it. That however is doubtful, if they could possibly 
avoid it. The Whigs, however, will not suffer them to evade this 

We shall probably be here 'till July, perhaps later, if they 
succeed in getting up a war panic, which they are evidently at- 
tempting to do, for you know it is an old scheme to get up a 
war-cry, whenever they get hard pressed. 

Well really I must be boring you with this long letter, you will 
excuse it. I feel deeply in regard to these matters, and I also feel, 
that I am writing to one, whose position and character in No. Ca, 
places it in his power to do much—very much— for the good of 
the Country at large. 

I should be happy to hear from you, and to know your opinion 
of our prospects in the State whenever you may have leisure to 
do so. 

I am with much respect 
Yours sincerely. 

From James Graham. U. 

Washington, April 8th, 1840. 

... I have sent the Lives of Harrison to all the persons in Orange 
and Person named in your List. Should you or any one from 
there send more I will attend to it. 

The following objectionable subjects should be urged against 
Van Buren and his party. 

1st. In 1837, He contracted a new public Debt of 10 Millions 
the first year he was in office. 

2d. He and his Party during the last Congress increased the 
Regular Standing Army from 7,000, to 12,500 nearly double in 
time of Peace. The Florida war has been mainly kept up by 

3d. Van & his Party have sent out an Exploring Expedition 
consisting of 5 or 6 Ships to Circumnavigate South America in 

84 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

search of unknown Lands, & Islands, different Beasts, Birds and 
Batts, which will cost 3 or 4 Millions of Dollars. And both these 
extravagant schemes are put in motion while we are obliged to 
borrow money & make large new Debts. 

4th. Frequent and enormously large Defaulcations of public 
money and although the President well knew of those fraudulent 
Defaulcations and public losses, he did not Remove the offending 
swindlers, but kept them in office. 

5th. The Independent Sub Treasury which is a sort of Barrell 
with an open Bung turned down and a small spill at Top. It runs 
out faster than it runs in. The Treasury is now empty and there 
is very little coming in. This paper money hating and hard 
money loving administration has just authorized the issue of 
Five Millions of paper money— Treasury Bank Notes. This is 
a fair sample of Mr. Van Burens principles and practises. They 
are at right Angles with each other very much like + the Cross 
Keys at the Cross Rhodes. One Text to preach by and another to 
practise by. This Cross eyed conduct and Indian Rubber Policy 
I do not admire. 

at jt jt jt jt 

*«• TP TT w TT 

Try hard to get energetic and popular men as Republican Whig 
candidates in Orange. Men of tact. The Issue is narrowed down 
to this single simple proposition; will the people support General 
Harrison, or General Ruin? That's the question. 

Harrison and good prices, or Van Buren and Insolvency? Our 
friends should hold on and use that word Republican it is an 
expressive and potent word; & we should appropriate it to our 
own Cause. It is a host before the people. 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 


April 18 th, 1840. 

I am here attending the Superior Court of Guilford and avail 
myself of some leisure to write you. Genl. Saunders was here and 
addressed the people on Thursday last, and I am told, expects to 
be at New Berne on Thursday next, at the time appointed for 
Mr. Morehead to be there. Morehead has entered the canvass in 
good earnest and I have thought it proper to advise him through 
you, of some of the grounds assumed here by Saunders. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 85 

1st. then, he charged that Genl. Harrison had never said any- 
thing since he became a Candidate for the Presidency, against 
abolition. This is contradicted by the Vincennes speech, the 
Letter to Sherrod Williams, and Letter published in the last 
Raleigh Register to a Gentleman in New Orleans all in 1836, 
in the heat of the Canvass. Other declarations are perhaps 
familiar to you. 

2nd. He urges that Harrison's name was stricken from the 
resolution proposing medal, etc., in 1816, and although it passed 
at the next session 13 Senators names stand recorded against it. 
You know that in fact, it passed unanimously after the investiga- 
tion acquitting Harrison of the false charges preferred against 
him. Hull's Life 286. 

3rd. that Harrison resigned before the War ended. See causes- 
Hull 280 to 285. 

4th. He has documents from the Sec. of Treasury for the pur- 
pose of showing that more money was lost to the Government 
under former administrations, Adams for example, than under 
V. B. and Jackson, setting off the losses by failures of Merchants 
to pay Custom House Bonds against the thefts of Swartwout, Price 
etc. Morehead should by all means have the document of the Ho. 
Reps, containing the correspondence between Woodbury and his 
defaulters No. 297, I think, shewing that under the present 
dinasty, for the first time in the History of the Government, theft 
and embezzlement have been tolerated and justified on the ground 
of party service etc. 

5th. He has a letter recently obtained from some one at Wash- 
ington stating that instructions were sent to our Ministers in 
England and France, directing suits to be brought against Swart- 
wout & Price, but that by the French Law (they both being there) 
no such suit could be sustained. He didn't read the whole letter, 
tho' I presume it was from Forsyth. Examine the treaties and 
Law of nations to see whether they might not be demanded as 
Fugitives from Justice. It is not pretended that any attempt has 
been made to bring them back. 

6th. He defends Mr. Poinsett's Military project, by saying that 
Genl. Washington recommended one similar and that Genl. 
Harrison did also when a member of the Senate. Tell Morehead 
to see wherein these differ. 

7th. He harps on Abolition and boasts that 27 V. B. men voted 
against receiving Petitions at this Session. Stanly's late speech and 

86 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

appendix contains the answer to that; besides I am told that 38 
of the party in the North, voted in favour of receiving them. 

8th. He abandons hard money only wants to regulate Banks; 
the Sub T. will do that. That he didn't justify the suspension, 
but the resumption by State Bank in which he owns stock. 

9th. Whigs are as much blameable for extravagant expenditures 
as the Party. 

A. H. Shepperd was here, and called out by the people replied 
successfully. He stated that Adams had been the second choice 
both of Saunders and himself in 1824, and Saunders made no 
reply. Two V. B. leaders in this County afterwards came to 
Shepperd with a Whig to know if he had so stated. Shepperd 
replied yes, and Poindexter, being present said he had heard 
Saunders say so in 1824 and that 100 men in Stokes would prove 
it. Saunders has heretofore denied it. I write all this trash not to 
be used, of course, but to apprize Morehead of the present drift 
of his opponent. 

I left home on Sunday last. My family were quite well. Susan 
has been promising herself a visit from Mrs. Bryan this Summer. 
I need not say, that we shall be more than pleased to see you, 
and will endeavour to accompany you in some jaunts to the 
neighboring Country; that is to say Susan and the children 
would accompany you for a week or two to Rockingham Springs, 
etc., should you incline to go. For my own part, I shall be probably 
engaged in the summer campaign during July and a part of 
August. I think a summer at Hillsborough would be quite as 
beneficial to Mrs. B. and yourself as one in the mountains, and 
we will endeavour to make it agreeable. 

I have undertaken the culture of a farm in the neighborhood 
of Hillsborough, and am making divers experiments in agricul- 
ture with what success, time and the seasons will determine. 

Judge Dick is holding our Court and is going slowly on. He 
has adjourned over to day to go to his Plantation. 

Our friends who have heard M. think he is deficient in poli- 
tical information. On that account I have written the foregoing 
leaf, which you can tear off and give him, to put him on inquiry 
and prevent his being surprized. He is a fine fellow and I hope 
you, Manly & others will aid him all you can. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 87 

From William H. Battle. 13 U. 

Raleigh, April 24th, 1840. 

Tp 3f W TT * 

How goes the political world with you? Every thing which we 
hear now seems to be cheering our cause. Every mail brings in- 
telligence of some new Whig victory. May the good cause speed 
until every nook and corner of our wide spread country is freed 
from the devastating influence of Van Burenism, which is but 
double distilled Jacksonism, and is the very worst ism with which 
any Country pretending to be free, was ever afflicted. I hope the 
Whigs will give a good account of themselves in Orange next 
summer. In my old county, Franklin, there are strong hopes of 
sending a partial if not total delegation to the Legislature of the 
right principles. When there, week before last I heard of some im- 
portant changes in our favour, and found the Whigs in the finest 
kind of spirits. 

From James Graham. U. 

Washington, May 10th, 1840. 

I have just returned from Baltimore where upon invitation I 
have been attending the young Men's Convention. 14 The Scene 
was imposing and magnificent beyond description. There were 
about Twenty thousand Gentlemen marching in one line of 
Procession with Banners and Badges and Motto's indicating the 
States, Districts & principles of those whose divisions marched 
under them. There were speeches delivered during two days; 
and shouts & Huzza's, to all and every thing. The Crowd was 

13 William Horn Battle (1802-1879), who, after graduation from the university, 
studied law under Leonard Henderson. He represented Franklin County in the 
commons in 1833-1834, became reporter of the supreme court, and a member of 
the commission to revise the statutes, and moved to Raleigh in 1839. He was a 
judge of the superior court, 1840-1848, when he was appointed to the supreme 
court, but not being elected, served on the lower court again to 1852. Elevated 
then to the higher court, he served until 1868, when he returned to private prac- 
tice, and again revised the statutes. Upon the reopening of the university, he 
became professor of law. 

14 The Young Men's Convention, referred to, was a large and enthusiastic meeting 
of Whig politicians, which, in spite of its name, was composed chiefly of those of 
fairly ripe years. Its character set a standard for the enthusiasm characteristic of 
the following campaign of the Whig party, which inaugurated the hullabaloo 
appeal to the emotions of the unthinking which characterized political campaigns 
of all parties for many years thereafter, and is by no means unknown today. 
James Graham's comment upon it is interesting. 

88 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

so large but few could hear, or know any thing that was said. 
When Bascome, a Methodist preacher came forward on the stand 
to open the meeting with prayer; two thirds of those on the out 
side of the crowd were shouting and Hizzawing, supposing he 
was making a political speech. We had all sorts of speaking from 
the very best to the very worst. The whole affair reminded me 
of a big Methodist Camp Meeting; zeal and enthusiasm & ac- 
clamation were omnipotent. I believe a great multitude of Men, 
are like a great multitude of Buffalo's, they will run over every 
thing, and often over each other. 

North Carolina was very well represented in numbers & talents, 
though they were nearly all Boys, or very young Men. The Loco 
foco's are becoming rabid and desperate. They will die hard: and 
struggle to the last. We have some Whigs in Congress that can 
out-Democrat and out-Demagogue them. Such chaps as Duncan 15 
and Bynum 16 are distressed at seeing an opposition Line to their 
Demagogical Democracy. I hope in Orange you are smart in en- 
listing smart and popular young men in every neighbourhood to 
aid the Whig cause. 

In Ohio, Wheat is now selling at Twenty five cents a Bushel; 
and Corn at sixteen cents a Bushel. Hard-money-prices make 
hard times to every body, but the office holders and the rich 
Capitalists. Labor and Industry are ground into dust & Ashes. 

Your County Republican Whig Candidates ought to keep 
constantly among the people until the Election. Tell the people 
you are for Gold & Silver money just as long and as far as it 
can be had and found. But where is it? There is more in the 
Earth in North Carolina than any other State; and yet all candid 
men know we have not enough, not half, nor quarter enough 
to answer the trade and business of our own State. The Rich 
men may command gold and silver, but the poor people cannot. 

The officers and Tax Collectors ought not to be allowed to sell 
the last Shillings & Sixpences off the necks of little children in 
order to get in Hard Money $25,000 every year to pay President 
Van Buren his annual salary. Genl. Harrison is willing to take 
just such money as the people take in a trade between two 
neighbours. He is for equal rights to all free men. He is for Gold 
& Silver, as long as we can find a Penny weight, or coin a Dollar. 
But like we Farmers have to do, when we can't get Bacon and 

16 Alexander Duncan of Ohio. 
10 Jesse A. Bynum. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 89 

Beaf enough to feed every body in our household, we are obliged 
to use Cabbage and Potatoes along with our Meat to make it go 
far enough to feed and fill all, and the poor as well as the Rich. 
And if Squire Van Buren should come to my Farm when Meat 
was scarce, I don't see why he should be foundered on Bacon and 
Beaf, while the rest of the family could'nt get one morsel of 
Meat, but must work hard and live on Cabbage and Potatoes 
only, that King Martin might be surfeited with meat. Bacon & 
Cabbage is good eating for her Farmers and good enough for 
any President. In like manner good Metal and good Paper consti- 
tute a good currency. Simple comparisons take with the people. 

Call on the Van Buren Men to show 8c explain Where, and how, 
and When, they are going to get Gold & Silver enough to answer 
the purposes of Trade and business. 

Denounce bad Banks and the abuse and excess of Banking; 
but shew that the Banks never can be made good or compelled to 
do their Duty and keep their Notes at Specie par until the Govern- 
ment receives their paper when it is good; and then the plain 
working people are inspired with confidence and will take such 
Bank notes as the Government (the great Creditor) takes. Our 
friends loose much by becoming the general & indiscriminate 
advocate of Banks. That is wrong in principle and wrong in 

Whenever the Government ceases its war on Banks and will 
receive the Notes of good specie paying Banks. I will do all I 
can to compell them to pay specie for all their Notes. I will not 
defend the conduct of all the Banks. The course of some of them 
is and has been Censurable. But the conduct of the Administra- 
tion, has been that of an Arch Seducer, they have persuaded and 
prevailed on the Banks to impregnate and flood the Country 
with Bastard paper money; and then to hide their own shame 
and conceal their own destructive measures they (Seducer-Like) 
charge the Whole blame on the Banks. The Locofocos are like 
an ill-natured old woman who Whips her child until it cryes; 
and then, she Whips it for crying. You should call on the Van 
Buren men to say if they propose to destroy the Banks of N. C. 
If they say yes; then they propose to destroy a large part of our 
Revenue and the Taxes destroyed in Bank must be imposed on 
the people and collected in gold & silver. 

I have given you a few hints to simplify and make plain. I 
think the Whigs may gain Orange but they can only do so by 
activity & industry. 

90 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Strange, Fisher & Connor have all gone to N. C. I presume 
they are political missionaries sent out by the Magician to buy 

Try and get Dr. Smith to take the stump now and hold on 
making speeches. My Respects to Sister Susan. I have sent her 
a good many seeds, I hope she got them. 

From James W. Bryan. U. 


May 19th, 1840. 

•U. J&. db AL 4b 


The lines of party are tightly drawn down here, but we have 
broken through those of our opponents and are making sad 
ravages upon their ranks. I am nearly worn out with my Circuit 
and political speech making, in fact I think this Canvass (unless 
my health becomes very robust) closes my connexion with pub- 
lic life. I am too feeble, and the excitement incident to the 
Canvass and the stirring times which it gives rise to are very 
detrimental to my health; but I have put my hand to the plough 
in this matter & I am sure I shall not look back. 

I addressed the citizens of Greene on Thursday last and was 
succeeded by Morehead & Saunders who kept it up until 9 or 
10 o'clock at night. I left Snow Hill before sundown to go partly 
on my way home Sc understand that before they closed a personal 
matter of a very disagreeable character passed between them, 
one giving the lie, etc., but that they settled it to their mutual 
satisfaction before they left. We shall certainly carry Morehead 
through triumphantly in this part of the State unless the signs 
of the times are most wofully deceptive. Saunders does not seem 
"to take" with the people, in fact his manner is repulsive to them, 
and his having been on the Bench lately makes them reluctant 
to approach him, & they keep up that distant but deferential 
respect which is usually evinced for a Judge. Consequently they 
do not seem to chime in with him or his sentiments, or to evince 
the "hail fellow well met" cordiality which it is very evident they 
feel for Morehead. 

I am now nearly through my District, & when I shall have 
given all the Counties a taste of the Glories of Harrison, I shall 
pull up stakes and wend my way to your more salubrious region 
& endeavour to take some rest from business and politics. When 

The Papers of William A. Graham 91 

we reach your town we purpose forming a programme of our 
future peregrinations, etc. 

*4£. V V, J/, *U» 

W W TV* "TC" 

We have had an Association at Fort Barnwell, but it happening 
during my Circuit, I had not the pleasure of attending. I believe 
they made no converts & were not much encouraged. 

The times are so horribly out of joint that Jno. Washington 
finds it exceedingly difficult in collecting; he told me that he was 
trying hard to collect funds enough to settle with you. 

I rec'd a letter the other day from our agents in Illinois, who 
stated that we had lost another quarter section in consequence of 
the lands not being given in; this is really a pretty tale from men 
who acknowledge themselves to be our agents, and admit that 
they are, & have been always in ample funds to pay all dues! 
In fact if some one of us does not go on there, we will loose all 
the lands in Illinois & I think we will make more by going 
and attending to them than by remaining at home & the estate 
of course ought to pay the expenses incident to the same. I wish 
you could make it convenient to go, it would be a pleasant trip 
with the present facilities for travelling. 

I have hands at work upon your Wharf and Warehouse in 
Newbern; the work and materials will cost about $150, the work 
on the Wharf & timber ain't to $100. & I expect it will cost $50 
to fill it up. The Warehouse I had repaired some time since at 
a cost of between $25 & $30. 

4f» ■& --if- 4A* 4i- 


We shall send from Craven I think three Whigs, also a gain of 
one Whig from Greene & I have strong hopes of a Whig Senator 
from Onslow, the great Citadel of Locofocoism in this part of 
the State. We have revived the Spectator at a burdensome ex- 
pense and I wish it's circulation could be promoted in some way 
or other. 

From James Graham. U. 

Washington, May 20th, 1840. 

Fisher has just returned from Salisbury and says the indications 
are very good for Van Buren and Saunders through out his dis- 
trict. I do not believe it. He boasts that the Merchants, Lawyers, 
Doctors and rich people who wear Broad Cloth are all for Har- 

92 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

rison, but the Farmers, Mechanicks and working folks who wear 
Home spun are for Van Buren. This is the old Text of Demago- 
gues. I have always accomodated my habits and Dress to the People 
when electioneering and taken the Text out of the mouth of such 
low fellows. I have always dressed chiefly in Home spun when 
among the people. I was raised in it and am at home in it. When 
a gentleman is dressed in fine broad cloth and silk and stops to 
stay all night with a plain poor working man, He often renders 
the man and all his family unhappy, because they think they 
cannot entertain him in the same stile he lives at home. I have 
actually some times felt my self a sort of Nuisance when too well 
dressed in obscure sections. But if a Candidate be dressed Farmer- 
like he is well received and kindly remembered by the inmates 
of the Log Cabin, and there is no sensation among the children 
or the chickens. In Orange I presume you will be a Candidate, 
and as usual the low party prejudice will be urged often against 
your profession of the Law. To that you have a short reply. That 
you a supporting a Farmer for the Presidency, while the loco 
foco's are going for a Lawyer in the person of Mr. Van Buren. 
Try & get Dr. Smith immediately to address the People in all 
parts of his District. Your Hillsboro Recorder is too grave and 
long in all its Articles to catch and win the attention of the 
people. Short, pithy articles only will do for the crowd. Wit, 
Pleasantry, & Anacdote are the weapons for execution. Arguments 
like cannon will not do for every day fighting. 

I think the Republican Whigs may make a great deal out of 
the persecutions and prejudices & falsehoods propagated against 
Genl. Harrison. If the People once believe any man is persecuted, 
or unfairly dealt with there is great sympathy felt for him. Har- 
rison's friends may make much out of the abuse and slander 
which is heaped on him. He not only was longer in service in the 
war than any other Genl officer and won more victories; but 
He was the only Genl officer who always Whiped the British and 
Indians in the United States, still more, he actually followed them 
to Canada and whipped them again at the Thames on their own 
soil. He whipped them on our Land, and then, on their Land, at 
home & abroad. 

North Carolina will immediately be flooded with Papers and 
speeches for the Van Buren men. They have $30, or 40 millions 
of the public money in their keeping and using, and they will 
spend it freely to buy and bribe the people with the public 

The Papers of William A. Graham 93 

If there should be any complaint about my sending Papers in 
Orange, The Whigs may answer that at once by asking them 
If I had sent Van Buren's Messages instead of Harrison Lives 
would there be any complaint among the faithful? 

When I had my Contested Election, the Van Buren Members 
of Congress sent Bushels of Papers into my District and some of 
the members lived as far North as New Hampshire. 

The Plan drawn by Poinsett, and endorsed and Recommended 
by Van Buren to organize the Militia and convert them into a 
standing Army of 200,000 men, is a strong ground of attack on 
the administration. N. C. and S. C. and Georgia & Florida are 
to make one Division. They are to meet at some Central Point 
twice a year to Drill and Muster. Now how would the Militia of 
Orange like to be marched off to Columbia or Augusta twice a 
year, to be disciplined by some Regular federal officer!!! Leave 
their Wives and Children, loose their Crops and incur heavy 
private expenses, all in time of Peace to learn from a Federal Van 
Buren officer how to shoulder a Musket, and Ramdown a 
Cartridge. This wild, mad and expensive proposition emanates 
from the same administration that so mgloriously conducts the 
Florida war. Genl Van Buren's projects on Paper are a good deal 
like his achievements in the field. The Sub Treasury I think will 
pass. It is and has been in practical operation and has produced 
much distress and Ruin. If the green tree produces such bitter 
fruits, what will be the poisonous products of the Dry? 

Do not be a Candidate at all; or do all that may become a man 
to be elected. Mix with the common people. They vote for 
those whom they like. 

From James W. Osborne. U. 


May 26th, 1840. 

w •«• "Jr 'fr "ir 

In Mecklenburg we have at length a ray of promise on the 
horizon of politics. There is an obvious depreciation of party 
enthusiasm with Van Buren men; many have openly renounced 
the trammels of party obligation while individual ambition and 
internal furor are destroying unanimity and concert. We may 
not carry the County. Of my own success as a candidate for the 

94 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Senate I am now sanguine. I do hope you will carry Orange. 
The acquisition of that County with the gain in the senatorial 
districts of the mountains, and the small counties of Cabarrus 
and Yancey will give us such a number as will secure the legis- 
lature beyond any contingency— 

Morehead will have your brother's district I am informed by 
intelligent observers with a majority not short of four thousand. 
If the East will do its duty we will obtain such a majority as will 
place Harrison beyond the reach of his competitor. 

When you write me advise me of your own prospects, & the 
prospects generally in the Eastern region. 

From Charles Manly. U. 

Raleigh, 30 May, 1840. 

We have procured for the Dutch Country One Thousand 
Copies of ' 'Lives of Harrison in the Ginuine dutch, with pictures." 

If you can spread them in Orange, Lincoln, Stokes & Ashe it 
will help. I have taken the liberty of sending them in a Box to 
you marked "C. C. Battle." Mr. Allen Brown's wagon will deliver 
them to you free of charge. 

I shall take about 200 Copies with me to Chapel Hill next 
week for D. M. Barringer. 

I hear from all parts of the State we are going it with an all 
fired sluice. 

Hurrah for Tip. 

From James Graham. U. 


May 31st, 1840. 

Mongomery has published one of his demagogical speeches 
and made some statements in relation to Rainer 17 which the 
latter denies. An angry correspondence in the Globe was the 
consequence. The Drs last letter pronounced Rainers letter & 
statement to be false. Rainer after seeing the Drs last letter met 
him in the Capitol (but out of the House) near the Post Office 
and without saying one word walked up to him and Slaped his 
Jaws; Whereupon M. struck R. with a stick on the shoulder and 

17 Kenneth Rayner. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 95 

broke it. R. then struck M. divers times with a stout stick until 
he was pulled away from M. In striking, R. held his stick by the 
small or lower end, and his sword flew out of the stick, but he 
made no effort to use the sword. There was no injury done. I 
did not happen to be present to witness the scene. 

The Sub Treasury Bill is under discussion and I have no doubt 
it will pass. The Party are becoming rabid and furious at the 
thought of defeat. I have no doubt they will use exertions such 
as were never known to carry N. C. in August. I think the Whigs 
cannot take higher and better ground than that the election of 
Genl Harrison would alley and destroy party spirit. He is and 
has been in retirement 10 or 12 years working his farm, and his 
feelings are not embittered with party strife. He fought for the 
whole Country, and he would, if elected, be the President of the 
whole people and not the tool and Head of a mere party. God 
grant the speedy arrival of such a time. We want a change of 
men, a change of measures and some Change in our pockets to 
pay taxes with & buy salt and necessaries once more. 

When the people are called on for Debt and Taxes these hard 
times, it is a favourable opportunity to remind them of good 
money and the duty of Government to assist and Compell the 
Banks to resume by taking their Notes whenever they pay specie 
for their paper. 

From James Graham. U. 

H. of R., 

June 16 th, 1840. 

You must fight hard and constant in Orange. Our friends make 
a great mistake in Defending Harrison only; our true policy is 
to Charge Van Buren Strongly and make his friends defend him, 
or condemn him. Make them say before they people: Do they ap- 
prove his bauses & usurpations, and defaulcationsf And giving 
away the public Land to buy votes in the new States and all other 
questions, Tarriff and internal improvements by U S? 

A new case has just come. Lieutenant Hoe, 18 a Virginian of 
the Navy, was tried for some affair before a Court Martial at 
Pensacola and the Court permitted two negroes to be witnesses 
and give evidence against him, and he was convicted. He appealed 

w This name, as here spelled, does not appear in the register of Officers of the 
Navy. The name Hooe appears twice. Lt. Emmett R. Hooe died 1847, and is 
clearly the one mentioned here. 

96 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

from the Judment of the Court, and took the Case before the 
highest tribunal, President Van Buren. Van Buren took time to 
examine the Case and approved it, by endorsing on it, that he 
thought or saw no grounds to reverse the decision of the Court & 
and confirmed the Judgment. 

The Northern man with Southern principles is still showing 
his feelings for Cuffy. He thinks negroes and slaves (for one of 
the witnesses was the slave of the prosecutor) may give evidence 
against a white man in a slave territory. Well according to Van's 
opinion, A Rich slave holder may prosecute a poor man and 
call as a witness, his own slave and convict him on the testimony 
of black negroes. 

Van thinks free negroes should vote; but He goes further, and 
says it is his solemn Judgment that a black Slave shall give evi- 
dence against a white man in Slave States! ! ! 

By this Rule of the President, property, Reputation, liberty 
and Life itself may be taken away from us by the evidence of a 
Negro Slave. 

This decission is a part and parcel of his Missouri Restriction 
and preventing Slaves from going into Arkansas & Florida. 

Van's friends only want to get Harrison to come out strong 
against Abolition votes. And this Florida negro slave witness 
case proves that Van is fishing for Abolitionists with abolition 
Bate. Tappan 19 and Company will like such damnable deeds. 

From Walter Gwynn, 20 to Edward B. Dudley U. 

22nd. June, 1840. 

a jfc jb jh jfc 


As to the success of* draining the Swamp Lands & more than 
realizing the expectations of its most sanguine advocates you must 

19 Benjamin Tappan (1773-1857), of Ohio, native of Massachusetts, printer and 
engraver, and later a lawyer; member lower house of the legislature, 1833; soldier, 
War of 1812; state judge of various grades; Federal district judge, 1833-1839; 
Democratic United States senator, 1839-1845. 

20 Walter Gwynn (1802-1882), a native of Virginia, graduate of West Point, who 
resigned from the army in 1832, and became an eminent and widely sought con- 
sulting engineer. As this letter indicates, he was in the employ of the state for 
two important projects. He was president of the Portsmouth and Roanoke Rail- 
road, 1842-1846; president of the James River and Kanawha Canal Company, 1846- 
1847, and chief engineer, 1847-1853; was head of the commission to locate the 
proposed University of the South, 1857-1858; and during the Civil War, he served 
first with a state commission as brigadier general of engineers in North Carolina, 
but later was commissioned colonel, under General Jeremy F. Gilmer, Confederate, 
chief of engineers. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 97 

be under no apprehensions. I have satisfied myself perfectly on 
this point & look upon it as the most important work in its 
results now going on in the Southern Country. 

In relation to Nag's head, my conclusions are very satisfactory 
to myself. Genl. McRae 21 is the only person who has seen my 
report and he expresses an entire concurrence with my views. 

I have much to say in relation to the Rail Road which I would 
rather not write, particularly as I shall have the pleasure of seeing 
you so soon. 

A true Copy of a letter on file in the Executive Office. 

M. C. Battle 
P. Secty. 
June 24th, 1840. 

From James Graham. U. 

H. of R., 

July 3d, 1840. 

The Deed is done, the Sub Treasury passed finally this House 
on yesterday: 124 in the affirmative, and 107 in the negative, 
majority 17. The Whigs had a number of members absent by 
sickness and otherwise. Fisher went off to N. C. and did not vote. 
If all our men had been present, and the lawful members of N. 
Jersey in their seats and this House had not elected five men in 
their stead, we would have defeated them by one vote. I spoke 
about Two Hours and a half against the Bill just before the vote 
was taken, and will write out my speech when I get time. We 
had a real Row in the House just after the Bill passed; some of 
the opposition members denounced the Measure as one which 
power had dictated. At length Pickins 22 (whom the opposition 
had tried to draw into the debate) rose and pawed and squalled 
like a Cat with its Tail in the Door and after foaming and 
frothing a considerable time, he closed by moving the previous 

21 Alexander H. McRae, of New Hanover, soldier in the War of 1812, major 
general of militia for many years, and author of a manual of military organization 
and training. He was superintendent during construction, and later, president of the 
Wilmington and Weldon Railroad. 

^Francis Wilkinson Pickens (1805-1869), of South Carolina, was educated at 
the University of Georgia and South Carolina College, and became a lawyer. He 
served in the state legislature, 1832-1834, and was elected to congress as a nullifica- 
tionist, and served from 1834 to 1843. He was minister to Russia, 1858-1860, and 
governor of South Carolina, 1860-1863. 

98 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

question. The indignation of the opposition broke over all rules 
and he was hissed or rather Taunted by crying aloud in con- 
temptuous derission, "Well done South Carolina Chivalry," and 
similar phrases, but the noise was so great that no one could hear 
well and it looked like we should have a general fight. If Pickens 
had not retreated under cover of the previous question, he would 
have been badly Tomahawked, and I think he well knew it. We 
are quiet to day. 

The bustle of winding up the Session has commenced and will 
continue to the end. I presume we shall adjourn about the 21st. 
inst. I hope you Candidates are all busy and active you ought 
all to be out every day and work hard. I am glad your H Re- 
corder has convicted Montgomery, Hawkins, and Co. of sup- 
pressing the truth, the ivhole truth in the Thumb-Paper issued 
by Fraud & signed by conspiracy of the party and witnesses. 

Carry the Law and shew the Fraud in Suppressing the Truth 
and deceiving the people to injure an Honest & faithful old 
Soldier. Caution the people against similar impositions. When 
they catch Members of C at such tricks, they may look out for all 
sorts of slanders. 

I cant leave here until a week or Ten days after the Adjourn- 
ment. I wish to write a short Circular and my speech and they 
are both quite vexatious. I think I will go to the Virginia Springs 
when I leave and spend a few weeks. 

I am in the midst of noise and confusion 

From James A. Washington. U. 

New York, July 7th, 1840. 

I wish I could be with you, Susan and the others of the family 
at the gathering at your house. I sometimes feel a longing desire 
to be in the midst of my family or to have some or all of you 
here. You have however been purchasing a farm of late near 
Hillsboro, and therefore contemplate I presume to remain there 
permanently. I wish it were so that we could all be together or 
near each other. I am sometimes astonished at my remissness in 
writing home, which surely proceeds from any thing else than 
a want of affection or interest. I keep constantly busy— if not in 
attendance upon private patients, upon those of public institu- 
tions, being Physician to the Half Orphan Asylum, to the Lying 
In Asylum & to the New York City Dispensary; of the two latter 

The Papers of William A. Graham 99 

institutions there are also other physicians however. I had in- 
tended, again and again, to write you, but have postponed it till 

m. Jb Jf. 4ju Jf. 


I have just received from France some anatomical models 
which I think would interest you exceedingly. One of them is 
peculiarly interesting. It represents a man about 4 feet high 
with the skin removed and the muscles, blood-vessels and nerves 
exposed. Muscle after muscle may be removed until you come 
down to the bony frame work or skeleton and they may be again 
replaced in a very short time, and the whole human structure 
may be thus taken apart and put together like any other piece 
of curious mechanism, so as to enable you in less time than it 
would seem possible, to understand the various functions of life. 
I have also large models of the Eye, of the Ear, of the foetal heart, 
also of the brain & spinal marrow, etc., which are likewise ex- 
tremely interesting and instructive. The models are made of a 
material which is so tenacious that it would hardly injure by 
being thrown upon the floor. It is when about to be manufactured 
so soft as to run into moulds and when dry very firm and some- 
what elastic. There are models which would interest Susan as a 
materfamilias, which I need not describe. I presume her curiosity 
as well as your own will be sufficiently awakened by what I have 
said to induce you both to come on and visit us as soon as yon 
can conveniently. When public lectures were delivered in Paris 
winter before the last, I think, by the inventor, with his models, 
to illustrate his courses, the crowd was so great as to require the 
interference of the Police. I do not contemplate producing so 
great a sensation. Had I however, more self possession and a 
tongue more at my command I should take much pleasure in 
lecturing upon Popular Anatomy and Physiology with such aids 
to give interest to my lectures. Had I no other object than to make 
a fortune it would be effected by traversing the country as an 
itinerant lecturer. The knowledge which could be communicated 
and the sound advice upon the preservation of health and the 
proper culture of the physical, intellectual and moral powers 
to insure their greatest vigour and best condition, would be a 
noble field of effort; but my duties are at the bedside of the sick 

100 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

and in every sphere of life duty well performed will render our 
lives useful to others. 

*jfc jfe jfc jfa 


In closing let me say Success to Tippecanoe— notwithstanding 
Dr. Montgomery and M. T. Hawkins. 

From James Graham. U 

H. of R., 

July 13 th, 1840. 

I have sent two of my Circular letters in one envelope to each 
of the names you sent me from Orange Person and Caswell. I 
have sent you two by mail and two letters by Wm. H. Thomas 23 
of Haywood Co., N. C. who is now on his way home. 

My Circulars are all in the Mail and on the Road to N. C. 
(2,500) I am fearful they will be delayed in the post offices until 
after the Election. Still I hope they may get on in time. 

Since my Circular was known to be published and read there 
has been a great demand for it by southern members. If the 
Whigs in Orange should think it will do any good in exposing 
that Dirty Thumb paper of Montgomery & Hawkins They can 
have one or two thousand printed for Circulation. I made it 
short and plain so that all men might read and understand. 

M. & H. have come out with a second letter trying to sustain 
their false charges and gross impositions on the people, by trying 
to trade and trafic and make capital upon the prejudices of the 
People by exciting the passions of the poor against the Rich. He 
who protects the honest poor man, his conduct is worthy of 
imitation and all praise; but the demagurge who will pretend to 
be the friend of the poor to deceive the poor, is a wolf in sheeps 
clothing. Such fellows remind me of the Butcher who tolls the in- 

23 William Holland Thomas (1805-1893), of Haywood County, who began his 
interesting career as a clerk in a Qualla Town store, and later went into business 
for himself, with much success. He became deeply interested in the Eastern Band 
of the Cherokee Indians, and was adopted by them, and finally was elected their 
chief. He was their agent in Washington, and spent some of the time there from 
1836 to 1840, and all the time from 1841 to 1848, working in their behalf, to 
their great benefit. He was a member of the state senate, from 1848 to 1862. He 
was a pioneer in western North Carolina in his advocacy of good highways and 
railroad development. Opposed to secession, he threw himself into the struggle, 
and raised, equipped, and commanded Thomas's Legion, composed of two com- 
panies of Cherokees, and fourteen of white men. He also raised four cavalry com- 
panies, one of artillery, and one of engineers. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 101 

nocent Lamb along with salt until he gets him into the Pen and 
then he cuts his throat. 

Prepare in time at each election precinct & have 3 or 4 active 
& popular men stationed to aid you on the day of Election. That 
is a day for action, and not argument by our friends. If suitable 
men be stationed on the ground when the people light to hitch 
their horses tickets may be given them and march in plattoons to 
the Polls, still leaving one or two men to watch for others— and 
so soon as the votes are given let the parties return and look for 
more votes. In this way you get on smoothly and operate effec- 
tively. Guard the Polls well against fraud. 

Let your friends be early on the ground on the morning of the 
Election and open the polls soon in the day, & move actively 
until the votes are all taken. 

Montgomery & Hawkins, & many more followers of Van Buren 
were in the Legislature of N C in 1827 when they ordered the 
public money to be deposited in the Banks. Inquire of the People, 
if they are willing to pay their Taxes only in Gold & Silver. Where 
is the money? There are but 80 Millions of specie in U S, and 
15 Millions of people. Well we must pay our debts before we 
divide. The expence of each year since Van Buren came into 
power is: in 1827—37 millions; in 1838—39 millions+; In 1839— 
37 millions. They say they are going to reduce. I would rather see 
than hear tell of Reduction: 

But take 35 millions only as the govt Expence. 35 from 80 
leaves 45— well 15 (millions of People) into 45 will go 3 times, 
that is 3 Silver Dollars or $3 in Specie to each individual. Ask the 
people if they are willing to vote that each person in this great 
nation shall have but $3. It wont pay Taxes, buy necessaries, or 
leave any currency to trade on. 

This silver scheme of the President will carry all the gold & 
silver out of N. C. and heap it up in N York and Charleston 
where specie only will be reed. 

You can improve on these Hints 

+ about one half of all the Specie in U States. [James Graham's 


102 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Broadside U. 

July, 1840. 

Negro Evidence Against White Men. 

The Position of the Administration defined— 

Van Buren's cloven foot shown— 

Negroes to be Witnesses in 
all United States Courts against White Men! ! ! 

In Lieut. Hooe's case, Negro Witnesses were received against 
a white man— an Officer in the Navy— a Southern man— and in 
a slave-holding Territory— and he was convicted. The President 
of the United States was appealed to by Lieut. Hooe, and earnest- 
ly entreated to interfere and save him from the sting of a dis- 
graceful punishment, on a conviction supported by Negro testi- 
mony. But Mr. Van Buren refused to hear— he refused to see any 
thing wrong in the proceedings, and therefore declined to give 
redress— so that a gallant young man who had bravely served 
his Country was disgraced— reprimanded and dismissed from the 
squadron to which he belonged. Mr. Key, the Van Buren At- 
torney of the District of Columbia, gave a written opinion, that 
under the law of the United States, Negroes were good Witnesses 
against white men, and therefore the Court in Lieut. Hooe's 
trial had acted rightly. 

When this shameful trial was first heard of, many Whigs said, 
if this testimony could be received in Courts Martial against the 
officers and soldiers of the Army and Navy, so could it be against 
ALL OF US, in the Federal Courts. This was at first denied, and 
it was attempted to make a difference between the two cases; 
but now the whole truth is discovered. The opinion of Mr. Van 
Buren, of his Naval Secretary, of his District Attorney, and of 
his Newspaper, the Globe, became known amongst the faithful- 
apology is no longer attempted— what has been done is openly 
justified, and it becomes at once an article of the Locofoco creed, 
that Negroes may lawfully be admitted as Witnesses against 
White men— and the Officers appointed by Mr. Van Buren to 
prosecute in the United States Courts, do not hesitate openly to 
proclaim, that if the Courts will allow them to do so, they 
will offer such black Witnesses against any white man whatever, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 103 

and will, upon such testimony, convict him of any crime., whether 
it concerns his character, his person or his life— so far as they can. 
Such is the despotism of Party— such the degradation to which 
Van Buren seeks to reduce the once gallant and high-spirited 

Read the Certificates which follow. Certificates from men of 
as much truth as live in the world. Read, men of the South! Read, 
white citizens of North Carolina! and say if you are willing, that 
your lives— aye, and the lives of your children, shall depend on 
Negro testimony? Will you support a man like Van Buren, who 
professing to have Southern feelings, declares that Negroes ought 
to be Witnesses against white men. 

Are you for equality between Negroes and yourselves— between 
black women and your wives— black children and your children. 
If you are, vote for Van Buren, and for Van Buren Candidates. 
But if not— then go to the polls— and vote against every man who 
supports Van Buren, and thus show your detestation of the man 
who has grossly insulted the South by declaring that Negroes are 
good Witnesses against White Men! 

The Certificates Above Referred To: 

No. 1. 

W. R. Gales To The Hon. James Iredell. 24 

Raleigh, July 23, 1840. 

My dear Sir—Y took occasion yesterday in an Address which I 
delivered to the People, to allude to certain declarations said 
to have been made in your presence, as I learn from highly 
respectable authority, by James B. Shepard, 25 Esq. United States 
Attorney for the district of North-Carolina,— declarations which, if 
rightly reported to me, go to assert to the fullest extent, the 

24 James Iredell (1788-1853), of Raleigh, a son of Justice James Iredell (1751- 
1799), of the Supreme Court of the United States. Educated at Princeton, he became 
a lawyer, was a soldier in the War of 1812, a member of the commons, 1813, 1816- 
1818, and speaker, 1817-1818; judge, 1819, governor, 1828, and a democratic member 
of the United States senate, 1828-1831. He was later reporter of the state supreme 
court for twelve years. 

25 James Biddle Shepard (1815-1871), native of New Bern, graduate of the uni- 
versity, state senate, 1842, house of commons, 1844, United States district attorney, 
Democratic candidate for governor, 1846, who had a wide reputation as an orator. 

104 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

principle recognized and sanctioned by Mr. Van Buren, in Lieut. 
Hooe's case. Believing that the doctrine in that case, sanctioned 
by Mr. Van Buren, is fraught with danger to our institutions, 
particularly when a Southern man is found ready to enforce them, 
I felt it not only my right, but my duty, to make such comments 
thereon as appeared to me warranted by the facts of the case. 
I was however greatly surprised, when I alluded to Mr. Shepard's 
declarations, to hear Major Rand, one of the Administration Can- 
didates, read from the stump, a Communication from that gentle- 
man, in which he denies having used the objectionable language 
charged upon him. This places me, Sir, in a delicate situation. 
If I have wronged Mr. Shepard, pray afford me the means of doing 
him justice before the people. If I have not wronged him, and 
he has, in the excitement of party discussion, used language which 
he now seeks, after cool reflection to justify, I ask at your hands 
that you will afford me the necessary weapons of self-defence. I 
have charged, that he, Mr. S. said openly, that as United States 
Attorney, he would be willing to introduce Negro testimony into 
the Federal Court, and leave it to the Judge to decide as to 
admissibility; and that he further declared, that he would rely 
more upon the evidence of a free negro than he would upon 
that of many a white man. If this statement is substantially cor- 
rect, please say so. If not, inform me what Mr. Shepard did say, 
and oblige 

Yours, truly, 
Weston R. Gales. 

No. 2. 

James Iredell To James Shepard, Esq, 

Raleigh, July 23, 1840. 
Dear Sir:— I have just understood that at a muster in this County, 
on yesterday, a letter from you relating to a conversation I had 
with you a few days ago, at the Post Office, in relation to Negro tes- 
timony in the Federal Courts, was produced and read. I have been 
called on by the Whig Candidates, for a statement of the sub- 
stance of that conversation, and feel myself not only at liberty, but 
bound to give it, as the conversation was a public one, in the 

The Papers of William A. Graham 105 

presence of at least fifteen or twenty persons, and as I apprized 
you that I was adressing you as the Representative of the General 
Government in the Federal Courts of North-Carolina, and would 
use your answer before the people. As the purport of your letter 
may have been misunderstood by the gentleman who communi- 
cated to me its contents, I respectfully ask a copy of it, that I 
may do you no injustice in the Certificate I intend to give. 

My Certificate will be given this afternoon, and the copy of 
your letter, (if you send it to me) shall be returned this evening. 

Your respectfully, 
Jas. Iredell. 

No. 3. 

(Copy of Mr. Shepard's letter, as furnished 
to Mr. Iredell by himself.) 

Tuesday morning, July 24, 1840. 

James B. Shepard To N. G. Rand, 26 

Dempsey B. Massey/ 7 and James M. Mangum. 28 

Gentlemen:— I have understood that in several public Speeches 
delivered by different individuals, the accusation has been made 
against me of saying, that as District Attorney of the United 
States, I would admit free Negro testimony against White Men, 
whenever a fair opportunity offered. I do not hesitate to pro- 
nounce the charge either gross misrepresentation, or an unworthy 
attempt to pervert the truth. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
James B. Shepard. 

No. 4. 

James Iredell To W. R. Gales. 

Raleigh, July 23, 1840. 

Dear Sir:— At your request, I do not hesitate to repeat to you 
the substance of a conversation which occurred between Jas. B. 

26 Nathaniel G. Rand, of Wake, was a member of the commons, 1825-1826, 1830- 
1833, 1836-1842, 1854-1856. 
^Dempsey B. Massey, of Wake, was a member of the commons, 1838-1842. 
28 James M. Mangum, of Wake, was a member of the commons, 1838-1842. 

106 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Shepard, Esq. District Attorney of North Carolina, and myself, 
at the Post Office, in this city, some four or five days ago. 

I met Mr. Shepard at the Post-Office soon after the arrival 
of the Northern mail, and before the door of the office was 
opened, (some fifteen or twenty persons, I presume, were present,) 
I commenced the conversation by alluding, rather jocularly, to 
the question which had been discussed that morning in the 
Tippecanoe Club. Whether Mr. Van Buren had ever shown, 
by his acts, any republican principles, and asked Mr. Shepard if 
he could adduce any? Some conversation ensued, which it is 
unnecessary to relate, as it does not apply to the subject of 
your letter. I then mentioned to Mr. Shepard the conduct of Mr. 
Van Buren in relation to the case of Lieut. Hooe, of Virginia, 
and his approval of the proceedings of a Court Martial, held in 
a port in Florida, in which negroes had been introduced as wit- 
nesses against Lieut. Hooe, and asked him to say, whether he, as 
the District Attorney of the United States for the district of 
North Carolina, and therefore representing the Government in 
all the Courts of that District, would offer to introduce Negro 
testimony against white men in any of the said Courts, stating 
to him that, in my opinion, there was no difference in regard 
to this matter between the rules of evidence in a Court Martial, 
sitting in a slave-holding State, and a Federal Court, Circuit or 
District, sitting in a slave-holding State. To this inquiry, I under- 
stood Mr. Shepard to reply distinctly, that he would offer such 
testimony, that is, Negro testimony, against white persons. I 
expressed my surprise, and told Mr. Shepard I had asked him, 
as District Attorney, because the people of the State had a right 
to know by what rules they were to be tried in the Federal Court, 
to which, in certain cases, they were equally as amenable as to 
their own State Courts, and that I should make a public use of 
his answer. I then repeated my question— Mr. Shepard said, it 
was an abstract question; but on my telling him it was an im- 
portant practical question, in which the people of this State were 
deeply interested, he replied, that if he had no doubt that the 
Negro testimony could be introduced against white men under 
the laws of the United States, he would introduce it; if he had 
doubts, he would offer the testimony to the Court, and be 
governed by their opinion. In the course of the conversation, Mr. 
Shepard did say, that there were Negroes, or many Negroes, that 
he would believe in preference to some white men, or to many 
white men— the precise words I do not undertake to repeat— but 

The Papers of William A. Graham 107 

this was the substance. Indeed, in all I have said in relation to this 
conversation, I cannot give you the exact words, or the precise 
order in which the conversation occurred, but I cannot be mis- 
taken in saying, I have given you the substance and the meaning 
of Mr. Shepard's language. 

I may be pardoned for adding, that, condemning as I do most 
strongly, the course of Mr. Van Buren, in relation to Lieut. 
Hooe's case, I did hope and expect, that when I asked Mr. Shep- 
ard the questions I did, that he, although a Van Buren partizan 
and District Attorney of the U. States for North Carolina, but 
still born, education and living in a Southern State, would have 
joined me most heartily in reprobating the introduction of Negro 
testimony against white men, particularly in our own, or any 
other Slave-holding State. My disappointment and chagrin were 
great, when I saw him even hesitate upon this subject, and still 
greater when he expressed the sentiments I have mentioned. 

I may add too, that I had not then, nor have I now, the slight- 
est personal animosity against Mr. Shepard, nor the most remote 
desire to injure him personally. 


Ja. Iredell. 

No. 5. 


We, the undersigned, do certify, that we were present at the 
conversation above alluded to by Gen. IREDELL, and believe 
his statement of it to be substantially accurate. 

Jno. M. Mason, J. A. Campbell. 

Geo. W. Mordecai, Wm. Peace/ 
Wm. Boylan, Bernard Dupuy, 

Geo. Little/ 9 James Litchford/ 1 

Geo. W. Polk, 

^George Little (1810-1876), of Raleigh, who was, prior to the Civil War, active 
and influential in Whig politics. 

^William Peace (1773-1865), of Raleigh, educated at the university, a merchant 
of considerable wealth, director of the Bank of the State, founder of Peace Institute. 

31 James J. Litchford (1825-1894), a merchant of Raleigh. 

108 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From James W. Bryan. U. 


Aug. 9th, 1840. 

Your majority in Craven is 100— in Carteret between 80 & 100— 
in Jones 49— in Pitt we learn about 200— in Beaufort Co. (official) 
414— in Washington County 237— in Wayne the vote, we learn, 
stands Graham 317, Shepard 884. 

Street 32 is elected over Chadwick, 33 Whig, to the Senate in this 
Co. by two votes— this election can easily be set aside in favour of 
Chadwick if it should become necessary. Street has received a num- 
ber of illegal votes, and Chadwick is truly and honestly elected. 

Washington 34 and Guion 35 are elected (Whigs) to the Com- 
mons, by large majorities. Howard 36 is elected in the Senatorial 
district of Jones and Carteret, and Foy, 37 Whig, from Jones, in the 
Commons. Piggott, 38 Whig, is elected from Carteret. Wm. Fer- 
rand, 39 Loco, is elected to the Senate in Onslow, & Cox in the 
Commons. We have gained a member in Lenoir; 40 he has hereto- 
fore been an "independent," but will vote with the Whigs now. 
Speight 41 has beaten Taylor 42 (Whig) in the Senatorial district 
of Greene and Lenoir— and Edwards 43 has beaten Horn, Whig, in 
Greene. This is all the election news we have. 

We reached home safely and leave for Beaufort the last of this 
week. I have only time to write you this short note. 

32 Nathan H. Street, of New Bern, state senator, 1846, 1860. 
^Samuel Chadwick, of New Bern, member of the commons, 1854. 

34 William Henry Washington, of Craven, member of congress, 1841-1843, of the 
commons, 1846, and of the state senate, 1848-1852. 

35 Henry T. Guion, of Craven, member of the commons, 1846. 

36 James W. Howard, of Jones, member of the commons, 1831, 1834-1835, state 
senator, 1842, 1846. 

37 William Foy, of Jones, member of the commons, 1844-1846. 

38 Jennings Piggott, of Carteret, member of the commons, 1846-1850. In December, 
1862, he was elected to the Federal congress in a so-called election, ordered by 
Edward Stanly as military governor, but was not seated. 

"William Pugh Ferrand, of Onslow, briefly a student of the university, a 
physician, member of the commons, 1826. He was not elected nor was Cox. 
40 Jesse Jackson, of Lenoir, member of the commons, 1844-1846. 
"Edwin G. Speight, of Greene, member of the state senate, 1842-1850. 

42 John W. Taylor, of Greene, member of the commons, 1840-1842. 

43 James G. Edwards, of Greene, member of the commons, 1844-1848. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 109 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Hillsboro', Aug. 15th, 1840. 

Our election in Orange has resulted in a decisive victory over 

Polls-G.[ov.] Morehead 1664 Saunders 1549 Maj 115. 
S.,[enate] Mangum 783 Allison 730 Maj 50. 
C[ommons] Graham 1720 Holt 44 1686 King 45 1656 J. 
Grahams 46 1564 Stockard 47 1566, Trolinger 48 1563, Jones 
1571, Horner 49 1480, Sheriff Turrentine 50 W[hig] 1784, 
Shaw V[an Buren], 1404. 

So you will perceive that we have carried the election of Gov- 
ernor, Senator and three out of 4 Commoners, and the fourth 
was only lost by the folly of our friends, in voting for Jones at 
this precinct, from merely personal considerations. You see that 
his majority is but 7 votes over J. Grahams although he was 30 
stronger than the vote of party at Hillsborough precinct. The 
triumph, however, is great though not perfect and has quite 
crushed the spirits of the Locos. 

Our labors were uninterrupted almost untill the election— Be- 
sides the electioneering resignations of Messrs. Brown and 
Strange, Montgomery came home and threw himself into the 
scale of our competitors, made a speech for them in one of their 
strongest sections after the campaign had closed. But it was all 
in vain; the real Whig strength of the County when fully dis- 
played surprized many of our own friends. My vote in this elec- 
tion, is the highest that has been ever given to any individual in 
a contest for the Legislature. 

In Wake all is lost and Saunders majority is 127. In Guilford, 
Morehead has a majority of about 1800 and in Davidson of 900. 
On the stage waybill last night is "good news from Stokes" but 
no details. You have no doubt heard of the triumphs in Halifax 

44 Michael William Holt (1811-1858), who began his political career as a member 
of the commons in 1804. He was state senator in 1820-1821, and again in the com- 
mons in 1840, and was the first senator from Alamance after its creation, in 1852. 

45 Nathaniel J. King had served in the preceding session of the legislature. 

46 James Grahams cannot be identified. He lived in the northern part of Orange. 
This was his sole election to the legislature. 

47 John Stockard served in the commons, 1826-1830, 1833-1836, 1838, 1842, 1848. 

48 Benjamin Trolinger, a Democratic wheel-horse, who had served in the preceding 

49 William Horner, a Democrat. 

60 James C. Turrentine, the incumbent. 

110 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

and Northampton. I regard it as now certain that we shall have 
a majority in the Legislature of at least 15 on joint ballot, and 
will elect Morehead by 4,000 maj. 

Brown is haranguing in the mountains, and Strange on the 
Cape Fear, but it will "signify nothing." We will endeavour to get 
Smith into the field immediately, but I fear he has not energy 
enough for the crisis. 

My family are all in good health. Both your children appear 
improved. I am myself sunburnt almost to the complexion of the 
redman, but am invigorated by the exercise and excitement of 
the campaign. Mangum kept the field constantly untill the day 
of election. Old "Santer Anner" has been terribly bedeviled, and 
is deeply mortified. 

I saw at Carvills last summer a small treatise on the roads of 
that State, etc. May I trouble you to purchase it and send me as 
well as any other information on the construction etc. of Turn- 
pike roads? I wish it, with reference to our contemplated road 
from Raleigh to Greensboro. Be pleased also to purchase for me 
a neat family Bible with a blank register, etc., and a copy of the 
New Testament in large type for Susan. She wrote you a few days 
ago requesting the favor of buying for her a piano and inclosing 
a check for $260. Please ship the whole to the care of White and 
Blume, Petersburg, Va., and inform me of the cost of the books, 
that I may forward it directly. 

I believe we have nothing in the way of news except the elec- 
tions; the affair between Gov. Iredell and Shepard 51 occasioned 
some fighting among the certifiers, the particulars of which I have 
not heard. Barnett is beaten in Person 15 votes. 

From James W. Osborne. U. 


August 26th, 1840. 

W 7 e have had an ardent struggle and a glorious result. It ex- 
ceeds the most sanguine expectations of the Whigs and is over- 
whelming to their adversaries. They were not prepared for such 

51 This has reference, probably, to the certificate of Iredell, with reference to 
James B. Shepard's attitude towards the employment of Negro testimony in the 
case of Lieutenant Eramett R. Hooe. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 111 

a disaster. Mr. Haywood of Raleigh, who is yet the presiding 
genius of the faction, had laid his calculations before their leaders 
in this region, had minutely detailed the state of affairs in each 
County— in a manly spirit had conceded that the result of the 
canvass for the office of Governor was doubtful, but that they 
should feel defeated if their majority in the Legislature was not 
as great as ten or twelve. I do trust that among other beneficial 
results of our victory we may never hear more of him or his cal- 

I was overjoyed at the result of your canvass in Orange. Your 
election was always too certain in my own estimation to admit of 
apprehension, but I feared and felt deeply for our friends Man- 
gum, Holt, and King. To friend Holt give my respects and con- 
gratulations. It was almost unreasonable to expect anything from 
a people whose political prejudices are so inviolate as in Meck- 
lenburg. The worst doctrines of the worst era have been long 
since imbibed and cherished among the people of Mecklenburg. 
I stemmed a heavy torrent of political prejudice, besides resisting 
almost single handed base personalities and low scurrility. 

If the polls were now purged, among my friends a general 
impression prevails that I am elected. The effort however— tho' 
strongly urged to do so— I shall not make. It is possible that I may 
see your City during the month of October. If so, I shall be most 
happy to make the acquaintance of your fair cousin. 

In this region there is some speculation as to the choice of Sen- 
ators. Mangum, with several prominent Whigs, I regret to learn, 
is not acceptable. Gaston, Badger, & yourself are among the per- 
sons towards whom conjecture points. I need not assure you how 
gratifying your election to that distinguished station would be to 
my own feeling, not only because it would be a theatre on which 
the highest honors within reach of an American citizen may be 
won, but because of my feelings as a relation, and the earliest 
recollections of my boyhood. 

Business will place it out of my power to visit Raleigh during 
the session. At that time I will be in Alabama looking after a 
cotton plantation, and its various interests. 

I think the Whigs should take ways and means to keep the 
good spirit alive until November. The Locos have no hope but 
from our supineness. 

112 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From James W. Bryan. U. 

Saratoga Springs, 

Aug. 29th, 1840. 

We reached here on Tuesday last, & found quite an agreeable 
company assembled at the Springs. We stopped at the United 
States Hotel & soon made a very agreeable and fashionable ac- 
quaintance. The Court of Errors is in session here, and I have 
been a constant attendant on their sittings. Many of their most 
distinguished Lawyers have addressed the Court, and on today 
a cause of much interest involving the right of Trinity Church to 
a large portion of their city property was taken up. Mr. B. F. 
Butler is now addressing the Court in reply to an argument made 
by a Mr. Warner for the Claimants, (Pltffs) and he will be suc- 
ceeded by D. B. Ogden on the same side. If you think seriously 
of ever leaving old N. C. come to N. York and your future will 
be made at the Bar; their best lawyers with one or two exceptions 
are very ordinary men, and they are crowded they tell me with 
more business than they can possibly attend to and that too which 
commands fees worth receiving. Our people are too poor and 
their cases to insignificant ever to pay a lawyer in N. C. for his 
services unless he resorts to a system which they would deem extor- 
tion. When I return to N. C. I will shew you how their causes 
are prepared for argument in the Court of Errors. 

We have made many interesting acquaintances & seen many 
grotesque looking beings here; the present fashionable style is 
to have the hair to grow from the corners of your mouth and meet 
in a tuft under the nose, so that you may keep it moving in 
gentle undulations with the breath of your nostrils. A larger tuft 
projects from the extremity of the chin like the top of a little pine 
sapling, and the more you grease the whole concern when eating 
the more luxuriant and rich it becomes. There are several ourang 
outang looking fellows here, who would certainly produce a mis- 
carriage upon some of our delicate married females if they were 
not exceedingly fashionable themselves. I think I could make 
money by shewing them in N. C. So much for the men; the 
women are some of them no better. They wear on their rumps 
little mountains, not quite as high as the hill on which Mr. Nor- 
wood lives, which elevate the whole body of their clothes, expos- 
ing their beautiful legs and "calves" and give them a bobbing 
about motion, which adds very much to their grace and gentility. I 

The Papers of William A. Graham 113 

saw one of them in St. Thomas' Church in N. Y. with a tumor 
on so large that it was with much difficulty she could squeeze 
into the pew door with the thing. I am within bounds when I 
say that it was as large as a dinner pot. What a thing it must be in 
warm weather! 

I have advised with some of the Whigs, and they intend to 
congratulate our State on their late Signal Success, at their Con- 
vention which meets at Syracuse on the 16th. of next month. I 
should be glad to hear from our State. Who are to be the Senators 
& who the Judge in place of Judge Toomer? 52 

Col. Ruffin (the Judge's brother) is here, with a large party 
from Alabama, and we are the sole representatives from the old 
North State. 

.y, .V, .V. .A/. ^f. 


I was exceedingly gratified to perceive that you had obtained 
so large a vote and that so many of your ticket had succeeded. 

Gen'l Scott 53 is here, and it is said would like to know whether 
it would be agreeable for him to follow in the footsteps of Gen'l 
Harrison, as it seems to be generally conceded that he will be the 
next President. We are much pleased with Lt. Gov. Bradish 54 
here; he is very courteous and polite and quite a "Lady's man." 
Ann and Cousin Eliza are delighted with him. 

Well— Can you read this? for I have been unable in the whole 
establishment to get a pen! As I did not intend the characters for 
heiroglyphics I hope you will make it out. 

w TP TP W ' 

62 John De Rosset Toomer (d. 1856), of Cumberland, briefly a student at the 
university, an able lawyer, a judge of the superior court, 1818-1819, appointed to 
the supreme court in 1829, and not elected, again a judge, 1837-1840. In the 
interim, he was a member of the commons, 1826, state senator, 1831-1832, and a 
delegate to the convention of 1835. 

53 Winfield Scott (1786-1866), native of Virginia, who had had a brilliant army 
career, beginning with the War of 1812, and who was, at this time, the ranking 
officer in the army. Mentioned for President in 1839, he never lost hope until 
after Lincoln's election. He and Graham were to head the Whig ticket in 1852. 

64 Luther Bradish (1783-1863), of New York, a native of Massachusetts, a grad- 
uate of Williams College; lawyer, soldier in the War of 1812; diplomatic commis- 
sioner to Turkey, 1820; Whig member assembly, 1827-1830, 1835-1838; (speaker, 
1838), lieutenant-governor, 1838-1842; president of the New York Historical Society, 

114 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From James Graham. U. 


Sept. 4th, 1840. 

I have been at Washington since Congress adjourned sending 
off Papers of various sorts to all parts of N. C, and lastly I have 
sent out 4000 Copies of my speech, and the Congressional Com- 
mittee have just ordered Ten Thousand of them to be published 
for other States. I have stayed so long I believe I will go by the 
Virginia Springs and stay a week and then go to Guiandot and 
take the Ohio River for Memphis, Ten., so as to reach home the 
last of October. . . . 

H& tF inF tF tF 

I think your prospect to be elected a Senator in place of Brown, 
whole full Term is vacant, may be very good. I think you had 
better extend some marked civility to the members of Assembly, 
while of course you would say but little on that subject except to 
confidential friends. You will of course first run for the Speaker's 

Every possible effort should be made to carry the presidential 
election in Nov. There is great danger from fancied security. 
Four years ago when Dudly was elected, the Whigs reposed upon 
their laurels while the friends of power gathered strength from 
defeat and disciplined their forces and won victory. 

My contested Election was the result on the part of my friends 
of supposed Security and they did not go to the Polls. I tried to 
prevail on them to be active, but they laughed at me when I 
talked of danger. Let every County and Captains company have 
its organization and persons appointed in each Company to go 
round among the people a few days before the election to prevail 
on them to be sure to go and vote; let no one stay at home. Dr. 
Smith should be active, and speak often at public places. The 
young men are the Boys for this Contest; they are captivated with 
military glory. There is more Huzza An old Tip, than any body 
is aware of. Make no issues with Jackson, let him alone; give his 
letters the go-bye. hold Van up, on the Sub Treasury the Militia 
Army, the negro testimony, the Expenditures, the Defaulters, the 
want of Capacity to manage the Florida War, which has now lost 
25 millions. 

A change of men is necessary to investigate frauds. Power will 
never condemn itself. Low wages and prices. Every thing depends 

The Papers of William A. Graham 115 

on efficient and systematic arrangements. Each of our N Papers 
should keep a standing column of the Majorities in Kentucky, 
16,000, Indiana, 9,000, Virginia, 3,000, Louisiana, 25,000 and 
N. Carolina, 8,700. This will encourage friends and discourage 
enemies. Have no festivals or barbecues. Send out short tracts. 
Ex tracts , Letters or Speeches , where the facts can be seen quickly 
and Clearly. I do believe N. C. is in great danger. The Presiden- 
tial purse & foreign interference will be actively exorcised. Warn 
our people of its approach. Our Ancestors in the Revolution made 
Gov. Martin take water, when he was the tool of the King; now 
let us make President Martin's foreign tools, pimps, and parasites, 
and slaves of power and the Palace take water, or run them up a 

If Van had not the public money (30 or 40 Millions) in his 
britches pocket, he could not stand-up long enough to be knocked 
down in this contest. But no matter what a President does or says, 
at least 7 excuses can be offered for him, one for each of the five 
loaves and two fishes in the Treasury. The iveakest King in Europe 
is dangerous with the public money in his pocket. And the most 
talented man in any Kingdom can't do much harm without the 

Let the Whigs hold on to the word & name Republican on all 
occasions and put it on their Ticket. 

In the Presidential contest every vote counts, hence in counties 
like Caswell they should be active & organize. 

If you carry Orange in Nov., the Whigs will hold it for years, 
and if you do not, the loco's will be hard to beat. You can do much 
by enlisting substantial Farmers and Mechanicks, but above all 
attend to the young men in this election, Give them songs & 
anacdotes, they are often better than reasons and arguments be- 
fore the People. 

I have sent my speeches to all the persons on the lists I had 
from Orange, Person, & Caswell and five speeches to each of the 
Whig electors in the State. 

The members elected in each county to the Legislature can 

do much if they will be active. Gov Morehead by writing to his 

friends in different parts of the State can do much to encourage 

them to action. 

# # # # # 

My health is good, I have derived great benefit from the con- 
stant use of a Flesh Brush and regular Exercise, if I could work 

116 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

two hours every day, I should have first rate health— I am fearful 
you do not exercise enough. 

Political Invitation U. 

Surry County, Sept. 15, 1840. 

The Whigs of Surry County, grateful for the success of their 
cause, as manifested by the result of the late elections in this and 
in other States of the Union, and believing that their principles, 
if known and understood, would be more generally, if not uni- 
versally adopted, have determined to hold a meeting of the friends 
of Harrison and Reform, at the town of Rockford, in said county, 
on Tuesday, the 20th. day of October next. 

The undersigned, acting in behalf of their Whig brethren, 
most respectfully invite you to attend on that occasion, to partake 
of the festivities of the day, and to cheer and animate us by your 
example. Your known devotion to the cause, gives an assurance, 
we hope, that we shall not be disappointed in having the pleasure 
of your company. 

Richard C. Puryear, Nathaniel Boyden, Columbus Frank- 
lin, Henry P. Poindexter, Francis P. Clingman, Nicholas 
L. Williams, William D. Somers, Josiah Cowles, Nathan 
Hunt, T. J. Williams, Benj'n F. Menafee, Isaac Jarratt, 
Tiry Glenn. 

Com. of Invitat'n. 

Invitation to speak at Williamston. U. 


Sept. 15th., 1840. 

A Convention of the people this and other adjoining Counties 
will be held at Hamilton on the 21st. day of October next, at 
which place extensive preparations are being made for a festival 
on that Occasion. 

Your zeal and energy in the great Cause of Harrison reform 
have induced your Committee to express to you their admiration 

The Papers of William A. Graham 117 

of your efforts and earnestly desire that your convenience will 
permit you to meet our fellow Citizens on that Occasion. 
With Sentiments of great regard, 

Your Ob't Serv'ts, 

Jos. J. Williams, Jno. B. Griffin, S. W. Bagley, J. H. Burnette, 
S. M. Smithwick, Wm. J. Ellison, C B. Russell. 


From Matthias E. Manly. U. 

Newbern, Nov. 12th, 1840. 

My dear Graham 

Several persons in this part of the State feeling the necessity 
of a resident judge in the district have pressed me to allow my 
name to be put before the Legislature for one of the vacancies 
to be filled by that body this winter. 

I have said that with the approbation of some of my friends in 
the Legislature and elsewhere I would consent. 

What think you of it? 

I have much confidence in your judgment as well as in your 
friendly regard and shall feel perfectly safe in your hands. 

After consultation with the members of the house of Commons 
from this County, (who are my friends), with my brother, and 
any others whom you may think proper to consult, I know you 
will be able to mark out such a course as will best become all 

I am actuated in yielding to the wishes of gentlemen and allow- 
ing myself to be put before the Legislature by an impression that 
my habits of acting, thinking, Sc speaking are better suited to the 
bench than the bar: and I doubt not a similar impression has 
influenced the selection of myself in preference to others who are 
equally well, if not better qualified in other respects. 

The gentlemen of the bar in this part of the State, with the 
cooperation of the Governor placed me before the Council in 
the Summer, but I was not the choice of that body. Of this, I dare 
say, you have had an account. 

I mention now to show that I ought not to be considered in 
the light of an opponent of the executive appointments, but on 
the contrary as one who has been opposed in an unusual manner 


Van Buren 

139 Majority 



118 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

and who is seeking to be reinstated in the position where the 
Council found him. 

May I rely upon your accustomed frankness for your exact 
views in relation to this matter, and upon your friendship for 
such advice and aid as may be needful in the progress of it? 

This is the day of the election for President and Vice President. 
I hope and believe it has resulted in North Carolina, as elsewhere, 
in such a manner as to shake and put down all selfish and un- 
principled politicians for a century to come. 

We have heard only from a few precincts in this county 


These two Whig precincts shew a Whig gain In August New- 
bern gave a majority of one hundred and ten only for the Whigs, 
and Ives a majority of twenty one for the loco party 

I fear you will be a little bothered to agree upon two fitting 
persons to fill the vacant seats in the Senate of the U. S. Com- 
promise must be resorted to and the best selected without ref- 
erence to their local positions. 

I should like to be in Raleigh and throw in my mite of counsel 
in the premises. If you decide to dispose of the Judgeships earlier 
[illegible] I may yet be with you. 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Raleigh, Nov. 18th, 1840. 

You will perceive by the Register that the Legislature has been 
organized, by the appointment of the old Speakers and Clerks in 
both houses. Many of our friends had desired that Gales should 
be elected, instead of Stone in the Senate, but a few seemed 
rather disposed to patronize dullness and Locofocoism, than to 
hazard the imputation of proscription. The V. B. men desired in 
the Commons that they should not be obliged to vote in the 
election of Speaker, and suggested that no vote should be taken. 
They seem exceedingly amiable, but are confident in the belief 
that they can controul one of the appointments to the Senate 
U. S. It seems now to be conceded that Mangum will be elected 
to Brown's seat, and the long term. There will be some difficulty 
in relation to the other. L. Williams is here, and came prepared 

The Papers of William A. Graham 119 

to make war on Mangum, but perceiving the current of public 
sentiment, he is said to be changing his tone and going for the 
other seat. He can do nothing for himself, but has a fraction of 
the party who may be mischievous. Badger is in a bad humour and 
says he thinks we have a bootless triumph. He has anxious friends 
but can't get a majority of the party. I believe he will be satis- 
fied, however, as it is designed to recommend him by Legislative 
Convention for the office of Atto. Genl. 

Swain has a considerable anxiety, and may get a considerable 
number of votes. Gov. Owen brings but one vote from his Con- 
gressional district, and (although the choice of the people of 
Raleigh) cannot succeed except after many trials. W. B. Shepard, 
I think, can do nothing. It is said that Williams, on finding that 
his own prospects are not the brightest, is for Aug. Shepperd. 
I have not moved myself on the subject, though some of my 
friends are busy in making inquiries, and say that if Badger & 
Swain are disposed of, I shall be certainly chosen. There is to a 
grand Caucus tonight to make arrangements, and probably to 
determine the election. 

I have received a letter from our friend Manly in relation to 
the Judicial appointment. Please say to him that I have not yet 
been able to satisfy myself on the subject, & that I will write him 
by the mail of Friday. Battle, I presume, will be reappointed. 
Hall, 55 so far as I can now judge, will not. D. F. Caldwell of 
Salisbury is a Candidate and will be formidable, whether to suc- 
cess or not, I cannot say. Indeed every body is so agog, about the 
election of Senators that there are few developments about any- 
thing else. 

I have not seen your brother since my arrival. McQueen 56 is in 
the field for Atto. Genl. and Badger proposes Edwd. Stanly. 
Guinn, Gaither, and Bynum 57 are Candidates for Sol. in the 

55 Edward Hall (1795-1877), of Warren, son of Judge John Hall, graduate of the 
university, who had been appointed by the governor a judge of the superior court. 
He failed of election later. 

56 Hugh McQueen, of Chatham and Wake, briefly a student of the university, 
lawver, member of the commons, 1829-1833, state senator, 1834-1835, delegate 
convention of 1835, and attorney general, 1840-1842. He was editor of the Columbian 
Repository, the Emerald, and the Raleigh Star, all for brief periods, and the 
author of a manual of oratory. Little is known of him today, but his reputation 
for brains and ability has defied the years. 

67 John Gray Bynum (1813-1857V of Stokes, Lincoln, and Rutherford, a graduate 
of the university, state senator, 1840, 1850, member of the commons, 1854. He was 
editor of the Carolina Gazette, and author of the Western Address of 1851. He 
studied law under Judge Gaston, and became a highly successful practitioner. He 
was brilliant, forceful, and aggressive. 

120 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

mountain riding, and Dodge, 58 Horn, 59 Jones 60 & Genl Cook 61 in 
the next one to it. The last are a thirsty trio. I neglected say that 
Judge Gaston has been written to by Clingman, asking his con- 
sent to run for the Senate, and the reply was expected last night. 
But I have not heard what it is. He is said to have written a letter 
to Chatham 62 putting himself at the command of his friends, etc. 
He will be strong if brought forward, but cannot get some mem- 
bers of the party at all. 

Jfe Jfe Jfa 4g» Jfa 


I will write from here to Judge R. 63 in relation to the Reporters 
office. I have not seen him since the summer term of the Court. 
[P.S.] The Presidential election has been a perfect hurricane. 
The majority in N. C. will be 12,000. 

Judge Barbour 64 adjourned his Court on Monday. He has been 
occupying Mrs. Taylor's office, & had many visits from Candi- 
dates for Clerks, doorkeepers, etc., on my account. He is a 
pleasant old gentleman & a great talker. 

68 James R. Dodge (1795-1880), a native of New York, aide to his father, a general 
officer in the War of 1812, he came to the state more or less by accident. Wrecked 
on his way to Charleston in 1817, he landed at Norfolk, drifted to Petersburg, 
where he studied law under the famous David Robertson, who introduced him to 
Judge Ruffin, who befriended him, as did a number of prominent lawyers. He 
settled in Stokes, and married a niece of the famous Williams brothers, was 
solicitor, clerk in the legislature, and, finally, clerk of the supreme court at its 
Morgan ton division, 1847-1858. He became the intimate friend of Ruffin, Badger, 
Graham, the Manlys, Henderson, Morehead, and Gaston. He was a nephew of 
Washington Irving. 

69 Probably Nicholas Horn, of Surry, a member of the commons, 1802-1812, 1814. 
His name was not presented. 

60 Hamilton Chamberlain Jones (1798-1868), a native of Virginia, a graduate of 
the university, who read law under Judge Gaston, and then settled at Salisbury, 
where he founded the Carolina Watchman, which became an influential Whig 
paper. He was a member of the commons, 1827, 1829, 1838-1840, 1848; solicitor, 
1840-1848; and reporter of the supreme court. 

61 Probably James Cook, of Davie County. 

62 1 have been unable to discover to whom Judge Gaston was supposed to have 
sent it, and it is not likely that such a letter was written. The correespondence in 
the Gaston Papers has a number of such requests to him, and his reply in every 
case, was a courteous refusal. 

63 Judge Thomas Ruffin. 

64 Philip Pendleton Barbour (1783-1841), of Virginia, a graduate of William and 
Mary, member of the delegates, 1812-1814, member of congress, 1814-1825, (speaker, 
1821-1823), 1827-1830, judge of the Federal district court, associate justice of the 
supreme court of the United States, 1836-1841. He refused many other important 

The Papers of William A. Graham 121 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Raleigh, Nov. 21st, 1840. 

I wrote Mr. Manly by the last mail, advising him to come to 
Raleigh forthwith. It is now conceded even by Badger, the God- 
father of Hall, that he has failed to realize the public wish, and 
that he will not do. Caldwell of Salisbury declines, and there is 
no certainty as to the other Candidates, who they may be, or 
what will be their prospects. Swain is now talked of, Roberts 65 of 
Buncombe, & Winston— the last of whom will probably be a Can- 
didate for Atto. Genl. however. Your brother refuses to receive 
it, Moore 66 of Halifax & Iredell are now mentioned in connexion 
with it. But the wishes of neither is known to me. 

There was a party meeting on Wednesday evening at which 
there was no little wrangling in relation to the election of Sen- 
ators. Williams or (as he is here called) "Panther Creek," was 
represented there by the members from his district headed by 
Boyden 67 & Bynum. They refused to be governed by the wishes 
of a majority for some time. But after another resolution that 
the party would support no one who was not a friend of a Bank 
of U. S. and the distribution of the public lands, they finally 
assented, and Monday night was appointed for the filling of the 
appointments. Mangum was then nominated for the long term 
& called out on the questions already mentioned, he avowing his 
consent to both. Shepard was then nominated by Speed for the 
short term— 2 years. My name was then added, and Boyden men- 
tioned Williams, Badger, Gaston, & Swain as probable Candi- 

66 Joshua Roberts (1795-1865), a native of Cleveland County, a lawyer, who 
lived in Macon County, and later in Buncombe, where he established the first 
newspaper in western North Carolina. 

66 Bartholomew Figures Moore (1801-1878), of Halifax, a graduate of the univer- 
sity, a Whig lawyer, who served in the commons, 1836-1846, and was deeply 
interested in internal improvements, and care of the unfortunate. He was attorney 
general, 1848-1851, and one of the commission to revise the statutes, 1851. He was 
bitterly opposed to secession, and declined to take an oath to support the Confed- 
erate constitution. He was an influential member of the convention of 1865, and 
he wrote the code for the freedman, notable for its moderation, which the legis- 
lature adopted. He opposed congressional reconstruction. 

67 Nathaniel Boyden (1796-1873), a native of Massachusetts, who, after graduation 
from Union College, came to Guilford, and then to Stokes, as a teacher. He studied 
law, was a Whig member of the commons from Stokes, 1838-1840, and, moving to 
Salisbury in 1842, was state senator in 1844, and a member of congress, 1847-1849. 
He was a delegate to the convention of 1865, again member of congress, as a 
Republican, 1868-1869, and a justice of the state supreme court, 1872-1873. 

122 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

dates. Dr. Hill 68 proposed Gov. Owen. And Dr. Hellen 69 nom- 
inated you. Shepard 70 & myself were called on for our opinions 
as Mangum had been, & he gave his full approval of a Bank, tho' 
at the last Session he proposed three and made a speech which is 
said to have condemned the idea of one. He is also anxious to 
have the Federal Government patronize Nags Head, $c rallies 
the support of his section on that question. Mr. Pettigrew 71 is 
here doing something for him, and attempts are also making on 
the members from your district in his behalf. The contest for 
the short term will be between him and myself, and our friends 
believe I shall receive the nomination of the party by a large 
majority. Mangum will be elected, I think, to the long term 
without difficulty, though I hear today that the war will be re- 
newed upon him at the next meeting, and it may be attempted 
to be shewn that he has given written pledges against a Bank. 
Much acerbity may be produced but his election cannot be pre- 
vented. I have not spoken of the subject except in the circle of 
those, who have mentioned the matter to me. I find my nomina- 
tion acceptable in many quarters that I had formerly doubted. 
But for the hope which has by some been entertained untill now 
of electing Gaston or Badger, I believe I would receive the nomi- 
nation for the six years. I have had no conversation with the 
members from the New Bern riding. Attempts I know, are made 
to carry them for Mr. S. and their Eastern feelings are strongly 
appealed to. Without them, I believe the party nomination can 
be had, though I presume that some of them, at least, will be with 
us. I have perceived much jealousy among portions of the Whigs, 
and fear that the Session will not pass over without some defection 
from the ranks. 

I will write you again after the nominations are determined on, 
Provided they are made by Wednesday. 

I learn from your brother, that you will be here the last of 
next week. Nothing of consequence has been introduced as yet, 
and but little will be done untill after the elections. 

68 Frederick Jones Hill (1790-1861), of "Orton," Brunswick County, and of 
Chatham, physician and planter, state senator, 1835, delegate to the convention of 
1835, member of the commons, 1836-1842. 

69 Isaac Hellen, of Carteret, member of the commons, 1818-1820, 1822-1823, state 
senate, 1840, 1844. 

70 William B. Shepard. 

^Ebenezer Pettigrew (1783-1848), of Tyrell County, who attended the university 
in its opening year, was an extensive planter, was state senator, 1809-1810, and a 
member of congress, 1835-1837. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 123 

. . . The Railroad Companies are both beggars for patronage 
& in debt. 

[P.S.] Mr. J. Hawks is here, a Candidate for Judge but looks 

From. Maurice Q. Waddell. 12 U. 

Pittsboro, Novr. 22d, 1840. 
My Dear Graham 

I learn with much pleasure thro an individual travelling thru 
our Village that you have been elected by the Legislature to the 
Senate of the United States, 73 this at all times and under any cir- 
cumstances would have been gratifying to your friends, but pecu- 
liarly so under existing circumstances. Here was a party in the 
Legislature with sufficient majorities in both Houses to accom- 
plish any end they desired with the State before them to choose 
their Senators; there were aspirants to office aged and dignified; 
there were others who believed all that was necessary to insure 
their election was to let themselves down from their high estate 
and claim the places they believed the community was ready to 
grant them, without having ever once rendered important service 
to the cause which gave the Whigs the ability to clothe them 
with such authority. Under all these circumstances it is gratifying 
to see that the talents and Patriotism of one so young in years as 
yourself Should overcome the projudices which I feared might 
operate against your claim, in the general belief that age ren- 
dered an individual more sapient; so I believe Hugh 74 reckoned 
Judge Norwood as an advocate of when he insisted that the Judge 
would neither listen or place confidence in any one at the Bar 
unless he was an old fool. 

Your friends have cause to be proud of this distinction and as 
one of them you must excuse the liberty I take of writing you con- 
gratulations upon the subject. 

As a member of the Senate of the United States it is possible 
after Genl Harrisons inauguration you may have my name before 
the Senate for the office of Receiver of the Land office at Natche- 
toches, Louisiana. This cannot occur however until the next Ses- 
sion of Congress as there will be no Senate after the 4th March 

72 Maurice Quince Waddell (1838-1888), of Chatham, a brother of Hugh Waddell, 
studied briefly at the university, served in the commons, 1838, 1846, and was clerk 
and master in equity. 

73 The traveller had evidently been only informed of the nomination of Graham 
by the Whig caucus, as he was not elected until the 24th. See his letter of that 
date to Mrs. Graham, and also the legislative journal. 

74 Hugh Waddell. 

124 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

next until the next meeting of Congress which will confirm all 
appointments by the President but in the mean time Genl Harri- 
son will vacate the seat of the present incumbent, I have no doubt, 
and ought to do so, and I will be greatly obliged to you to repre- 
sent me favourably at Washington so that when application is 
made my claims (if any I have) may be strengthened. The Situa- 
tion is one which will suit me remarkably well in connection with 
my other business then I can make it a lucrative one. 

Any and all interest you will take in this matter for me will be 
thankfully received by your friend. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Raleigh, Nov. 24th, 1840. 
My Dear Susan: 

I was this day elected to the Senate of the United States, for 
the residue of the term of Mr. Strange, it being for two years 
after the fourth of March next. Mr. Mangum was elected to the 
vacancy of Mr. Brown, and also for the term of six years after 
the fourth of March. 

Though my appointment is grateful to my feelings, as a mani- 
festation of public esteem unusual to one of my age, 75 it is still a 

75 Whig editorial comment upon Graham's election was almost universally 
favorable, and a number of Democratic papers expressed pleasure at his selection, 
if a Whig had to be chosen. The two editorials which follow, are examples of 
Whig sentiment: 

"It was a remark of Lord Bacon, we think, that men are apt to be envious of 
those near their own age and condition, who may be raised to exalted station. This 
may be a reason why a shade of dissatisfaction, to some, accompanied the an- 
nouncement of Mr. Graham's election, over many grayer, not sounder, heads. He 
is probably the youngest member of the Senate. But the idea will at once strike 
every one at all acquainted with Mr. Graham, that another member of the Senate 
cannot be found, combining more of usefulness— more of the decision of business 
habits with highly accomplished talent. And he will carry into that august body 
more weight than any man of his age in the State. Besides, he is a Whig— mild, 
firm, consistent, liberal,— but every inch a Whig. Under all the circumstances, a 
more satisfactory appointment could hardly have been made from the host of 
North Carolina patriots." 

Greensboro Patriot, quoted 
in Hillsborough Recorder, Dec. 10th, 


"I rejoice that our State is at length represented by men who will do her justice. 
The calm dignity of Mr. Graham's character, his firm and unflinching integrity, 
and his cool, accurate, and judicious intellect, will place him high, I think, in the 
Councils of the Nation. 

We do not present him to the United States as a rival for Henry Clay in elo- 
quence, to Daniel Webster in vastness of intellect— or to Prentiss in sparkling wit- 
but with pride and confidence we present him, as pure in morals, sage in council, 
prompt in action, and determined in purpose— as a man— every inch of him, a 
man— and a gentleman." 

Letter in Raleigh Register, quoted 
in Hillsborough Recorder, Dec. 17th. 


The Papers of William A. Graham 125 

subject of painful reflection on many accounts. I will resign my 
seat as Speaker & as a member of the House of Commons from 
Orange, and will be in Hillsboro on Friday. 

Please to defer your leaving home untill I come up, and I will 
accompany you to this place next week. 

*jfe jfr jfa jfc 

w TP w w 

I could write you much in unbosoming my heart, on the event 
which has just taken place, but I hope to be with you soon, and 
am compelled to bring my letter to a close. 

From Matthias E. Manly. A. 


Nov. 26th, 1840. 

You have placed me under the greatest obligation by the kind 
terms of your letter of the 20th. 

It would have been earlier replied to but for my constant en- 
gagements during the past week in the services of the Bank over 
which I preside. From a letter however, written to my brother 
the contents of which I begged him to communicate you will have 
learned my present determination not to visit Raleigh; & the rea- 
sons therefor. 

I think the recent triumph of the cause of the republic should 
inspire the legislature with pure patriotism even in small matters. 
Let no prejudices or partialities sway but let the judges be se- 
lected from the whole field of choice with a single view to fitness. 
Subsidiary to this, it seems to me not improper to bestow them in 
such a way as to distribute throughout the state the benefits as 
well as the burthens of government. There is not a Circuit Judge 
east of the city of Raleigh. The Gentlemen of the Edenton riding 
insisted upon their rights a few years ago & a judge was conceded 
to them (Judge Baily) He has since removed to the west. 

It is surely not now an unreasonable expectation in the east, 
when there are two vacancies to fill that the selection of one 
should be made from amongst her citizens; or in this circuit that 
she should have her regular turn after Edenton in an attempt to 
furnish to the country a resident eastern judge. 

One consideration I have forborne to mention heretofore It is 
known to you that I had the nomination of the Executive in the 
last winter & that the council refused to concur As no reasons 

126 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

have ever been given for this extraordinary course it operates as 
a kind of stigma. This I am desirous of wiping out & placing 
myself at least in as sound a condition as I was in anterior to the 
time when my friends here sent my name to the Governor of the 

I leave this matter however where it properly belongs to the 
justice and patriotism of the General Assembly, & my own pecu- 
liar interest in it to you and others who will act in my behalf. 

I have been rejoiced to hear through various channels that you 
are likely to receive a nomination and appointment to the Senate 
of the United States to fill one of the vacancies in the delegation 
from this State. 

I trust this has already been done. Early in the summer when 
Judge Gaston & myself were discussing the public desire that he 
should be one of the Senators, your name was frequently men- 
tioned & we both concurred in the opinion that the appointment 
to one place ought to fall upon you beyond doubt. Since that 
time I have frequently mentioned it in this district & feel per- 
suaded that you will receive a handsome [support?] from our 
delegation. Nothing I assure you gives me greater pleasure than 
to hear of the advancement in life of my old school fellows 

I am a little surprised that the name of Judge Gaston should 
still be bandied about as a candidate for a seat in the Senate. He 
has repeatedly & positively declined it & it is unjust to him to 
hold him up now as a mere target to be shot at. I suppose those 
who speak of him in this connexion do so from the most friendly 
motives but it is nevertheless unfair to him & towards the true 
candidates. It leads many to believe that the Judge really wants 
to be nominated which I know is the farthest possible from the 

We have learned with some surprise down here that our fellow 
townsman Mr. Bryan was in nomination for the Senate. This is 
doubtless without his knowledge & against his decided wishes; 
as I have reason to know that he has advocated your appointment 
with earnestness wherever he has had a fitting opportunity. This 
is just to Mr. B. for I take it from your relations that he has made 
known to you his intentions to give you his support & if after 
this he had procured and sanctioned the bringing forward his 
own name it would be uncandid 

Hellen is Bryans friend but acts in this case without consulta- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 127 

To Susan Washington Graham, A. 


Monday night, Deer. 7th, 1840. 
My Dear Wife 

Having some leisure on my hands here I have concluded to give 
you some account of our journey. I had expected to reach Wash- 
ington City yesterday afternoon a 2 o'clock, but we have met with 
a series of delays from the snow and ice which keeps us now here, 
and probably will forbid our arrival for two days more. 

On Saturday we had a wretched day but travelled quite com- 
fortably in the cars, in which there was a stove & a good fire, 
arrived about dark at Gaston, & there learned that the train from 
Petersburg had not come out. The consequence was that we were 
obliged to lodge there for the night in a badly kept Hotel. The 
next morning (Sunday) we started after ten, on a thick ice, & 
after running five miles broke the axel of the tender which car- 
ried the boiler of the engine. This occasioned a halt for about 2 
hours & after jogging along as we could over the ice, arrived at 
Belfield, 20 miles from Gaston, just before night. No train having 
yet come out from Petersburg, & the ice continuing thick, we 
concluded after a parley, to stop there untill this morning. 

Set out about ten (with a bright sun for the first time since our 
departure) & encountering sleet thicker 8c thicker as we advanced, 
arrived here with some difficulty at 4 this afternoon, are now at 
the Bolingbroke Hotel and expect to go on to Richmond in the 
morning, but it is doubtful whether farther than that tomorrow. 

(Messrs. Mangum Stanly 8c others who left Raleigh on the day 
before us, did not get here untill Saturday 12 o'clock, A. M. were 
detained untill this morning & are now probably no farther than 
Richmond. Genl. Thompson of S. C. who was with them narrowly 
escaped being killed about 2 miles from here as they came in. He 
had gotten out of the car and was walking ahead as they came 
slowly through the snow, being muffled up in his cloak, & not 
hearing very well, the front car ran on him, knocked him down 
just along side of the rail, and the whole train passed over him, 
ripping his cloak & clothes along the back and pressing him down 
so as to bruise and lacerate his face, but without material injury 
except a severe stunning. I think that we shall perhaps overtake 
them at Richmond tomorrow and get on to Washington the next 
day— that will be three days later than I expected when leaving 

128 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Raleigh. Such a storm is altogether unusual so early in the season, 
& has no doubt delayed a large number of the members of Con- 

Bro. James and Messrs. Conner, Hawkins, Williams, of Ten., 
and Thompson, of Miss., & his lady are with me. I have suffered 
but little from cold, & all things considered, esteem myself for- 
tunate in getting along even so well as I have. 

"& •£• "fr "Jr tt 

From James W. Bryan. A. 

Newbern, Deer. 9th, 1840. 

I regretted exceedingly that I was deprived of the pleasure of 
seeing you at Raleigh on my recent visit to that place, as I had 
much to say, which the limits of a letter will not admit of. I am 
very reluctant to be numbered among that almost Scythian horde 
denominated office seekers, and do not desire to be placed in that 
relation to the Executive and shall not consider myself as such 
in the remarks which I wish to submit to your better judgment 
and sounder discretion, both of which I wish you to exercise, and 
advise me of, in this matter. I find that I have entirely failed to 
attain that strength and health, which I hoped to secure by my 
late summer excursion. Whilst in N. Y. our mutual friend, Dr. 
Washington, advised me that a residence in such a climate as 
Italy would entirely restore me to health as I had no disease of a 
fixed character & was perfectly sound in my system. I immediately 
turned my attention to Naples, & though that whatever may be 
my views in relation to that Mission, the present incumbent (Mr. 
Throop) 76 ought by all means to be removed in consequence of 
his connexion etc. with the Swartwout defalcation & that he had 
not proved a faithful & efficient officer of the Govt. & was so far 
as the developments made in that case would bear me out, un- 
worthy of his present situation, etc. I believed that I could repre- 
sent the Govt, there with credit to myself & our Country & that a 
residence there for some time would restore myself & family to 
good health. I have conversed with mo one except Dr. W. in 
relation to this matter & address you now as much to consult you 

T0 Enos Thompson Throop (1784-1874), of New York, Democratic member of 
congress, 1815-1816; judge, 1823-1827; governor, 1829-1833; charge to the Two Sicilies, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 129 

upon the propriety & expediency of it, as to induce you to pro- 
mote my views if it should become expedient for me to seek it. 
I claim no merit for my services in the late campaign for feeble 
as they were, I consider that I only discharged a duty to the Coun- 
try in contributing my mite towards its' regeneration. I disdain 
also to be considered an office seeker; the emoluments in this 
case cannot be an object & will not defray the expenses, etc. No 
inducement save the paramount consideration of my health could 
induce me to leave the U. S. 8c as I can regain that & discharge 
my duty to the Country at the same time I presume, I shall not be 
charged with an undue degree of selfishness. 

I presume Mr. Mangum & the N. C. delegation would aid in 
this matter, but I trust you will not let me be placed in the posi- 
tion of a seeker, for as I might possibly attain the same object by 
going to Florida, I would willingly do it if it were a fit place (at 
present) for a white man to carry his family there. Do let me know 
your views freely & unreservedly & I assure you they shall be re- 
ceived in the proper spirit & with great kindness of consideration. 

The present Collector at Ocracoke, Silvester Brown, 77 is in my 
opinion unfit for his office, has left it several times on Electioneer- 
ing tours & was the author of a hand bill against me because I 
was opposed to the administration in my last Election; he is a 
brawling partisan in our County Elections & extremely meddle- 
some & officious & has in every instance, I believe, brought his 
patronage in conflict with the Elections of the County. If pos- 
sible he ought to be turned out. Joseph S. Fowler of this place 
would make an excellent officer & is an applicant for it; if he 
should fail Isaac Hellen the present Senator from Carteret would 
discharge the duties of the office with much ability & wishes also 
to be considered an applicant. 

If the matter should come before the Senate or President do 
advise me of it, I promised these gentlemen to write to you & 
Mr. Mangum & advise you of their intentions— I hope you will 
mention the matter to Mr. Mangum. 

Your appointment seems to have given very general satisfaction 
but I find that Mr. Mangum is the cause of much heartburning 
among some of the Whigs. I am sorry for it and trust that they 
will calm down & become united on the subject. You having been 

77 Sylvester Brown was a highly respected citizen of Beaufort County. He was the 
father of George Hubbard Brown (1850-1926), a justice of the state supreme court, 
1905-1920. His daughter, Elizabeth, was the wife of James Edward Shepherd (1847- 
1910), chief justice of the supreme court of North Carolina. 

130 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

so recently to Raleigh & being better informed no doubt of their 
doings than I am, renders it unnecessary to send you my modicum 
of news from that quarter. I was truly pleased at the result in 
Orange, of the Election to supply yours and Mr. M's places; it 
is quite a triumph to Waddell. 

Do let us hear from you & give us the on dits of the great & 
knowing ones at Washington. 

P. S. Mr. Saml. Oliver a Merchant & an old and worthy citizen 
of this place will be an applicant for the appointment of Post 
Master of this town & desires me to secure the good offices of 
yourself & Mr. Mangum. I can safely recommend him to you both, 
in every point of view. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 
Thursday evening, 
Dec. 10th, 1840. 

After writing you from Petersburg, I passed that afternoon to 
Richmond, having been overtaken by Messrs. Calhoun, Preston, 
Fisher & many others with whom I journied to this place. On 
yesterday we came from Richmond arriving here about dark. 

Today I appeared in the Senate, took the prescribed- oath and 
selected a seat, have been introduced to a large number of mem- 
bers of both Houses of Congress, among whom the Whigs have 
all greeted me with much cordiality. Messrs. Clay, Webster, 
Davis, 78 Crittenden & King of Ala. were particularly kind and 
complimentary. Mr. Benton also did me the honor to come to my 
seat & introduce himself with offers of civility. 

I have not yet taken quarters for the Session. I am at present 
at Brown's Hotel where I shall probably continue for several 
days before I make a permanent location for the Session. I shall 
most probably however establish myself on Capitol Hill within 
convenient distance of the Capitol itself. 

# # * # # 

The snow here has been very deep (some say 1 1/ 2 feet) and pre- 
vented a quorum from attending the Senate untill yesterday. It 

78 John Davis (1787-1854) of Massachusetts, lawyer, a National Republican member 
of Congress, 1825-1834; resigned to become governor, serving 1834-1835; Whig 
United States senator, 1835-1840, resigning in December again to become governor, 
serving 1841-1843. He was again a senator, 1845-1853. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 131 

now covers the whole country & there is fine sleighing in the 
streets. I have been out no where except to the Capitol, & have 
heard but little news. There is some speculation as to the new 
Cabinet,— indeed a good deal is begining to be said about it 
but no one yet speaks with certainty as to who will fill the different 
departments. But I much fear that N. C. as usual will be over- 

^F IF ^F ^F ^F 

There is much gratulation among the Whigs at the great tri- 
umph they have achieved, and the amounts of money won by 
some of them. Mr. Botts 79 the member of the House from Rich- 
mond Va. has won $13,000. 

Pray write me frequently, take care of our dear children & con- 
tinue to me your love. . . . 
New Bern. 

To William Gaston. U. Gaston Mss. 

Washington City, 
Dec. 16 th, 1840. 

Speculation is busy here respecting the formation of the new 
Cabinet. The President elect is expected in Washington about 
the middle of Jan. and designs to go hence to Va. to spend the 
interim until the 4th of March. Our delegation propose in the 
most delicate manner possible, to bring to his notice the fact 
that, in the past history of the Government but few of the 
citizens of N. C. have been called to any of its higher offices 
and respectfully to suggest that some appointment of distinc- 
tion is befitting, if not due to, the State. If he shall be disposed 
to gratify us and will take our councils in making a selection, 
we shall unanimously recommend your name, should he tender 
either the office of Secretary of State or the mission to England 
or to France. In assuming this liberty, I hope a pardonable one, 
we would of course apprize him that your wishes on the sub- 
ject are unknown. Should he offer to the State the office of 
Attorney General, Mr. Badger would be designated— our con- 
sultations, as yet, have extended no further. It is generally be- 

n John Minor Botts (1802-1869), of Virginia, lawyer and farmer; Whig member 
house of delegates, 1833-1839; member of congress, 1839-1843, 1847-1849, later, a 
bitter opponent of secession, and of the Confederate administration. He was a 
delegate to the Southern Loyalist Convention of 1866. 

132 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

lieved here among the Western friends of General Harrison 
that Mr. Crittenden of Ky. will be appointed the Attorney 
General and Mr. Ewing 80 of Ohio, Post Master General; there 
are many rumors as to the other seats in the Cabinet, but 
nothing is ascertained. Mr. Clay, of course, will not take office, 
and it is believed, would prefer that Mr. Webster should not. 
The latter, however, it is supposed will be offered the State 
or Treasury department, and is expected to accept. Mr. Bell 
is mentioned in connection with the War, Mr. Southard 81 with 
the Navy and Mr. Sergeant with the Treasury departments, but 
my limited acquaintance does not enable me to say what is 
the latest or most credible report. 

On yesterday Mr. Clay made quite a spirited speech on a 
resolution introduced by him proposing a repeal of the sub- 
treasury act and instructing the Committee on Finance to re- 
port a Bill accordingly. He was replied to by Messrs. Wright, 82 
Calhoun, Anderson 83 of Ten. and Hubbard 84 of New Hamp- 
shire. Mr. Calhoun stated among other things, "that he feared 
a majority of the people of the United States were against the 
Independent Treasury" but denied that a majority was in 
favor of any other system of finance— that gentlemen of the 
opposition could never support the system of deposite banks 
and that an United States Bank was unconstitutional etc. Today 
Mr. Webster made a most able speech on the proposition to 
refer part of the President's message to the Committee on 

80 Thomas Ewing (1789-1871), of Ohio, a native of Virginia. Educated 'at Ohio 
University, he became a lawyer, served as senator in congress, 1831-1837; secretary 
of the treasury, 1841; secretary of the interior, 1849-1850; and again senator, 1850- 
1851. He was a delegate to the peace conference in 1861, supported Johnson's 
policy of reconstruction, was a delegate to the National Union convention in 
1866. Johnson appointed him to replace Edwin M. Stanton as secretary of war, 
but he was not confirmed. 

81 Samuel Lewis Southard (1787-1842), of New Jersey, graduate of Princeton, 
served in the legislature, 1815; judge of the state supreme court, 1815-1820; Demo- 
cratic elector, 1820; senator in congress, 1821-1823; secretary of the navy, 1823-1829; 
governor, 1832-1833; again senator, as a Whig, 1833-1842, (president pro tern, 1841- 

82 Silas Wright, Jr., (1795-1847), of New York, a native of Massachusetts, graduate 
of Middlebury College, became a lawyer and went to New York. He was a member, 
state senate, 1824-1827; brigadier general of militia, 1827; Democratic representa- 
tive, 1827-1829; re-elected but never qualified, senator, 1833-1844; governor, 1844- 

88 Alexander Outlaw Anderson (1794-1869), of Tennessee, soldier War of 1812; 
government agent to remove Indians from Alabama and Florida; senator in con- 
gress, 1840-1841. He moved to California, where he served on the supreme court, 
1851-1853, when he returned to Tennessee. He later lived in Mobile. 

84 Henry Hubbard (1784-1857V of New Hampshire; lawyer, member state legis- 
lature, 1812-1815, 1819-1820, 1823-1827, (speaker three years); a Democratic rep- 
resentative in congress, 1829-1835; senator, 1835-1841; governor, 1841-1843. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 133 

Finance, in which he reviewed the parts of that document which 
are designed to make false issues before the Country with 
great severity, demonstrated that this administration has ex- 
pended seven millions of dollars annually over and above the 
income of Government, has drawn in to the payment of these 
expenditures certain monies appropriated to be invested in 
stocks for the benefit of Indian tribes, and kept their books 
in such a way as to conceal that fact. He insisted that the 
present national debt was larger than was reported by the Sec- 
retary, and declared that so far as he could have any control 
he would insist that a new set of Books should be opened on 
the 4th of March next— that the old ones should be balanced 
and the true amount of indebtedness or excess which existed 
by the providence of this administration, should be made mani- 
fest. Mr. Wright asked until tomorrow to reply. 

This letter will require no answer, and is written without 
even the knowledge of any other member of the delegation, 
as a mark of my regard, and to apprize you of the passing 
events and on dits at the seat of Government. It will, however, 
at all times afford me pleasure to hear from you when your 
leisure will permit and to receive any counsel or suggestion you 
may think proper to communicate relative to matters in which 
my present position may enable me to be useful either to the 
whole country or to our mother state. 

I am with sincere regard, 
Your obed. servt., 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Washington City, 
Deer. 20th, 1840. 

I have had the pleasure to receive your kind letter, and 
hasten a reply. I regret to learn that the health of Mrs. B. 
and your own are not improved. It will afford me great pleasure 
to aid you in the matter of going to Italy, provided I find it 
proper to urge it. The delegation are disposed to bring to the 
notice of the President elect, in the most delicate manner pos- 
sible, the fact that N. C. in a period of more than Fifty years 
has filled but few of the higher offices, & to suggest that some 
important appointment is due to her. If he shall be disposed 

134 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

to gratify us, and will designate the place, we will name the 
individual to fill it, provided he will take our counsels. From 
present indications I presume we shall be disappointed. 

Preston has been to see us today & says that he knows that 
Webster has been written to by Genl Harrison tendering to 
him any place in the Cabinet that he may desire, and that he 
has accepted the office of Secretary of State; that Crittenden 
will certainly be the Atto. Genl.; Ewing of Ohio Post Master 
Genl.; & probably Sergeant Secretary of the Treasury; Bell 
of Ten. at War, and F. Granger 85 of the Navy. In this you see 
the South would not be represented. And if it be changed I 
doubt from indications whether N. C. will come in. 

If no place in the Cabinet be offered us, nor a principal mis- 
sion, we surely can command the place of a Charge. If, how- 
ever, we should be allowed a station of greater weight, you 
perceive, there will be more doubt, as to the minor. I have 
mentioned it in a proper way to Mangum and my brother, 
both of whom will give a hearty cooperation if circumstances 
shall authorize a movement on the subject. Mangum tells me, 
however, that the Kentuckians are speaking of the same place 
for Menifee of that State, formerly of the Ho. Reps, who 
is in bad health & desirous of going abroad. I will watch the 
progress of events, and adopt such course as seems most ad- 

In relation to the office of Collector at Ocracoke, we will 
hear all the applications, and endeavour to recommend the 
most suitable person. I was spoken to in Raleigh for Jos. G. 
Stanly Jr. in reference to it, and Edward Stanly has an applica- 
tion for some one in his district which he will urge. The name 
of Mr. Hellen was also suggested to me at Raleigh. 

Is there a necessity for changing your Post Master? Where 
there are good officers, who have not prostituted their offices, 
nor outraged the public sense of propriety, I think they should 
be suffered to continue. Those of the contrary character should 
be speedily removed. 

I shall write to some of our friends in different quarters, as 
soon as it is certainly known (I regard now as nearly so) that 

^Francis Granger (1792-1868), a native of Connecticut, graduate of Yale, settled 
in New York, and became a lawyer. He was active, and mainly unsuccessful in 
politics, as a Republican and anti-Mason, until 1835, when he served a term in 
congress, as a Whig. He was later a member, 1839-1841, and 1841-1843, and in the 
interim he was postmaster general in the Harrison cabinet. He was a member 
of the peace conference, 1861, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 135 

Webster is to be Sec. of State, apprizing them of it and asking 
them to break it to the public as they deem best. To appoint 
both him and Sargeant will give the administration a heavy 
weight to carry at the South, and if Grainger be added, I 
shall fear the result. If Mr. Webster would decline, then Davis 
of Mass. could be appointed (by general consent) Sec. of 
Treasury, and I have no doubt but Mr. Gaston could be Sec. 
of State; but he, is said to be, resolved on [not] accepting. 

There have been two spirited debates in the Senate which 
you will see, in relation to a repeal of the Subtreasury, & the 
state of the Finances, but they have been conducted with re- 
markable courtesy and decency. 

I called a few days since on the President. He bears him- 
self with considerable erection, all things considered, tho* Mr. 
Clay says "his eyes appear as if he had not slept well, or had 
been crying one or t'other." 

I have taken private quarters with Mangum my only mess- 
mate as yet; my brother and Rayner will perhaps join us. I 
have been out but little, and not extended my acquaintance 
very far. 

I hear from Raleigh that W. B. S. 86 has broken loose quite 
from the Whigs, and is raving most malignantly at everybody 
& every thing. From what I learn he has made false representa- 
tions of me among others, which I may notice in the public 
prints. But his course seems to have been so generally disgusting 
that he can do little I presume to the prejudice of any one. 

I left so suddenly that I could effect nothing for our friend 
Manly; untill the Bill to locate the Judges was disposed of, 
it was impossible to say even who would be candidates. But I 
was at that time satisfied, that no candidate spoken of, could 
start in the race with much more than the vote of his own 
Circuit, and therefore advised that Manly should be put in 

I see from the Raleigh papers that the election was to take 
place last week. If it shall prove as difficult an affair as it was 
to elect an Atto. Genl., they will be some time about it. 

V ^w* ^wr V V 

86 William B. Shepard. 

136 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 
Deer. 21st, 1840. 
My Dearest: 

I received your kind letter from New Bern last week an- 
nouncing your safe arrival, which gave me much pleasure. I 
regret to learn that Mrs. Bryan still continues unwell. 

I have taken private quarters at the House of Mrs. Preuss on 
Missouri Avenue, one square south of Gadsby's Hotel, & about 
equidistant from the Capitol. We have fine large rooms and 
a very neat parlour, & tolerable accomodations in the eating 
line, and are quite retired from the bustle of Pennsylvania 
Avenue, which is the Broadway of the City & equals it in 
noise. Mr. Mangum & myself are sole tenants as yet and will 
have the controul in admitting others. 

We somewhat expect brother James and Mr. Rayner to join 
us. The former is now on a visit to Phila. to consult Dr. Jack- 
son as to an affection of his throat. I do not believe there is 
much the matter with him, but he (you know) has his own 
notions. I suffered considerably last week from a boil, which 
gave me much pain. After its discharge I sent for a leecher, & 
had about half a dozen applied, which took away a good deal 
of blood & I hope will give me permanent relief. He is a more 
expert hand in applying them than I was in Lincoln on our 
visit there. 

I went the other day to see the President, found him in the 
company of two or three gentlemen, exceedingly courteous 
& affable. He is said to be sending off his wines, etc. to Kinder- 
hook, & I presume, will not entertain largely this winter. 

If you should prefer it you might come on at once, & return 
about February, if you did not desire to remain longer. I 
could meet you at Petersburg, or even at Waynesboro if you 
find no friend coming the whole way. Such a trip might be of 
as much service as your visit to Niagara last year. Do however 
as your feelings indicate or as the interests of our dear children 
seem to require. I did not intend to write you today as I have 
written Mr. Bryan, but I supposed you would desire to hear 
from me during the holidays. 

Kiss my Children & be ever mine. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 137 

From William Gaston A. 

Raleigh, Dec. 27, 1840. 

I received your letter of the 16th. inst. a day or two before 
my departure from home to attend the court at this place, 
and beg you to be assured that as a mark of your regard I 
value it highly. 

You are good enough to say that no answer is required, and 
I have felt some difficulty in determining whether an answer 
ought to be returned, to the communication. As it was made 
without the knowledge of the other members of the delegation 
I must conclude that the intent of the Body was that I should 
be ignorant of their purpose, in a certain event, to lay my 
name before the President elect of the United States, and of 
course that they should be ignorant of my wishes in regard to 
what was contemplated. But as the subject has been mentioned 
to me, and my silence might lead to a mistaken inference, I 
have deemed it expedient and most consistent with frankness 
to say to you (leaving you at liberty to make such use of this 
information as you think proper) that I hope no such nomina- 
tion will be made. My reason simply is that on the one hand I 
am reluctant to appear churlish, or to give offense to the 
People of North Carolina, by rejecting public appointments, 
and on the other have a sincere desire to keep aloof from 
political life for the residue of my days. 

I avail myself of the occasion to offer you my congratulations 
on the high proof of the confidence of your country which has 
recently been bestowed upon you, and to add with perfect 
truth that had I been a member of the General Assembly I 
should have most cordially concurred in the act. 

With the highest esteem and affection, 
Your friend and obedient servant. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 
Jany. 1st, 1841. 
# # # # • 

This is new years day, and although it has been snowing 
and hailing rapidly, I went as is customary with every body, 

138 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

to the levee of the President. Foreign ministers & their suites 
clad in full Court dress, officers of the Army & Navy in complete 
uniform, Heads of departments, members of Congress, ladies 
in gayest attire, private gentlemen, & persons with very doubt- 
ful claims to gentility, all crowded together the splendid East 
room of the White House. I rode up a little after one o'clock, 
by which time the assembly was beginning to disperse, & re- 
mained about an hour. The President exhibited his habitual 
politeness, but I thought was evidently under constraint and 
embarrassment. His new allies, Messrs. Calhoun, Pickens, etc., 
from S. C. were present, I suppose by way of seeing the last 
of him. 

I dined on yesterday with Mr. Merrick, 1 Senator from Mary- 
land, a most worthy and hospitable gentleman, who is keeping 
house in this City. And on Tuesday evening attended a soiree 
at Mr. Gadsby's, who has retired from the Hotel a gentleman 
of fortune, and entertains most sumptuously. So that you may 
imagine me to have turned out quite a votary of fashion. I 
am however, rather a looker on, than a participant, and have 
not sought to extend my acquaintance further than mere civility 
or accidental circumstances have carried it. 

We have at our boarding house, an old Colonel of the British 
Army from Canada, who served under the Duke of Wellington 
in Spain and Portugal in 1812 & 13, and the Portuguese Minis- 
ter to our Government M. Figoniere, both pleasant gentlemen, 
the former of whom has given us many interesting details of 
the War in the Peninsula. 

Bro. James returned last night from Phila. in good health, 
and will join us at our boarding house tomorrow. 

You may remember that a person of my own name, was 
formerly in N. C. & imprisoned at Raleigh. A friend of his 
in Missouri having seen in the papers an account of my elec- 
tion, & mistaking me for him, has written me a letter congratu- 
lating on my elevation, and requesting that I will repay him 
$60. borrowed a few years ago, and that if there be any office to 
be had, which will probably suit him, to procure it for him. 

1 William Duhurst Merrick (1793-1857), of Maryland, a graduate of Georgetown 
College, soldier of the War of 1812, lawyer, member of the house of delegates, 
1832-1838, 1856-1857; Whig United States senator, 1838-1845; delegate tc con- 
vention of 1850. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 139 

It is of course a subject of much merriment with those to 
whom I have shown the letter. 

# # # # * 

Mr. Heartt who brought on the electoral vote of N. C. has 
gone to New Jersey and has not yet returned. Mrs. Stanly is 
here. I offered my service to wait on her to the Presidents to 
day but she declined in consequence of the state of the weather. 
Miss Harriet Jones is to be with her soon. 

You do not say what you think of visiting Washington in 
this month, & returning before March, as I proposed in one 
of my letters. I am sorry to learn that Joseph gives you trouble. 
Tell him that Father says he must do what Mother tells him, 
and that if he will be a good boy Father will bring him some 
pretty things when he returns. Can William stand alone? Tell 
John that Father wishes him to be a good boy, and will bring 
him some candy when he comes home. 

Would that I could see you all this evening & give you the 
blessing of the season. I wish now that I had brought you all 
with me, as my quarters would make us quite comfortable. 

Farewell, my dearest,— May each returning new year find 
us devoted to each other, and the great duties incumbent on us. 

Remarks Of Mr. Graham/ 

in the Senate of the United States, 

on the bill to establish a permanent 

pre-emption system in favor of settlers 

on the Public Lands. 

January 7, 1841. 

A motion was pending to exclude foreigners not naturalized, 
from the benefits of the bill. During the discussion of this point 
some observations were made by some administration members, 
which drew from Mr. Graham the following remarks: 

Mr. GRAHAM, from North Carolina, rose and said that 
he had originally entertained no design to participate in this 
discussion. Those whom he represented (so far as he had ascer- 
tained their wishes) were generally oposed to the policy of pre- 

*From Hillsborough Recorder, January 28th, 1841. 

140 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

eruptions, and he, himself, concurring in that opinion, had in- 
tended to content himself with a silent vote, but for certain 
doctrines which had been advanced, and facts stated, in the pro- 
gress of the debate. The bill would have been far less objection- 
able to him had the amendment prevailed which was offered by 
the Senator from Kentucky, (Mr. Crittenden) limiting the 
bounties which it proposed to confer, to American citizens, and 
excluding unnaturalized foreigners. But, in resisting this amend- 
ment, the distinguished Senator from New York, (Mr. Wright) 
had contended that any one of the states had the right to confer 
the elective franchise on foreigners without naturalization, ac- 
cording to the laws of the United States, and thus enable them 
to vote in elections under this government; and the honorable 
senator from Illinois, (Mr. Young) who has just taken his seat, 
had stated that this doctrine was actually carried out in practice 
in his state, for that there, aliens had voted after a residence of 
six months. He could not but regard such a doctrine as directly 
in the teeth of the constitution of the United States. The hon- 
orable senator from New York, (Mr. Wright) understands this 
power to belong in a state by reason of the general provision in 
the constitution that members of the House of Representatives 
and the President are directed to be chosen by the people of the 
several states, and that "the electors in each state shall have the 
qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch 
of the state legislature." It was unnecessary for Mr. G. to remind 
one who showed himself so familiar with such subjects of the 
ordinary rule of interpretation, that all parts of the instrument 
must be looked to in giving it a construction, and the general 
words were oftentimes controlled by particular provisions. The 
section of the Constitution immediately preceding that referred 
to by the senator from New York, was equally general in its 
terms— "All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in 
a Congress of the U. States, which shall consist of a Senate and 
House of Representatives." If we look no further than this clause, 
the Senate and House of Representatives can make laws with- 
out hindrance or concurrence from any other department of the 
government. The words are as comprehensive as any that our 
language can afford. But in the subsequent part of the Constitu- 
tion, we learn that no act of Congress shall become a law, unless 
it receive the approbation of the President, except in cases which 
need not now be mentioned. Finding this first and broadest 
declaration of the Constitution qualified and restrained by sub- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 141 

sequent provisions our surprise will be the less if we discover that 
that relied on for the support of the power in question is subject 
to a like qualification. Let us, in passing, inquire, who are "the 
people of the several states" by whom representatives, etc., are to 
be chosen? Who are the people of Kentucky, among whom you, 
sir, reside? Who are the people of New York? Does any one under- 
stand them to include unnaturalized aliens, owing allegiance to 
foreign governments, and bound to cleave to them in the event of 
a controversy with our own? But suppose that by the generality of 
these words they were embraced. The Constitution elsewhere, in 
express terms, gives to Congress the power "to establish a uni- 
form rule of naturalization," and Congress has exercised that 
power by prescribing the rule. From its very nature it cannot 
be concurrently exercised by the general Government, and the 
states. There cannot, in the nature of things, be a uniform rule 
throughout the United States, and yet different rules in different 
states. But it is asked by the senator from New York, (Mr. Wright) 
shall Congress prescribe the qualifications of voters in the states? 
By no means. Congress cannot prescribe any qualifications for 
electors in the states who are native born or naturalized citizens; 
and even in the case of a foreigner they cannot prescribe to him 
qualifications as an elector, properly so called, but they prescribe 
the means by which a disqualification under which he labors may 
be removed; and such disqualification can be removed by no 
other authority. This construction of the Constitution conflicts 
with no just rights of the states; on the contrary, the rights of all 
the others are grossly violated by any one of them undertaking to 
naturalize aliens in any other mode than that agreed upon in the 
Constitution of the United States. The states, by the Constitution, 
have entered into certain stipulations with each other, which none 
of them can, in good faith, violate. Some of these are of a positive 
character, such as that they will deliver up fugitives from justice, 
and fugitive slaves and servants. Others are negative, such as 
that they will abstain from the exercise of powers themselves 
which they have delegated exclusively to the General Govern- 
ment. To refuse to execute the former is a crime of omission; 
to attempt the exercise of the latter is a crime of commission; 
both alike injurious to the other states. When, therefore, a state 
admits foreigners to political rights, affecting the action of this 
government, without naturalization, she violates the covenants 
of the Constitution, and does injury to her sister states. 

142 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Such, (said Mr. G.) is my reading of the Constitution. How 
stands the question upon authority? I believe that all interpreters 
of the Constitution agree that the states have alienated exclusive 
powers of legislation to this government in three cases only: 
1st. Where the Constitution, in express terms, granted an ex- 
clusive authority to the Union. 2nd. Where it granted, in one 
instance, an authority to the Union, and in another, prohibited 
the states from exercising the like authority. And 3rd. Where 
it granted an authority to the Union, to which similar authority 
in the state would be absolutely repugnant and contradictory. And 
it is a little remarkable that all the commentators on the Constitu- 
tion, from Mr. Madison down— at least as far as I am informed- 
have selected this very power of naturalization as an illustration 
of the third class of these cases. In the Constitution of the state 
which I have the honor in part to represent,— and but for this fact 
Mr. G. would not now have obtruded himself on the notice of the 
Senate,— as adopted in 1776, there is this clause,— "Sec. 40. That 
every foreigner, who comes to settle in this state, having first 
taken an oath of allegiance to the same, may purchase, or by other 
just means hold, acquire, and transfer land or other real estate, 
and after one year's residence, shall be deemed a free citizen. 
"Under this section, foreigners, by taking an oath of allegiance to 
the state, may yet acquire, hold and transfer lands, but, in the 
fulfilment of her duties to the Union— and Mr. G. trusted she 
had fulfilled them all— North Carolina, by her constituted authori- 
ties, both legislative and judicial, had uniformly admitted that, by 
her adoption of the Federal Constitution, and the passage of 
naturalization laws by Congress, the latter clause of the section 
just quoted was abrogated, and that foreigners could become 
citizens only according to the uniform rule established by Con- 
gress. And Mr. G. appealed to the honorable senators if it was 
just towards her, and the other states of the Union, who put a 
like construction on the Constitution, that other members of 
the confederacy should adopt a different rule of naturalization. 
When the Constitution was adopted, it was declared to be in- 
tended to secure "the blessings of liberty to the people of the 
U. States, and their posterity." Aliens were no parties to it. But 
a provision was inserted by which Congress might admit them 
to become parties, and to share in its blessings. The Constitution 
was brought into existence mainly to regulate our foreign rela- 
tions. To Congress had been given the power to make peace and 

The Papers of William A. Graham 143 

war with other nations, and there appeared to be a propriety in 
giving it also the power of determining upon what conditions the 
people of those nations should be admitted to share with us in 
the privilege of deciding on the question of peace or war with 
their native countries. 

But, (said Mr. G.) the states have agreed by the Constitution 
to distribute their relative power in the other branch of Congress, 
and in the election of a Chief Magistrate, according to the rep- 
resentative numbers of their people, and, so long as these numbers 
depend on the natural course of increase, or on the inducements 
which might be held out for emigration from one state of the 
union to the other, the struggle for power among themselves 
was one of fair and honorable competition. But, sir, I deny that 
in such a contest any state has a right to invoke as allies un- 
naturalized foreigners. This is a subject of vast magnitude, to 
which I desire to call the special attention of Congress and the 
country. There is shortly to be a new distribution of power, ac- 
cording to the census recently taken of the people of the United 
States. Sir, I protest against aliens being enumerated in that 
census, or, if so enumerated, against any state acquiring members 
of the House of Representatives, or votes in the Presidential elec- 
tion, by considering aliens, not naturalized, as a part of "the 
people," of such state. This is an unconstitutional mode of ac- 
quiring power, which, if tolerated, would subvert one of the 
first principles of our confederacy. And, with proper deference 
to the opinions of others, I cannot conceive a more gross violation 
of the constitution, a more clear usurpation of power, than for 
a state to annul or dispense with the laws of naturalization, and 
swell its own importance and weight in the Union by the aid 
of aliens owing no allegiance to this country, but bound by the 
highest obligations to take up arms against it in the event of war 
with their own sovereign. Such an injury is the more grievous 
because it operates not so much against this government as against 
the constitutional rights of the co-states of the confederacy, who 
had not expressly provided sanctions to prevent such infractions. 

Mr. G. would take occasion to remind the Senate that not 
only personal bravery and adventurous spirit, the qualities so 
much lauded by honorable senators from the west as character- 
izing those for whose benefit this bill was intended, that not 
only these, but the highest degree of virtue and honor might 
co-exist with a deadly hostility to republican institutions, and 

144 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

he would exhort them to beware how bounties were bestowed on 
those who owed no allegiance to the government. 

Mr. G. said he had not noticed in its proper connection the 
precedent alluded to by the honorable senator from New York, 
(Mr. Wright) of the admission of Michigan into the Union with 
a clause in her constitution allowing foreigners to exercise the 
elective franchise. If he, (Mr. G.) had been correctly informed 
in relation to the facts of that case, he did not conceive that it 
sustained the doctrine contended for by the senator from New 
York. As Mr. G. had understood, the constitution of Michigan 
gave the right of voting to the inhabitants of that state at the 
time of its formation, and the act of Congress admitting her 
into the Union was by implication a special act of naturalization 
for the then inhabitants. He supposed such a law was within the 
power of Congress, and, if so, the case of Michigan was not a 
precedent for this, to him, new and alarming doctrine; if, how- 
ever, it were otherwise, he could not admit that a single precedent 
of Congress could overturn what was, in his opinion, the true 
construction of the constitution— one of its most important pro- 
visions. Mr. G. said that he had no feeling of hostility to foreigners, 
who were disposed to become citizens according to the constitu- 
tional mode. He believed our present regulations on the sub- 
ject were hospitable and liberal. If they were not enough so, 
he was ever willing to hear propositions to make them more 
liberal. He, however, was opposed to annihilating the uniform 
rule on the subject of naturalization, and bestowing bounties on 
those who owe no allegiance to our government. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

Jany 9th, 1841. 
My Dear Wife 

Your brother George has been here a day and goes this evening 
towards Raleigh to apply for a license to practice the Law in N. C. 
He is desirous to settle himself in the middle or Western section 
of the State, But does not seem determined as to what he will 
ultimately do. I would be exceedingly glad to have their society 
with us at Hillsboro', but am still averse to recommend his going 
there, lest they should not be satisfied. Contentment is often mat- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 145 

ter of fancy, & is most apt to be obtained when one's own wishes 
alone are consulted, or at least when no one but ourselves are 
responsible for what we do. Besides, George has now reached that 
period of life when he should judge and act for himself. Any 
information that I can communicate, or aid that I can render, 
after he has determined where to settle will be cheerfully given. 
But it is certainly most agreeable, and generally most advan- 
tageous to act upon our own opinions about our own affairs. 

I went a few evenings ago to a party at Mr. Seaton's, 3 where I 
met among others, Mrs. Farley, formerly Miss Pearson, who 
claims to hail from N. C. and was very kind. Mrs. Seaton (you 
know) is the daughter of old Mr. Gales 4 & also claims kindred 
with the North State. Mrs. Stanly was there in good order. Miss 
Harriet Jones has not yet arrived. Moustaches, whiskers, epau- 
lettes, stars & ribbons are badges of a Washington party— that is to 
say among gentlemen. The ladies sport a chain or braid around 
the head, with a jewel on the forehead. And all waltz like 
children's tops. Upon the whole, there is rather more freedom 
of manner than I have seen any where else. But it is a congrega- 
tion in a great measure of strangers who never met before, and 
don't care (most of them) if they never meet again. 

I was invited last night to the house of Geo. C. Washington, 5 
Esq., at Georgetown but declined going. He is said to be more 
nearly related to the General than any of the family living. I 
desired George to go over with us, but he declined and we after- 
wards gave it out ourselves. 

Having entered the Senate a new and unexperienced member, 
I find my time more than occupied by proper attention to my 
duties there. Super added to which is a correspondence with every 
body who wants, or wants to know any thing, either private or 

For the first time since my arrival the ground is freed from 
snow, the winter thus far having been very severe. I have escaped 

3 William Winston Seaton (1765-1866), a native of Virginia, who moved to 
Raleigh, and married Sarah Weston Gales, the daughter of Joseph and Winifred 
Gales. He went to Washington to join the staff of the National Intelligencer, and 
became the reporter of debates in congress. He was an anti-slavery, anti-abolition 
Whig, and was deeply interested in the aims and work of the American Coloniza- 
tion Society. 

4 Joseph Gales (1761-1842), a native of Devonshire, England, editor of the 
Sheffield Register, who came as a political refugee to America in 1795, and to 
North Carolina in 1799. He founded the Raleigh Register, and was a famous editor. 

5 George Corbin Washington (1789-1854), son of William Augustine Washington, 
and brother of Bushrod Washington, associate Justice of the supreme court. 

146 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

taking any serious cold, but have not been able to take sufficient 

I regret that our Legislature is about to adjourn without doing 
any thing for the Western turnpike. 

The new President is expected here next week. A painting 
now being exhibited represents him as an older & inferior looking 
man than I had supposed him to be. 

From George E. Badger. A. 

Raleigh, Jany. 19, 1841. 

*4fe jfc jfc jfe 

w TP TT w 

I was glad to see you had broken the ice in the Senate, 6 and 
particularly that you had advocated the only sound doctrine, as 
to the necessity of citizenship to the possession of the elective 
franchise. I was the more pleased because a day before I saw your 
remarks in the N. Intelligencer I had given a written opinion, in 
clear & decided terms, to the same effect, in answer to a letter 
of some of our friends in Salem who thought themselves en- 
titled to vote after being domiciled here from ten to twenty years 
without naturalization. The doctrine you advanced is beyond 
doubt the true one. It has always been held in North Carolina. 
At Newbern where the question arose many years ago, the Shff. 
under the advice of the whole profession there, always rejected 
the votes of aliens however long resident. Some years ago in the 
life of the late Ch. Justice Henderson a Mr. Wilson an english 
Gentleman of learning & high character had charge of the Aca- 
demy at Williamsburgh and at an election for members of the 
House of Commons decided to vote. His right was questioned and 
it was agreed to submit the question to Ch. J. Henderson. Mr. 
Wilson had all the qualifications required by our Constitution. 
The C. Justice declared his opinion to be that because of his 
aliency he could not exercise the elective franchise, and his vote 
was rejected. 

I should have been astonished at the ground taken by Mr. 
Preston knowing as I do his high mental quality, but that I 
have had occasion to remark the perplexing effect upon the 
understanding of the Nullification theory. Once adopted it con- 

a The reference is to Graham's first speech in the senate, on the Pre-emption 
Bill, delivered January 7th, 1841. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 147 

fuses the intellectual operations, and a man can only reestablish 
a just exercise of the thinking powers by a thorough and total 
renunciation of that grand political heresy. I can not better 
express the necessity of a total reformation on this subject in 
order to the possession of a well founded confidence of accuracy 
in reasoning on any other political subject even remotely con- 
nected with it, than in the words of a friend when writing to me 
lately on a widely different matter. "It requires," says he, "time 
and reiterated instruction to reform the notions of a people even 
upon a single point, for our opinions so run into one another, 
that many collateral matters must be reformed with the principal 
one." How important then to reform the principal notion in 
order to a just direction of thought in reference to matters col- 
lateral and subordinate. 

I wish Preston could wake up in regard to Mr. Calhoun's great 
and dangerous Nullification humbug, use the eyes of his mind, 
and shake off forever his sluggish submission to that darkening 
and bumbling error. Until he does he will scarce do his own 
powers justice on any subject. 

We are going on here in our Court very much in the old way. 
For two days past Winston, Saunders, & Haywood have been 
fighting over the old bone in Plummer v. Baskervill— & will con- 
tinue the wrangle tomorrow. But two facts are entitled to special 
notice for their novelty and importance. 

The first is that a Bill passed the Assembly discharging the 
Shff. of Wake from attendance on the Court & enabling the 
Judges to appoint a "Marshal of the Supreme Court," under 
which Col. Weatt has been duly installed. The second is, that 
for several days past Judge Daniel has appeared and occupied his 
seat in Court with his hat on. Whether he has any thought of 
joining friend Mendenhall's Society of Friends or whether the 
change in his Judicial costume has any connection with the de- 
feat of his friend Van Buren I am unable to say. 

Leaving you to account for it as you may, the fact cannot be 

When you have a leisure half hour, I shall be pleased to hear 
from you. What thought you of Mr. Wm. B. Shepard's flourish? 

Respectfully & affectionately 

148 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

Jany. 25th, 1841. 
My Dear Wife 

I reed your last kind letter on Friday evening 8c feel some 
solicitude in regard to your contiguity to the small pox, untill I 
shall hear of your safe arrival at Kinston. By the exercise of your 
usual care over the children, I trust you all will escape. 

The winter here has been exceedingly wet and disagreeably 
cold. For the last two or three days however, there has been fine 

*jfe jb jfe a 


I dined last week with Mr. Webster. Mrs. W. is with him, a tall 
majestic figure, without much beauty, but quite ladylike. Mr. 
& Mrs. Curtis & Miss Leroy of New York, make up their party. 
He is quite captivated with English style since his return from 
that country, occasionally sports a white cravat which is said 
to be now in fashion there, and (Preston says) proposed to him 
to come out in white silk stockings and pumps. 

On Saturday evening the Whig Senators dined together at 
a restorateur, and settled a good many questions pertaining to 
the new administration. Among other things it seemed to be 
inevitable that there must be a called session of Congress about 
May or June. I mention this to you, though you will please not 
speak of it untill I come home. 

Genl. Harrison will not be here untill next week, the account 
now is that he will leave Cincinnati tomorrow. Office seekers are 
coming or sending in from all quarters & I fear the old gentleman 
will be greatly annoyed. 

There is here at present a Chinese missionary Dr. Parker, 7 
both a clergyman & Oculist, just from China, who has with him 
a young man of that nation in the dress of his country. Dr. P. 
lectured yesterday evening in one of the Churches here, on his 
visit to that distant region— I went to hear him, but found such 
a crowd, that I could scarcely get in, & heard with some difficulty. 

7 Peter Parker (1804-1888), a native of Massachusetts, graduate of Yale in 
medicine, who became a Presbyterian minister, and went to China in 1834 as the 
first Protestant missionary there, giving most of his time to medical work. He 
went to Japan on the expedition to repatriate wrecked Japanese sailors. He was 
American commissioner and minister, 1855-1857, and spent the rest of his life 
in Washington. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 149 

I received a letter from Dr. J. A. W. 8 last week in closing one 
from Mr. James Donaldson recommending Mr. Callender for 
an office in the City. Mr. T. P. Burgwyn passed here a day or 
two ago on his way to New York. I did not see him. Mr. B. has 
been there for some time. 

The extra session of the Senate will probably detain me here, 
untill the 10th or 12th of March. I hope the time will soon arrive, 
as I long to see you Sc my dear children once more. 

Jt» «M» «!£■ Jf» 4fr 

w •«" TP "Jf w 

Speech in the Senate on Roanoke Inlet. 9 

January 29, 1841 

Mr. Graham said that, with the indulgence of the Senate, 
he begged leave to make a very brief statement of facts connected 
with this bill. Casting your eye on the map of North Carolina, 
you perceive a peninsula, commencing near its northeastern ex- 
tremity, and extending southwardly a full degree and a half on 
the map, and, by the meanders of the coast, at least 150 miles to 
Ocracoke inlet. On the eastern side of this peninsula is the 
Atlantic ocean, and on the western a tract of waters navigable for 
sea vessels, and called, as you proceed from north to south, by 
the names, successively, of Currituck, Albermarle, Croatan, and 
Pamlico sounds. These waters are all disembogued at Ocracoke, 
and although the tongue of land separating them from the ocean 
is at some points reduced to no more than half a mile in width, 
there is no access to them for vessels except through that inlet. 
About one hundred miles north of that was formerly Currituck 
inlet, through which coasting vessels of light burden passed into 
Currituck sound. But this gradually filled up, and became closed 
about ten years ago; and it will be remembered by the Senate that, 
a few weeks since, I introduced a bill to abolish the port of 
delivery and the office of surveyor of customs at that place, (which 
had been a sinecure for many years,) and the bill has passed this 
body. At a period still earlier, there was another entrance to these 
inland waters, called Roanoke inlet, about sixty miles north 
of Ocracoke, at the eastern extremity of Albermarle sound, 
through which it communicated directly with the Atlantic, and 

8 Dr. James A. Washington. 

9 From Hillsborough Recorder, February 25th, 1841. 

150 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

did not then, as now, mingle its waters with those of Pamlico 
sound on their way to the ocean. Here the vessels of Sir Walter 
Raleigh's adventure entered, when they planted the first colony 
on that part of the American continent; and long afterwards it 
continued to afford an easy and direct passage into the Albermarle 
and its tributaries. 

In process of time, however, a channel has been opened south- 
wardly, through Croatan, from Albermarle to Pamlico sound, 
there being a considerable declivity in that direction. The whole 
waters of the sound now flow through that channel, and Roanoke 
inlet is closed by a sand beach, half a mile in breadth. Thus an 
unbroken peninsula is formed for the whole distance already in- 
dicated, and the entire trade from the Albermarle and its tribu- 
taries is forced to seek the markets of the North, whither most 
of it is carried, by first taking a southern course, to Ocracoke, 
and thence a contrary direction on the ocean; so that two vessels, 
the one in the sound, and the other at sea, in the same latitude, 
may be separated but by a few leagues, and yet each would per- 
form a voyage of from 120 to 150 miles to gain the position of 
the other. Meanwhile, a wind which is favorable to the prosecu- 
tion of the first half of the voyage is adverse to the remainder. 
Each vessel is obliged to double Cape Hatteras, the most danger- 
ous promontory on the American coast, to pass through a dif- 
ficult and often changing channel at Ocracoke, and to encounter 
the delay and expense of lighterage. This bill proposes to ascer- 
tain if it be not practicable to avoid these impediments to the 
navigation and commerce of that region by re-opening Roanoke 
inlet, and affording a direct passage into the Albermarle from 
the sea. To form an adequate conception of the extent of that 
commerce, and the shipping which it employs, it is necessary to 
glance at the adjacent territory. Albermarle sound stretches west- 
wardly, from the site of the proposed inlet, for 60 miles, is general- 
ly from 15 to 20 miles wide, and from 20 to 25 feet in depth. 
Besides several navigable rivers or estuaries flowing into it on 
the northern and southern sides, it receives at the western end 
the Chowan and Roanoke, the latter of which waters a greater 
extent of fertile, arable soil than any river between the Missis- 
sippi and the St. Lawrence— a soil whose productions would find 
their natural and direct route to the markets of the world through 
Roanoke inlet. True it is, that communications by railroad have 
been established from the upper Roanoke to Petersburg and 

The Papers of William A. Graham 151 

Norfolk, in Virginia; but it is a well known fact that transporta- 
tion for bulky articles is far cheaper by water than on railroad, 
and that many of the productions of agriculture cannot be sent 
to market at all by the latter mode, which would go by the former. 
No section of the Atlantic states, of the same dimension, furnishes 
annually greater supplies of agricultural products for market, 
than the "northern counties" on Albermarle sound. Those on its 
southern margin and tributaries are, perhaps, equally fruitful, 
and are likely to have a great increase in their production, by the 
reclamation of near 100,000 acres of swamp land, now in the 
course of drainage— a work prosecuted by the state of North Caro- 
lina, which has appropriated $200,000 to objects of this kind. In 
addition to which, and cotton, the common product of the south- 
ern states, immense quantities of Indian corn are sent from this 
section to New York, Providence, and Boston, at the North, to 
Charleston and Savannah, at the South, and to the West Indies. 
The exports from agriculture, however, are greatly augmented 
from the fisheries and forests of the Albermarle country. Besides 
thousands of barrels of fish, the quantities of staves, heading, 
shingles, pine lumber, and the products of the pine tree, ship 
timber and naval stores, exported yearly, are incredible to those 
who have not had their attention turned particularly to the 
subject. There are no means of learning the exact value of the 
aggregate, but it is estimated by those most familiar with that 
trade, to exceed $3,000,000. per annum, and to furnish employ- 
ment to more than 100,000 tons of shipping. If such be the value 
and importance of that trade under its multiplied present dis- 
advantages, what might it not be expected to be, if relieved from 
its embarrassments by the improvements proposed? As a school 
and nursery for seamen, it eminently deserves the fostering care 
and friendly consideration of Congress. It is from the commercial 
that recruits are furnished to the military Navy; and at a time 
when there seems to be a general disposition to enlarge and 
strengthen this arm of the national defence, policy as well as 
humanity requires that they shall be shielded as far as possible 
from the perils of shipwreck, and encouraged to embark in the 
merchant service. 

Mr G. said he could not better illustrate the necessity for 
opening this inlet, and its advantages to trade and navigation, 
than by reading a few paragraphs from the report of a distinguish- 
ed engineer, (Major Gwynn,) to which, and to the report by his 

152 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

respected colleague in the other branch of Congress, (Mr. Ray- 
ner,) at the last session, he was mainly indebted for the facts 
already narrated; premising, merely, that "Roanoke Marshes 
Light-house/' mentioned in the report, is situated on the passage 
between Albermarle and Pamlico sounds. Major Gwynn states 

"The register of Captain Pew, keeper of the Roanoke Marshes 
Light house, numbers 1,450 vessels passing and repassing during 
the year ending December 31, 1839, making the shipping about 
100,000 tons; the amount assumed by the committee, which, 
although remaining the same, shows for that season a considerable 
increase, when we consider the great tonnage withdrawn from this 
trade by the facilities afforded by the Petersburg and Portsmouth 
Rail-roads— the former of which went into operation in 1833, and 
the latter in 1836. 

"The amount of property and lives lost on the coast immediate- 
ly adjoining the inlet, for a distance of 15 miles on each side of it, 
presents a frightful list, and a strong appeal to the protection and 
humanity of the government. 

"Between the year 1824 and the present period, there have 
been (as nearly as I could ascertain) 112 vessels wrecked; which, 
averaging 50 tons each, would make, together with the cargoes, 
a loss not much short of $350,000.; and with these vessels 224 
souls have found a watery grave. 

"The list, fearful as it is, would be greatly swelled if we had 
the means of adding to it the number of vessels wrecked on the 
remainder of the adjacent coast, and off Cape Hatteras, in con- 
sequence of being compelled, by the closing of Roanoke inlet, 
to encounter the hazard of passing this dangerous promontory. 

"Throwing out of view the advantages to the commerce of 
the country, as a harbor of refuge from storms in time of peace, 
the opening of this inlet is an object every way worthy of the 
nation. And, in time of war, there is no point on the whole coast 
where a harbor would be more useful, and where one is so much 
needed, not only for the refuge of coasters from the enemy, but, 
in bad weather, for privateers and the smaller sized armed 
vessels, acting offensively." 

Sir, (said Mr. G.) this subject has acquired new importance 
and interest in North Carolina from a survey, under the authority 
of the state, made during the last year, by the engineer before 
referred to, of which this report is the result; and since I gave 
notice of my intention to present this bill, I have received from 

The Papers of William A. Graham 153 

the Governor of the state a copy of the report, and a series of 
resolutions adopted by the Legislature at its recent session, urging 
the work upon the attention of Congress, which I ask leave also 
now to introduce. It will be seen, by a perusal of that report, 
that no doubt is entertained by the engineer, of its practicability, 
and that the Legislature has concurred in that opinion. But as 
this Government is requested to undertake it, I have presumed 
that a survey by its own officers would be more satisfactory to 
Congress, and more likely to ensure their favorable action on the 
subject, and therefore have brought forward at present, only a 
proposition of survey. If by that, it shall be again ascertained— 
as I doubt not that it will— that the work may be accomplished at 
a reasonable expense, there can be no hesitation, I apprehend, in 
commencing it at once. 

Mr. G. said, before he sat down he would remark that this prop- 
osition had no connexion with that system of internal improve- 
ment which, under too loose a construction of the Constitution, 
had been formerly undertaken by Congress, but was since happily 
abandoned. The contemplated work was strictly within the power 
over commerce which had been delegated to the General Govern- 
ment, and which made it a corresponding duty of that Govern- 
ment to give to it all proper facilities, and relieve it from em- 
barrassments such as he had shown to exist in that of the Alber- 
marle, and which had been estimated to be equal to a levy of 
from 15 to 20 per cent on all exports. Had North Carolina not 
become a member of the Union, the opening of this inlet would 
have been forced upon her by the just demands of her people. 
Had she now the power to "lay duties" of tonnage, or "imposts" 
on merchandise, a moderate rate of levies for twelve months 
after its completion would defray the entire expense of effecting 

On motion of Mr. G. the resolutions of the General Assembly 
of North Carolina, and the report of Major Gwynn, were ordered 
to be printed, and referred, with the bill, to the Committee on 

154 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From Cadwallader Jones. U. 


Feb. 1st, 1841. 

* jfe Jfc jj. jg, 


Your maiden speech has given us very great satisfaction here, 
and I heartily congratulate you on your brilliant success, it's 
force, style and temper were admirable and worthy of imitation 
in Congress, where slang whanging has been the order of the day 
so long. Altho' we differ on some points of policy, and even on 
one in your speech, that difference can never prevent me from 
being fully sensible of the mind and proud of the success of my 
neighbour and friend. 

I thank you for the documents you were so obliging as to send 
me; I don't know but that I ought to have acknowledged your 
kindness before now, but as I intended to write you about my 
little matter of business in the land office I defered it untill I 
should do so. 

There is nothing new here. The health of our town is good as 
usual in Winter, tho' we have had so far, the most disagreeable 
season I have experienced since my residence here. The amount 
of wet weather is unparaleled, raining almost all the time, and 
the roads next to impassable. We get a mail through about once 
in two days and that is brought in a box by four horses. I do sup- 
pose the roads were never worse, and I am sure agricultural 
preparations were never more backward. Altho' the water courses 
are occasionally very high, I hear of no damage being done; we 
have had no ice to come down upon us as at the North, indeed 
we have not been able to get enough to fill our ice houses and the 
ladies are in great truble at the prospect of not getting our usual 

I hear of nothing amiss at your place in town, or country, and 
believe all are well. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Senate Chamber, 

Feby. 1st, 1841. 

I was happy to be relieved by your kind letter reed on Saturday 
evening from the apprehension of the small pox in your vicinity 

The Papers of William A. Graham 155 

at New Bern. The weather here as with you has been exceedingly 
wet and unpleasant, & this one of the gloomiest days out of doors 
that I have ever seen. As you are still at New Bern I fear you did 
not receive my letter of last week directed to you at Kinston. 

jfc jfa 4E. .y. Jfc 

w TP TP TP w 

In my next I shall be able to give you some account of the new 
President, who will be here on Saturday. There are already a 
good many strangers in Washington, & I suppose the crowd will 
increase untill the 4th. March. 

I have been out but little the past week, attended for half an 
hour, on one evening, a party at Mr. Pleasontons, one of the 
auditors of the Treasury. The crowds at such entertainments 
here are too great to render them very pleasant. I would have 
been exceedingly pleased to see you here, according to our former 
conversations on the subject, but your reasons for declining are 
altogether proper and insuperable. The time however is now 
comparatively short untill we shall meet again as I trust. 

Genl. Edney, 10 an original character from the mountains of 
N. C, is here, and affords a deal of pleasantry. 

As the Senate is in Session I must bring my letter to a close. 

Bless my children and Continue your affection. 

From Isaac Dockery. 11 U. 

Dockery's Store, N. C, 

February 8th, 1841. 

I suppose as a necessary consequence to the honour and success 
of Gen Harrisons Administration (independant of general pro- 
scriptions) a revolution to some extent in the official service of 
the Country must be effected. 

It is not probable that in the approaching distribution of office 
that N. C. will share very largely, neither is it characteristick of 
her Citizens to seek office with much avidity. Circumstances how- 
ever conspire to induce me to present myself as an exception to 
the general rule, I will not say a rule reluctantly departed from 
lest it should be construed as affectation. But to come to the point 
permit me to say that should you in the exercise of your official 

10 Bayles M. Edney of Buncombe. 

n Isaac Dockery, of Richmond County, who served in the commons, 1832, 1834, 

156 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

functions as constitutional adviser of the President feel disposed 
to present some of your constituents as honest and capable, my 
name is before you. 

I hope that our former acquaintance will be a satisfactory 
apology for this act of freedom with you, I know not in what light 
you may view office seekers and more especially this application of 
mine, but grant that you are disposed to exercise your influence 
to the utmost, and suffer me to dictate the course I would have 
you pursue and I would say violate no repugnance that you may 
entertain towards applications of this sort, let no partiality for a 
Citizen of your own State influence you, but divest yourself of all 
feelings of an obligators nature and act strictly in accordance with 
your own inclinations. 

If however you should conclude to interest yourself in my 
behalf, I should wish my pretentions presented in a modest but 
respectable light, if an office at all one in which real services may 
be rendered with a corresponding compensation. 

This letter is addressed to you in confidence; if however you 
should feel disposed I respectfully refer you to Mr. Deberry our 
immediate representative, other testimonials if required I appre- 
hend may be supplied. 

From Jesse Carter. U. 


February 8th., 1841. 

It is with sincere pleasure that I have seen you elevated to your 
present distinguished post, though differing from you on most 
political subjects, yet my strong recollection of the days of our 
collegiate life, (the strongest attachments in life) united to my 
great admiration of your talents and acquirements, has made your 
success very gratifying to me. Yes, I can now carry my mind back 
almost twenty years, when I first saw you, your dress and appear- 
ance is still present to me & I have followed your successful and 
rapid advancement in political influence & power, with the live- 
liest pleasure, and truly hope you may long be permitted to hold 
your situation, which I look upon as the most honorable in the 
gift of our Government, as I know you will do honor to yourself, 
and reflect back credit upon my old Alma Mater. To which, 
amidst all my wanderings, my heart turns as the needle to the 
pole, and am cheered by the hope of being permitted to lay my 
bones beneath her time honored Sod. Do not think these are 

The Papers of William A. Graham 157 

"Vox preterit nihil," they are the sincere feelings of my heart. 
And a strong source to me of consolation, in the reverses which 
have attended my political opinions, is that it brings some friends 
like you on the theatre of public life, which they will adorn by 
their talents and services. 

I have been intending to write you for some time, to congratu- 
late you, but have delayed it until now. I take up my pen, in 
addition, to recommend strongly to your consideration a friend, 
though strong political opponent, Daniel E. Hale, Esq., of this 
City, for the place of District Attorney for the Southern division 
of this State, if there should be any change, which from all I can 
understand, ought to take place, though the present occupant be- 
longs to the same party as myself. Yet I think a change would be 
of service to the Government. This is between us, as the gentleman 
who holds the office married a near relative of Col. King, of the 
Senate. Mr. Hale has strong claims for the Office, he is a young 
lawyer of great promise, and industry, and no doubt is amply 
qualified to perform all the duties to the entire satisfaction of the 
Government, & he is certainly one [of] the strongest oponents 
of the present administration that I have ever seen. He is a 
brother of Willis Hale, Attorney General of the State of New 
York, during the whole of the exciting campaign, he was untiring 
in his exertions for the advancement of the Whig cause. He acted 
throughout, as Chairman of the young men's Whig Committee, 
the efficiency of whose organization, with their active and cease- 
less exertions, was the cause of the success of the Whig party in 
this City. I know of no one whose claims are superior to his, upon 
the new administration. Knowing from your talents and prospec- 
tive influence, for I know of no one of your age who stands your 
superior, you will have great weight. So I have taken up my pen, 
to write to an old friend whom I have known from boyhood, who 
will believe, and place confidence in, my statements. Do exert 
yourself for my friend. I assure you, you will be promoting the 
best interest of the Country, & it will be an appointment exceed- 
ingly gratifying to General Harrison's friends in this section. I 
will take it as a great favour, which will be ever gratefully re- 

If you should find time, I should be glad to receive a few lines 
for "Auld Lang Syne," and any documents of interest will be 
gratefully acknowledged. 

Remember me to my old friend, Judge Mangum. 

Your friend Truly, 

158 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From Thomas Ruffin. U. 


Feb'y. 9th, 1841. 

Although so new in the station, you, doubtless, begin to expe- 
rience what demands the constituents of an American member 
of Congress think, or pretend to think, they have a right to make 
on his time and services. I am sorry to be under the necessity of 
adding myself to the list of those who thus obtrude themselves 
on you, to the hindrance, perhaps, of your appropriate duties, 
or, at least, to the disquiet of the little leisure you might have in 
the intervals of those duties. But as the consideration that moves 
me to trouble you, is more of a professional than a personal na- 
ture, I persuade myself you will the more readily excuse the 
trouble to which my application may put you. 

It seems as if new questions in the law, that is to say, questions 
upon which direct authority or precedent can not be found, are 
never to have an end. One of that kind is before our Court now; 
and the object of this note is to ascertain whether there has, or 
has not, been an adjudication on it; &, if there be, to get the 
favour of you to take such steps as may furnish us with the infor- 
mation in an authentic manner. The point is, whether the death 
of a slave pending an action of detinue & after issue joined upon 
non detinet affects the plaintiff's right of recovery, either upon 
evidence on the General issue as going to the value to be assessed 
by the jury, or plea of the fact puis darriere continuance; and, 
if in either, in which of those two ways. We can find no English 
case to aid us; which, indeed, is not surprising, as this species of 
action is not much in use there even now, & until wager of law 
was abolished it was almost entirely superseded by trover. But 
we are quite astonished that, as the case must have often hap- 
pened, especially in the Slave-holding States, it is not a settled 
point in American law. Yet, the fact is, that there is scarcely any- 
thing on it,— at least, in the books that are accessible to us. In our 
own State, there have been cases on the circuits; but no decisions 
there on argument, and this is the first case in the Court of the 
last resort. In the Reports of Tennessee & of South Carolina, there 
is no case on the point. In Virginia there is one, & but one; and 
that presents a divided Court & very unsatisfactory reasoning. In 
a common place book a case is mentioned in the Court of Ken- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 159 

tucky, that of Carrol & Early 4 Bibb's Report 271, in which we 
suppose the point came directly into judgment. If that be so, my 
brethren & I are quite desirous of seeing the case, the arguments 
at the Bar & on the Bench, & the judgment. Now, my good Sir, 
the liberty I am taking is to ask, that you will examine the book— 
which, we take for granted, is in the Library of Congress— &, if 
such a case be in it, that you will get one of the numerous clerks 
of your Committees, to copy it for you, so that you can enclose it 
to me, at as early a day as it can be copied. Perhaps there may be 
other cases, in accordance therewith, in the same series of Re- 
ports, or in those of Harden, of the same State, or perhaps in the 
Courts of Maryland. If so, and you can learn what they are, I shall 
esteem it a singular favour to have a reference to them furnished 
to us. 

By reason of the absence of some Counsel 2c the legislative 
fatigues of others, the arguments occupied less time than usual 
at this term; & we once thought the term would, therefore, be 
short. But we find the number of submitted cases uncommonly 
great, & that many of them ought to have been argued by Councel 
& are to be studied by us. So, that at present there is no ground 
to augur an adjournment before the common period. 

The health of my brothers, as well as my own, is quite good— 
tho' Mr. Gaston has been a good deal overcome by the afflicting 
bereavement of his eldest grand-child, the daughter of the late 
Mrs. Manly. 

Oblige me by offering to your colleague my respects & good 
wishes; and accept, my dear Sir, the assured esteem and friendly 
regard of 

Your most obed't Serv't 

From Joel R. Poinsett and N. C. Paulding. U. 


Feby. 9th, 1841. 

The National Institution for the promotion of Science and 
the useful Arts, established at the Seat of Government is desirous 
of procuring specimens of the Natural productions of every por- 
tion of the United States and for that purpose respectfully asks 
your aid and co-operation. The district you represent doubtless 

160 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

possesses many important minerals and vegetable productions 
which might prove of great value to the arts if they were gen- 
erally made known.— Specimens of such productions being 
brought to Washington will not only advance the objects of the 
Institution, but will prove advantageous to the country whence 
they come. They will be described by the Scientific members of 
the Institution and their uses and advantages pointed out and the 
specimens exhibited to the public in its museum. 

You are respectfully requested to bring with you on your re- 
turn such specimens as you may collect during the ensuing recess. 
Even a single specimen from each member will be of great ad- 
vantage to the Institution, and be thankfully received as a tribute 
to Science. 

We have the honor to be 

Your most obt. Servts. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, Feby. 9th, 1841. 

I received your letter of the 5th. last night, and as I am a day 
behindhand in writing you I seize a moment to write from my 
seat. Genl. Harrison has just arrived in the Cars from Baltimore. 
His arrival has been greeted by the firing of cannon, ringing of 
bells, a speech from the Mayor of Washington & the shouts of an 
immense multitude, who notwithstanding a violent snow storm, 
still falling, thronged the Avenue above and below the depot for 
a great distance. I witnessed the arrival of the train, & heard the 
huzzas of the crowd from the Colonade at the East front of the 
Capitol. I shall call to pay my respects tomorrow. The new Presi- 
dent will be greatly importuned & wearied, I fear, between this 
and the 4th. of March. 

Our mess gave a large dinner on Saturday where we had a 
goodly number of friends and much wit and good cheer, and on 
last night I attended a large party at Mr. Hill's in this vicinity, 
where I saw Mrs. Walsh & Mrs. Farly (formerly Misses Pearson) 
acquaintances of yours. You maybe perhaps conclude from these 
indications that I am becoming quite a votary of fashion. This 
however would be a great mistake. While I am honored by the 
hospitality which is offered, I confess that I have taken but little 

The Papers of William A. Graham 161 

pleasure in going into the beau monde since my stay here— I de- 
clined therefore an invitation from Mrs. Secretary Woodbury a 
few evenings ago. 

jL Jl, JL Jf, JL 


Except the three appointments of Messrs. Webster, Crittenden, 
& Ewing, I do not think any Cabinet appointment has been deter- 
mined on. The Senate is in Session. I write in haste & under 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Washington City, 

Feb. 13th, 1841. 

The Cabinet has been announced this morning, Towit, Web- 
ster, Sec. of State; Ewing, of Treasury; Bell, of War; Badger, of 
N. C, of Navy; Granger, Post Master Genl.; & Crittenden, Atto. 
Genl., so you see it all. It is said here to be the ablest Cabinet 
which has been formed since the days of Mr. Monroe. 

We have had a pretty severe struggle with our Southern neigh- 
bors for the appointment in that quarter. Our delegation first 
nominated Gov. Owen for the Navy department, (excepting 
Stanly). But he was assailed by members from other States as an 
inferior man; and the President elect signified his intention to 
form the ablest Cabinet he could procure, and intimated through 
his advisers that he would prefer Badger. We therefore joined in 
a recommendation of him. Meanwhile Va., S. C, & Georgia unit- 
ed & pressed Preston for the appointment. So highly however is 
the devotion of N. C. to true Whig principles valued, that we 
succeeded against them all. 

There is a little murmuring in Ga. on account of the neglect 
of Nullification, but it will subside. I hope Badger may accept, 
but I doubt it. The appointment will not add any thing to our 
strength at home, but it will give the State some character abroad 
if he shall devote himself to the duties of the department as he 
should do. It is regarded here as the department promising most 
reputation to a man of real talent & industry, among them all 
except the Treasury. If Badger shall decline we will hardly pre- 
sent any other name. You see that Stanly was mentioned for the 
Navy in the papers, and it gave us a little embarrassment, but 
the course the thing has taken will set matters right again. I hope 

162 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

our friends in the State will at once give in their approbation. 
If they knew the struggle which has been made against it, I 
verily believe, mainly from an habitual indifference (to use no 
harsher phrase) towards N. C. on the part of her immediate 
neighbors I doubt not but that they would with one accord say 

You will please not mention the fact of Owens presentment, 
as he is a gentleman entirely, and has been grossly depreciated 
by our adversaries. If Badger accepts had you not better continue 
in the practise in the State. The Supreme Court will be an open 
field. Write me at once on this point. Webster who is to be Sec- 
retary of State is very much the friend of N. C. and on quite a 
familiar footing with me. I will take occasion to mention to him 
the mission to Naples, and ascertain who desire it. I learn that 
Monroe 12 of N. Y. would be pleased to go there. And I shall not 
present your name unless I learn there is a strong probability of 

The General has been greatly importuned about the Cabinet, 
but I have heard but little of the missions abroad. I have however 
merely called to pay my respects to him formally, the day after 
his arrival. He seemed to be much fatigued and has dispensed with 
the ceremony of shaking hands. Webster and Ewing are, I think, 
his chief advisers. 

It may be proper for the New Bern paper to give a short sketch 
of Badger's history and character, as a native of the place, not 
omitting his military service under Genl Calvin Jones 13 during 
the War. For although he fought no battles, his readiness at that 
time to embark in the Country's service may disarm his political 
adversaries in their charges of Federalism, aristocracy, etc. 

12 James Monroe (1799-1870), of New York, a native of Virginia, a graduate of 
West Point, who served under Decatur against Algiers, and was aide to Scott, 
1817-1822. He resigned from the army in 1832, became active in local politics in 
New York City, and was a Whig member of congress, 1839-1841. He was later a 
state senator. He was a nephew and namesake of President Monroe. 

18 Calvin Jones (1775-1846), a native of Massachusetts, a physician, settled in 
Smithfield in 1795, where he became an active practitioner, medical writer, and 
botanist. He was also one of the founders, and corresponding secretary of the 
State Medical Society. He seems to have been the first in the state to employ 
vaccination in his practice. He represented Johnston County in the commons in 
1799 and 1802. He moved to Raleigh in 1803, and was again in the commons in 1807, 
and was also intendant of the town. He was one of the editors and proprietors of 
the Raleigh Star, an active member of the American Colonization Society, an 
extensive planter, and militia officer, a trustee of the university, and grand master 
of Masons. He served as adjutant general in 1807-1808, and was in command of 
the state troops in eastern North Carolina, and Virginia, in the War of 1812. 
About 1832 he moved to Tennessee, where he owned some thirty thousand acres 
of land. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 163 

There is every prospect of an extra Session of Congress. Wise 
and a few other busy Whigs oppose it & may go off, but the 
general sentiment is in favor of it, to consider a National Bank, 
the distribution of the public lands, and a Tariff on luxuries to 
supply the wants of the Government. 

Present my regard to all & Believe me 

Very truly & affectionately Yours 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, Feby. 15th, 1841. 

*J£. »v» *if- jfe 


The last three days have been bitterly cold but clear. The 
Potomac is closed with ice & the winds are full of nipping frost. 
The day after I last wrote you, I called to pay my respects to Genl. 
Harrison, who has taken rooms at Gadsby's. His appearance is 
indifferent (so I may whisper to you) . His room was crowded 
with company. I was introduced by Mr. Mangum and remained 
but a few moments without conversing at all. He seemed worn 
down with fatigue and had dispensed with the ceremony of shak- 
ing hands, owing to the hearty jars he had encountered on his 
journey hither. 

He was visited the day following by the ladies and has also 
visited and dined with Mr. Van Buren, who returned his call. 
He will go this week to visit his relatives in Virginia. The City 
is full of office seekers, and the crowd may be expected to increase 
untill the 4th. of March. Besides which, I, and I suppose each 
member of Congress receive about two letter daily requesting, 
that if there be any thing agoing, in the way of office, that would 
suit the writer, to put in his claims. 

The Cabinet is at length decided on, that is, Mr. Webster, 
Secretary of State; Ewing of the Treasury; Bell, of Ten., of War; 
Badger, of N. C, of Navy; Crittenden, of Ky., Attorney Genl.; 
and Granger, of New York, Post Master Genl. Whether Badger 
will accept I do not know. There was no serious expectation of 
the appointment of Mr. Stanly, though the Madam had set her 
heart upon it. During the past week I have dined with Genl. 
Van Ness 14 of this vicinity, & attended a pleasant little evening 

"John Peter Van Ness (1770-1846), a native of New York, and graduate of 
Columbia, M. C. 1801-1803, was unseated for accepting a militia commission, 
a lawyer and banker in Washington, who was major general of militia. 

164 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

party at the house of Mr. L. Hardin whom you know. He has a 
fine wife, and gave us quite an agreeable entertainment. 

I have not heard what the President elect will determine re- 
specting an extra Session of Congress, but I presume it will be 
called. I will not however permit myself to be absent from you 
in July. ... I have escaped colds here most fortunately, but find 
exposure in the open air for a few days past disagreeably cold. I 
have not been out of the City, not even over to Georgetown since 
my arrival. 

jfc jfe jfc jb jfe 

w TT w w TP 

I think at present that I will leave here the 5th. or 6th. of 
March and reach home during Orange Court, that is, provided 
I find that I can be spared in passing on the nominations of the 
new President. 

How are my dear Boys? Does Will walk yet? Has John learned 
to talk? 

In three weeks from the receipt of this I hope we shall all be 
together again— In the mean time, kiss my sons. Continue to me 
your love 8c believe me 

Ever Your 

I have written the Overseer to attend to our affairs at home 
which require immediate care, and some time since to Dr. Strud- 

A letter from Judge Nash last week informs me that all the 
negroes and other property of F. Waddell & Miss Sally Moore 
are to be sold at the County Court at Hillsboro' next week to 
satisfy debts at Bank. Dr. Strudwick, he adds, will suffer consid- 
erable loss as their surety. Mr. Cain will be also a loser but not to 
so great an amount. This is a terrible calamity upon that family. 

From George E. Badger. U. 

Raleigh, Febr. 16th, 1841. 

By a letter which reached me from Mr. Stanly the day before 
your arrival I first learned that such a thing as my nomination to 
a department was thought of. The tidings took me completely by 
surprise, for I had not the remotest possible notice of such a 
thing. Had I anticipated it I should have taken care by a timely 
letter to you or Mr. Stanly to have prevented such an event. It 

The Papers of William A. Graham 165 

has placed me in a position of great embarrassment. I am urged 
by letters from friends in Congress to accept— the claims on me 
of the State— regard for feeling friends— the duty of aiding in 
carrying out a true reform— the glory of reconstructing our gal- 
lant Navy— all these and other reasons are placed before me, & 
I am urged by the further thought that if I refuse now N. C. will 
not have any place in the Cabinet. I have consulted some friends 
here amongst others Mr. Gaston; he says "if you can possibly bear 
the pecuniary sacrifice & domestic discomfort, I do not see how 
you can refuse to accept." Now as to personal sacrifices, great as 
they would be & deeply felt by me, I would not hesitate on that 
score, if I thought I could discharge the duties of the station with 
credit to myself and with advantage to the Country. I hold it the 
duty of those who can, to aid the President elect in his sincere 
and honorable purposes for the good of the Nation. I do in truth 
look on this as the great crisis of our affairs & believe if the gov- 
ernment be not now restored, its restoration can only be hoped by 
a future revolution. 

But then, my dear Sir, how can I hope to fill the duties of the 
office? I have never been in public life. I have no capacities pe- 
culiarly appropriate to it & little of any kind. I could, indeed, 
honestly and well I trust, advise the President for the good of the 
Country but how to superintend a department. I love and honor 
the Navy & have since I knew the meaning of the word. I could 
willingly lay myself out to advance its honor, but something is 
requisite to accomplish this better than honest motives & ill 
assured exertions. I should consider myself happy to add any 
glory to my native State but I could scarce bear the mortification 
of having disappointed her expectations and cast a blot on her 
fair fame. 

I honor the President and wish the most brilliant success to his 
admn. but for that very reason I feel (besides others) reluctant, 
greatly reluctant, to place myself in a position under him in which 
I might disappoint his expectations and sully the course of his 

There are great difficulties with me, & I cannot but feel great 
though now vain regret that you had not prevented the nomina- 
tion. You know me to be above any affectation in the matter- 
Will you let me hear from you? Give me some help on the sub- 
ject. Let me know what I shall have to do & what I ought to 
know. Speak to me with perfect frankness and say that I ought 
not to accept, that there is hazard, danger of failure, etc. say what 

166 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

you think without any reserve whatever and believe me I shall 
value the favour of such frankness. 

As to the Atty. Genl-ship, I should have felt rather more at 
home, should have hoped the diligence would have enabled me to 
succeed. But it would have been an outrage upon the Whig party 
& upon the nation had Mr. Crittenden been left out & I placed 
in that office. 

I wish I were as well out of the present office. 

In my opinion Mr. Stanly's nomination would have been a 
very good one, and would have been reed, by the Whigs of the 
old North with glad welcome. The notion about age you know 
I do not regard a matter of attention. He who has passed thirty 
is fit for most things for which he is likely to be. 

But that is, I suppose, out of the question. 

I had a letter last night from Mr. Mangum; he says in the case 
of my acceptance I need not come on untill April. How is this? 
I have not yet reed, any official notification as to the appointment. 
Ought I to answer it at once when I receive it, or may I take time 
to think after receiving it & how long would be proper? 

I beg you to express my thanks to Mr. Mangum for his letter. 
As I am much pressed for time to save the mail I cannot even 
answer it, using Miller's rule, as to him & yourself. Have the 
goodness to read this letter to him and ask him to consider it 
equally addressed to himself. 

Mr. Stanly suggests to me in a letter reed, last evening that I 
should not decline without first coming to Washington. Do you 
concur in this & would it be proper this late? I want to do pre- 
cisely what propriety may require at least. 

Excuse this hasty & ill-written letter which I have no time even 
to read over & write me on its receipt. 

Very truly your friend & obed. Servt. 

From Daniel Moreau Barringer. A. 

Charlotte, N. C, 

Feby. 21, 1841. 

I write you this note with the hope of obtaining information 
on a subject that is giving our party here, & I suppose, elsewhere, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 167 

a good deal of anxiety. Is it possible that Wise, Mallory 15 & other 
Southern Whigs are likely to oppose Harrison's administration? 

Can it be, that in the moment of victory, and even in advance, 
that they are intending to join an opposition that will be formid- 
able without their aid? For the the sake of the Country & the 
success of the great principles for which we have contended, let 
there be union. 

Do write me on this subject— & write me fully, in confidence, 
if you choose. 

We learn that Mr. Badger is offered the place of Secretary of 
the Navy. The Register, (unadvisedly I suppose) intimates that 
he will not accept. Write to him to accept it, by all means. At this 
peculiar juncture, there should be a gentleman of distinguished 
ability at the head of that Department. The reasons must be ob- 
vious to you, And although he may not at once be familiar with 
its details, you know that he will do honour to any station. Be- 
sides, I think his appointment will be of service to our party, & 
will reflect honour on the State. 

Will there be an extra Session or not? I fear there is much 
opposition to it in the Whig ranks of the House. I fear that 
matters are not going on as favourably to our cause as could be 
desired. And divisions, if there be any, will be fomented and 
stimulated by every device of the enemy. 

The Candidates for Congress are not in the field here yet. 
G. W. Caldwell has been nominated by the Democrats, but has 
not yet accepted; I suppose he will however. 

The Whigs are determined to run opposition, & I suppose it 
probable that I may be nominated as their Candidate. I shall be 
placed by such a nomination in an unpleasant dilemma. I am not 
desirous to go to Congress at this time, besides you know that it 
will be an uphill business to contend against a majority of 1100 
votes at the start. On the other hand, I am sensible of the obli- 
gations we all owe to the party and the importance of keeping it 
united. What I may do, is yet uncertain. The Whigs of the dis- 
trict, however, are calculating, without any consent of mine, that 

15 Francis Mallory (1807-1860), of Virginia, who had served as a midshipman, 
1822-1828, then studied law, only to abandon its practice and study medicine. He 
secured his M. D. degree from the University of Pennsylvania, and then became 
a planter. He was a Whig member of congress, 1837-1839, 1840-1843. He was 
navy agent at Norfolk, 1850-1853, and as such was tremendously helpful to 
Graham, while he was secretary of the navy. He was in the house of delegates, 
1853, 1855, 1857-1858, and was, for a time, president of the Norfolk and Petersburg 

168 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

I must be the Candidate, & I may be compelled to take the field. 
The chances of success are against us here, but if I do become a 
Candidate, every exertion will be used. 

I wish you, in anticipation of such a contingency, to send me, 
or get some friend of yours to send me, all the documents, etc., 
that may be useful to our cause on the subject of a Bank, Dis- 
tribution of the proceeds of public lands, etc. 

If removals are to be made in this State, as I suppose will be, 
I think there should be, great caution should be observed in the 
selection of proper officers. As to this, however, you are as well 
advised & better than I can be. 

Please answer me on the subject of this hasty letter as soon as 
you can. Direct to Concord, N. C. 

With great esteem 

Your friend, etc. 

P.S. I am here at Court. Manly does well as Judge, so far. His 
appointment will give general satisfaction— 

D. M. B. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Senate Chamber, 

Feby. 23rd, 1841. 

I was very happy in reading your letter of the 19th. Which came 
to me last night, and on this day fortnight I hope we shall be all 
again at our own home. It is not entirely certain but highly prob- 

The newly elected Senators are coming in and there promises 
to be a majority of our political friends in the Senate on the 4th. 
March without my presence— 

#jfc jh jfc jfe 

W W TP w 

Mr. Badger has been appointed Secretary of the Navy, and has 
accepted the office. He will be here probably the last of this week. 
You are mistaken however in supposing that the Navy is a sub- 
ordinate department. At this time that Head of department has 
it in his power to place it high in the Cabinet Counsels and in 
the estimation of the American people. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 169 

Washington is becoming crowded with strangers. Several per- 
sons are here from North Carolina, and the Governor & several 
others are to be here by the last of this week. The railroad Com- 
pany from Baltimore has made arrangements for conveying 5,000 
persons at one time to this city. The applicants for office are very 
numerous, and hundreds of letters daily arrive on the same sub- 
ject. But the great multitude, I believe, merely come to see the 
show, and take a jaunt. 

# -Y- At- >SU Jfc 

TT W W ^T 

Arrangements 16 

for the 

Inauguration of the President Elect, 

on the 
4th. of March, 1841. 

The doors of the Senate chamber will be opened at 10 o'clock, 
for the admission of Senators and others, who, by the rules of the 
Senate and the arrangement of the Committee, are entitled to 
admission, as follows: 

The President elect; 

The ex- Vice President; 

The Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court; 

The Diplomatic corps; 

The Judges of the United States; 

Officers who, by name, have received, or shall hereafter receive, 
the thanks of Congress for their gallantry and good conduct in 
the service of their country, or who have received medals by a 
vote of Congress; 

The Governor, for the time being, of any State or Territory 
of the Union; 

The ex-Governors of the several States; 

Such gentlemen as have been Heads of Departments, or 

Members of either branch of Congress; 

Persons who, for the time being, belong to the respective State 
and Territorial Legislatures; 

16 Printed document. 

170 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Persons belonging to such Legislatures of foreign Governments 
as are in amity with the United States; 

The Mayors of Washington, Georgetown, and Alexandria; 

All of whom will be admitted at the north door of the Capitol. 

Seats will be placed in front of the Secretary's table for the 
President elect and ex- Vice President. 

For the Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme 
Court, in front and on the right of the Chair; 

For the Committee of Arrangements, on the floor on the right 
of the Chair; 

For the Diplomatic corps, in front and on the left of the Chair; 

Such gentlemen as have been Members of either branch of 
Congress, together with the Mayors of Washington, Georgetown, 
and Alexandria, will occupy the eastern lobby. 

The circular lobby is assigned to the other persons entitled to 
admission on the floor. 

The eastern gallery of the Senate will be occupied by gentle- 
men, who will be admitted by the outside northeastern door only. 

The circular gallery will be reserved entirely for ladies, who, 
unattended by gentlemen, will enter the Capitol from the terrace 
by the principal western door, and be conducted to the rotundo 
and gallery. 

Officers of the Army, Navy, and Marine corps, not entitled to 
admission on the floor of the Senate under the rule, but who 
appear in uniform, will be admitted by the same entrance; and 
all other doors and entrances to the Capitol will be kept closed. 

The Senate will convene at 11 o'clock. 

The Diplomatic corps, with the Judges of the Supreme Court, 
will enter a few minutes before the Vice President. 

The Vice President will enter the chamber at half-past 11 
o'clock with the Committee of Arrangements, and be conducted 
to the Chair. 

The oath will then be administered to the Vice President by 
the President pro tempore. 

The oath of office will be administered to the new members 
of the Senate by its President. 

The President elect will arrive at quarter before twelve o'clock, 
will be met by the Committee at the entrance, and conducted to 
the seat prepared for him in the Senate chamber. 

At twelve o'clock, those assembled on the floor of the Senate, 
will proceed to the eastern portico of the Capitol, in the following 

The Papers of William A. Graham 171 

The Marshal of the District of Columbia; 

The Supreme Court of the United States; 

The Sergeant-at-arms of the Senate; 

The Committee of Arrangements; 

The President elect, the Vice President, and Secretary of the 

The Members of the Senate; 

The Diplomatic corps; 

The Mayors of Washington, Georgetown, and Alexandria, and 
the other persons admitted to the floor of the Senate, in the 
order in which they are mentioned. 

On reaching the front of the portico, the President elect and 
Chief Justice will take the seats provided for them. 

The ex- Vice President, the Committee of Arrangements, and 
Associate Justices of the Supreme Court, will occupy a position 
several feet in the rear of the President elect. 

The Vice President, Secretary, and Members of the Senate, will 
occupy parallel lines next in rear. 

The Diplomatic corps will occupy the next position; and the 
space immediately in their rear is assigned to the late Speaker, 
Clerk, and Members of the Senate and House of Representatives. 

The ladies, and such persons as by the rules of the Senate and 
arrangements of the Committee are enumerated in the preceding 
programme, will occupy the steps and the residue of the portico. 

On the conclusion of the address, the oath of office will be 
administered to the President of the United States by the Chief 
Justice; after which, the Members of the Senate, preceded by the 
Vice President, Secretary, and Sergeant-at-arms, will return to the 
Senate chamber. 

The Sergeant-at-arms of the Senate is charged with the execu- 
tion of these arrangements; and, with the Marshal of the District 
of Columbia, aided by the police of the Capitol, is charged with 
the preservation of order. 

All carriages and horses will be excluded from the Capitol 
square, whether in the use of the military, or otherwise. 

These arrangements have been made with the desire that the 
greatest possible accommodation be given to the people to witness 
the ceremonies. The arrangements within the Capitol were, from 
necessity, formed with reference to the limited capacity of the 
Senate chamber; and those for the exterior were deemed most 
appropriate, with a view of affording the assembled multitude an 
opportunity of witnessing the inauguration. 

172 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Should the weather, however, prove unfavorable, the ceremony 

of the inauguration will take place in the Hall of the House of 


William C. Preston,, 
Richard H. Bayard/ 7 
A. S. White. 18 


March 3, 1841. Committee of Arrangements of the Senate. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

March 4th, 1841. 

I have just returned from the great ceremony of the Inaugura- 
tion of the President of the United States. I have not leisure to 
give you any adequate idea of the grandeur of the occasion. The 
crowd in attendance is estimated at from 15 to 30 thousand. 

An immense procession of the military of the district of Co- 
lumbia, of Baltimore & Philadelphia, of the Marine Corps, etc., 
and thousands of citizens attended Genl. Harrison from his lodg- 
ings to the Capitol. He was received in the Senate where we had 
assembled and where the diplomatic Corps of Foreign Govern- 
ments had been previously received, (each member of it being 
clad in full Court dress resembling a military uniform but much 
richer.) thence we marched in procession to the East Portico of 
the Capitol, to which a large platform had been added. A stand 
was prepared for the President & Chief Justice of the United 
States. From this he delivered an Inaugural address to the great 
multitude below, in a clear, bold, & strong voice, interrupted ever 
& anon with shouts of applause & waving of hats from the forest 
of human heads congregated there. And then took the solemn oath 
of office which he repeated in still louder tones. 

The crowd now responded in defening shouts, and a discharge 
of Cannon almost shook the Capitol. I occupied a station not far 

"Richard Henry Bayard (1796-1868), of Delaware, graduate of Princeton, Whig 
senator, 1836-1839, 1841-1845, Charge d'Affaires in Belgium, 1850-1853. 

18 Albert Smith White (1803-1864), of Indiana, a native of New York, graduate 
of Union College, lawyer, who moved to Indiana, and became a railroad president. 
He was a Whig member of congress, 1837-1839, and senator, 1839-1845. He was a 
Republican member of congress, 1861-1863, and was appointed a federal judge 
in 1864. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 173 

from him & distinctly heard the Inaugural address, & have no 
hesitation in believing that it will be acceptable to the whole 

I recognized in the assembly many individuals from North Car- 
olina who had come on to witness the occasion, Gov. Morehead, 
Maj. Hinton, Ex. Gov. Owen, Genl. Owen, 19 Col. Long, 20 etc., etc. 

The Senate returned to their Chamber & adjourned. The pro- 
cession attended the President to the White House, which had 
been by this time vacated for his reception— I could wish that you 
had been able to look on the scene, but when I was almost fight- 
ing my way, with the new Secretary of the Treasury on my arm 
through the rotundo, amid a crowd of ladies with whom I was 
thrown in contact, I thought you would not have had the boldness 
had you been present to make your progress to the scene of the 
Inauguration. A goodly number of them succeeded in getting on 
the platform, although it was specially set apart in the arrange- 
ments for the Senate, Corps diplomatique, members of the House, 

I never before realized the sight of a great assembly of people. 
But I must be brief. 

I hope to leave here on Saturday morning, and if so will be 
with you at home by Monday or Tuesday. But this is quite doubt- 
ful, and you must not expect me till I come. Should I not be 
there by Tuesday, you will please look into the round trunk in 
the office, and take out two bundles of papers tied up with strings 
& marked "Orange Superior Court" & "Person papers" & send 
Mr. Waddell. 

* .tft «jf» -y- »y 

TP TP IT Trs* 

From Charles L. Hinton. A. 

Raleigh, March 25th, 1841. 

Yours of the 22nd. was received last evening. You will perceive 
by the Governor's proclamation that he has fixed the very day 
suggested by you for the election. 

We had a meeting last evening to appoint delegates to attend 
at Hillsborough on Saturday to select a Candidate for the district, 

w James Owen (1784-1865), of Bladen, a planter, who served in the commons, 
1808-1811, as a member of congress, 1817-1819, and was president of the Wilmington 
and Raleigh (later Weldon) Railroad. 

20 Probably William Lunsford Long, of Halifax. 

174 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

some of them will certainly attend. Many of our citizens think it 
due to Haywood's feelings to urge his claims but will readily yield 
to the wish of a majority of the convention. I expect he has cal- 
culated on running and might feel disappointed if not selected 
but we should by all means fix on the strongest man. I am sure 
such would be Mr. Haywood's wish. 

In this County the result would vary very little from a strict 
party vote with any respectable candidate; many think that Dr. 
Smith would be the strongest candidate or rather that he would 
get the larger number of those votes that are to contended for. 

*dfc ' 4fe dfe 4L 

w •Jl* "re" *1t* 

From James Phillips. U. 

Chapel Hill 

25th. March 1841. 

Governor Swain has just put into my hands a communication 
to you from the Engineer Department, respecting an application 
you have been so polite as to make in my behalf. Allow me, Sir, 
to express to you my sense of the obligation you have conferred 
on me, & to assure you, that whether your kind efforts terminate 
successfully or not, I shall regard them as an expression of friendly 
feelings and shall number them with those which we may treasure 
up in our memories and reflect on with pride and pleasure in the 
subsequent periods of life. I have long entertained a desire to see 
the national establishment at West Point, not merely to get a 
peep at the outposts and be satisfied with a bird's eye view of the 
place, & its officers, & cadets, & Libraries, & philosophical appara- 
tus, & hear an examination, but to take a closer view, & get, if 
possible, behind the scenes to see how matters were managed 
there, & bring away all that I might find useful & suitable to our 
University. I have attended examinations at several of the North- 
ern institutions and confess I was never satisfied with what I saw 
and heard, and as West Point has a character for successfully cul- 
tivating the mathematics, I have long cherished a hope that I 
should one day be permitted not only to see & hear, but to ask 
questions, to satisfy myself of the soundness of their modes of 
teaching, & if good and practicable, introduce them, or suitable 
modifications of them, here. Govr. Iredell promised me some 10 

The Papers of William A. Graham 175 

or 12 years ago that I should have an opportunity of gratifying 
my wishes, but it has either not been in his power to perform his 
promises, or he has forgotten it, & I did not like to take the part 
of even appearing to desire office. 

The success, however, of the friends of good order & sound 
sense in the recent political contest led Governor Swain to think 
that the time had arrived when I might safely be gratified, and 
to your personal kindness I am indebted for the prospect of 

In the communication from the Engineer Department the name 
of the "Revd. Jones Phillips" is used instead of James. So near 
the apex of honor, the consummation of long cherished hopes, it 
would be a pity to fail through inadvertance. Will it not be 
necessary to correct this oversight in the officer at Washington & 
set him right? If so, permit me to ask, as a last favor, that you 
will do what you consider right in this business. 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Hillsboro', March 29th, 1841. 

I hurried off from Washington about a week before the ad- 
journment of the Senate in order to reach Orange Superior Court. 
Took cold by the way, the weather & roads being intolerable, and 
did not get into Court, although I arrived at home on Thursday 
after a days detention at Chapel Hill by high water, untill Satur- 
day. ... I have since been at home, will go off tomorrow, on the 
circuit, and shall have but three weeks to be with my family un- 
till I return to the extra Session of Congress. The call is very 
inconvenient to me as regards my professional business. I had ad- 
journed over several causes in the Supreme Court from last 
Winter untill the Summer term with the hope of arguing them 
myself, but I must, I fear now, abandon them altogether. 

My little boy Jo. has been quite sick with Influenza so much 
so that he was bled, & took Calomel besides large quantities of 
Croup Syrup, he is now better, but quite feeble. We have all had 
violent colds, the season has been the wettest within the memory 
of the inhabitants here, and the cold red earth being saturated 
with water gives us a humid atmosphere. 

Judge Pearson had a laborious week here. A negro was con- 
victed of a most brutal murder of his Master. Another was con- 
victed of manslaughter, a case I removed from Person. 

176 N. G. Department of Archives and History 

Iredell, Saunders, Haughton 21 of Pittsboro' & Gorrell 22 of Guil- 
ford came to attend the Court in addition to the former bar. 

Dr. Smith has been nominated as the Whig candidate for Con- 
gress here. It is doubtful whether Montgomery or Saunders (Mon- 
sieur Tonson) will be his opponent. I regard the result as doubt- 
ful. Aug. Shepperd or John Kerr will be the Whig Candidate in 
Hills, district who declines, & Reed 23 of Rockingham probably 
the L[oco] F[oco]. Fisher is off, and Rencher or Worth 24 is 
mentioned as the Whig there. I presume the Loco will run no 

Barringer and Green Caldwell 25 are out in Conners district, 
and Clingman opposes my brother in the mountains. What are 
you doing in the New Berne district? With proper management 
we ought to carry ten districts in N. C. now. 

By the bye, is the "New Berne Spectator" no more? I made 
a formal recommendation of it to the Secy, of State on leaving 
Washington, for one of the publishers of the Laws. Its quietus 
was taken so quietly, that I was not aware of its demise. But I 
now find that it does not come here. 

Mangum 26 remained untill he took off the heads of Blair and 
Rives. By a letter from him yesterday I learn that there is much 
dissatisfaction among our friends at the appointment of Collector 
for New York. The competition when I left was violent between 

21 John H. Haughton, of Chatham, member of the commons, 1844; of state 
senate, 1850, 1854. 

22 Ralph Gorrell (1803-1875), of Greensboro, a lawyer and planter, who was 
graduated from the university a year after Graham. He served in the commons, 
1834-1835, 1854, in the state senate, 1856-1858, and in the convention of 1861. 

23 David Settle Reid. 

24 Jonathan Worth (1802-1869), of Randolph, a native of Guilford, lawyer, 
planter, and promoter of internal improvements. He studied law under Judge 
Murphey, and became a successful practitioner. He became active in Whig politics, 
and served in the commons, 1830-1831, and in the senate, 1858-1862. He was twice 
defeated for congress. He strongly opposed Nullification, and was the author of 
the resolutions by which the legislature condemned it. He was equally hostile 
to secession, and twice voted against the call of a convention. He was state 
treasurer, 1862-1865, provisional treasurer, 1865, and governor, 1865-1868, when 
he was removed by General Canby. He and Graham were devoted friends, and 
mutual admirers. 

26 Greene Washington Caldwell (1806-1864), of Charlotte, a native of Lincoln 
(now Gaston) County, M. D. of the University of Pennsylvania, who served as 
an assistant surgeon in the army for a short time in 1832. He then studied law 
and practiced in Charlotte. He was a Democratic member of congress, 1841-1843, 
superintendent of the United States mint at Charlotte, and a captain in the 
Mexican War. He was a member of the commons, 1836-1841, and of the state 
senate, 1850-1853. 

88 Mangum, in the closing days of the 26th Congress, introduced into the Senate 
a resolution dismissing Blair and Rives as public printers, and took a leading 
part in the attack on them by the Whigs, which followed. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 177 

Curtis 27 & Wetmore, 28 it being regarded as a contest between the 
Webster and Clay factions. And the success of the former is re- 
garded as a proof of the superior influence of Mr. W. That I 
think a mistake, although I have not a high opinion of the ap- 

Gov. Owen and others who attended the Inauguration made 
a written statement as to the propriety of the removal of the 
collector at Wilmington, shewing his intermeddling in elections 
etc. If it is desired to remove the Collector at Ocracoke a similar 
statement should be forwarded to the Seer. Treas. 

Badger seems pleased with his new station and made a fair 
impression at Washington. A letter from Barringer informs me 
that our friend Manly gets on well, and is popular as a Judge in 
his riding. 

jfe jfc jfe jfe jfe 

^r "7P ^P ^P TP 

Professor Phillips is on tiptoe at the expectation of being ap- 
pointed a visitor to West Point this summer. He wrote me yes- 
terday saying his name was James and not Jones as it had been 
incorrectly written in a communication from the War Depart- 
ment, and beging that it might be put right, lest the appointment 
should fail for misnomer. 

£b Jfc. 4fc -V- JL 

•w tp "«• *1P TP 

From James W. Bryan. A. 

Newbern, April 3, 1841. 

Your letter dated Hillsboro' reached me by the last mail & 
I was sorry to learn thereby that you were all suffering so severely 
from colds & the effects of the late bad weather. 

I fear you will find the Climate of Washington very trying to 
your Constitution, Connected with the unnatural habits incident 
to a member's life. Many Northern Gentlemen have told me that 
it is the worst Climate in the known world. 

I have had much difficulty about being a Candidate, but I 
believe the matter is now arranged to the entire Satisfaction of 
the district. I had Mr. Wm. H. Washington 29 nominated in Car- 

s' 7 Edward Curtis (1801-1856), who had been a Whig member of congress, 

88 R. C. Wetmore. 

39 William Henry Washington (1813-1860), of New Bern, Graham's brother-in- 
law. He was elected and served one term. He was a member of the commons, 1843, 
1846, and state senator, 1848-1852. 

178 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

teret & I believe the balance of the district has agreed thereto 
with great Cordiality; he will be Easily Elected, as he has much 
popularity of his own & the Locos decline bringing out a 
Candidate. Shepard positively declines, and has betaken himself 
with great assiduity to the practice of the law, forming his Circuit 
in the upper part of the district principally. James Whitfield 30 
their next choice I learn will not Consent to run & Dr. Watson 31 
their "ultimatum," cannot run & so they have made a virtue 
of necessity & surrendered the track. I have determined to pursue 
my profession with as much energy as my health & the Climate 
will permit & shall be at the Supreme Court this Summer if we 
send up cases enough to make the trip a matter of interest, etc. 
I really am sick and sore of politics particularly after the late 
laborious presidential campaign in which I did my share. I was 
pleased with the result & am satisfied with the victory, and trust 
(as I verily believe it will) that it will redound to the honor 
of our Common Country. 

Mrs. Washington is making ready for New York & will leave 
in a few days. Mary has written on for her permission to join 
the Episcopal Church & Mrs. W. deems her presence essential to 
Mary's comfort & advantage. 

Whilst I think of it, I would beg to mention that the Specta- 
tor makes its appearance for the first time on today on a footing 
which I trust will be of a permanent character; it would how- 
ever be particularly grateful, to have the publication of the laws 
of the U. S. & I hope you will jog Mr. Webster's memory if neces- 
sary on the subject. We shall be certain to carry this district for 
Genl. Harrison. I think that is as certain as any event that can 

We have suffered down here most severely from colds also. My 
children have been much afflicted with them & many of our old 
inhabitants in the surrounding country have been carried off 
with pleurisy, etc. Dr. Elias Hawes 32 died of the Effects of Severe 
Cold. We have also the small pox again in town; it was brought 
here in a vessel, but as the subject was a common sailor the 
Measures of the police were so prompt & efficient that there is no 
danger of its spreading. 

# # # # # 

30 Probably James Bryan "Whitfield (1809-1841), of Lenoir County, a merchant, 
who had served in the state senate in 1840, and was a major general of militia. 
81 Dr. Josiah Watson. 
83 Elias Hawes, a well-known physician of New Bern. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 179 

We are getting along very pleasantly on the Circuit & are all 
much pleased with Judge Baily, 33 he is kind, courteous and gentle- 
manly in his demeanour to the Bar & as it is a point of honour 
with us not to be excelled in these matters we endeavour to repay 
him with interest. 

Say to Dr. Smith that he has my best wishes for his success in 
the approaching Canvass & that I would it were in my power to 
lend him a helping hand. I wish to go on to Washington & see 
you all during "Old Tip's" administration, but I fear I shall not 
be able to make it out. It is so much the fashion in these times to 
go after office, that if I were to make a start I presume it would 
soon be bruited about that that was my object. I believe that 
there is but one office in the Gift of the administration that I 
want & as that is filled by Judge Potter 34 in our State, it is hardly 
worth while to think about it, although as my brother Attmore 
says I am a standing Candidate for the vacancy whenever it hap- 
pens. We have nothing new here or of interest. 

TP ^P TP Tp 

P. S. I have just left our mutual friend Robert G. Moore the 
Ed. of the Spectator. He has a son Robert S. Moore 35 a young 
gentleman of fine talents & acquirements who was at West Point 
for several years & after leaving that Institution has acquired for 
himself the reputation of a first rate Civil Engineer having been 
engaged on some of the principal Rail Roads of the Country; 
he is also a gentleman of spotless character & of great integrity. 
Mr. Moore (Robt. S.) wishes the situation of purser in the Navy 
& if you can aid him in the matter you will confer a lasting favour 
upon one every way deserving of it, oblige his father very much 
who is a fast & devoted friend of your & I shall esteem it also as 
a great favour. 

The Death of President Harrison, 36 A. 

City of Washington, 

April 4, 1841. 

An all-wise Providence having suddenly removed from this 
life, William Henry Harrison, late President of the United 

88 Bailey. 

84 Henry Potter (1765-1857), of Fayetteville, a native of Granville, who had been 
a Federal judge since 1801. He died the following December. 

85 Robert S. Moore was appointed a purser, J 841. He died in 1845. 
88 Printed circular. 

180 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

States, we have thought it our duty, in the recess of Con- 
gress, and in the absence of the Vice President from the Seat 
of Government, to make this afflicting bereavement known to the 
country, by this declaration, under our hands. 

He died at the President's House, in this city, this fourth day 
of April, Anno Domini, 1841, at thirty minutes before one o'clock 
in the morning. 

The People of the United States, overwhelmed, like ourselves, 
by an event so unexpected and so melancholy, will derive con- 
solation from knowing that his death was calm and resigned, as 
his life has been patriotic, useful and distinguished; and that 
the last utterance of his lips expressed a fervent desire for the 
perpetuity of the Constitution, and the preservation of its true 
principles. In death, as in life, the happiness of his country was 
uppermost in his thoughts. 

Daniel Webster, 

Secretary of State. 
Thomas Ewing, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 
John Bell, 

Secretary of War. 
J. J. Crittenden, 

Attorney General. 
Francis Granger, 

Postmaster General. 

Washington, April 4, 1841. 

The circumstances in which we are placed by the death of the 
President, render it indispensable for us, in the recess of Con- 
gress, and in the absence of the Vice President, to make arrange- 
ments for the Funeral Solemnities. Having consulted with the 
family and personal friends of the deceased, we have concluded 
that the funeral be solemnized on Wednesday the 7th. instant, 
at 12 o'clock. The religious services to be performed according to 
the usage of the Episcopal Church, in which Church the deceased 
most usually worshipped. The body to be taken from the 
President's House to the Congress burying ground, accompanied 
by a military and a civic procession, and deposited in the Re- 
ceiving Tomb. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 181 

The military arrangements to be under the direction of Major 
General Macomb, 37 the General Commanding in Chief the 
Army of the United States; and Major General Walter Jones, 38 of 
the militia of the District of Columbia. 

Commodore Morris, 39 the senior Captain in the Navy now 
in the city, to have direction of the naval arrangements. 

The Marshal of the District to have the direction of the civic 
procession, assisted by the Mayors of Washington, Georgetown, 
and Alexandria, the Clerk of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, and such other citizens as they may see fit to call to their 

John Quingy Adams, ex-President of the United States, mem- 
bers of Congress now in the city or its neighborhood, all the 
members of the Diplomatic body resident in Washington, and 
all officers of Government, and citizens generally, are invited to 

And it is respectfully recommended to the Officers of Govern- 
ment that they wear the usual badge of mourning. 

Daniel Webster, 
Secretary of State. 
Thomas Ewing, 
Secretary of the Treasury. 
John Bell, 
Secretary of War. 
J. J. Crittenden, 
Attorney General. 
Francis Granger, 
Postmaster General. 

87 Alexander Macomb (1792-1841), a native of Detroit, entered the army in 
1799, after training at West Point, and was now the senior major general. 

38 Walter Jones (1776-1861), a native of Virginia, read law under Bushrod 
Washington, was a soldier in the War of 1812, and was United States attorney 
for the District of Columbia, 1804-1821. He had a large private practice, and was 
of counsel in McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden. 

89 Charles Morris (1784-1856), a native of Connecticut, entered the Navy in 
1799. He was with Preble and Decatur at Tripoli, was on the "Constitution" in 
the War of 1812, and at one time or another commanded the "John Adams." the 
"Congress," and the Brandywine," when it returned Lafayette to France. Admiral 
Farragut called him the "ablest sea officer of his day," "the statesman of the 
American Navy." 

182 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From Bartholomew F. Moore. U. 

Halifax, Apl. 5, 1841. 

I have rec'd your letter— the contents came safely to hand. For 
your kindness and trouble be pleased to accept my thanks; tender 
them also to Mr. Mangum. 

I was pleased to observe Mangum's course towards Calhoun; I 
have no doubt that it relieved many of his warm friends from 
anxiety. I did not myself doubt Mangum, but I could not be 
insensible to the existence of apprehensions entertained by others. 
The truth is we must yield a hearty support to the present ad- 
ministration, if with any degree of consistency we can do so. A 
breach of any consequence in our ranks will restore the spoils 
party on the first opportunity. I have a very unlimited confidence 
in the integrity of Harrison and I am assured that he entertains 
correct notions on the subject of our finances. I look with much 
anxiety to the development of his views at the ensuing Session 
in May. Can we furnish revenue without a revision of the tariff? 
I think we cannot. All that can be gathered from a prudent re- 
vision of the tariff, from land Sales & from all other sources will 
be needed for years by the Government although it shall practice 
the severest economy. I am therefore opposed to a present division 
of the proceeds of the public lands. 

One of the chief virtues of this administration, one which is 
expected of it by the Whig party, is the payment of the public 
debt brought on us by the profligacy of the past administration. 
This will require the employment of every resource which we can 
bring into use without exciting odium. Moreover, our defenses 
are in a deplorable condition, and money must be had to place 
them by sea and land on a respectable footing. Can we neglect 
this? It seems to me that we cannot. 

In raising money for these necessary objects can we avoid 
complaint? I fear we cannot, but we must meet it. Patriotism de- 
mands it at our hands that we prepare the Nation for war, al- 
though in so doing we arouse the elements of popular clamor. 
Any measures of this kind must be ably backed by speeches 
and reports & these must be properly scattered throughout the 
country. I have observed that the Whigs are too apt to be con- 
tent with doing their duty without taking the needful pains to 
convince the people of the necessity of the measures. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 183 

Before we parted at Raleigh I brought this to your notice & now 
let me remind you again of attending to this dissemination of the 
grounds on which the party act. The enemy is always ready to 
fabricate and misrepresent and you must provide the means of 
being seen by the public eye, as victus in curia. 

If you shall resolve on a National bank, I incline to the opinion 
that it ought to be either with a small capital or a very large one. 
A small capital will answer to manage the revenue and regulate 
the principal exchanges, but in the present state of our wretchedly 
deranged currency, nothing but a very large capital can accom- 
plish the aforesaid purposes & at the same time provide a circu- 
lating medium. 

It strikes one therefore, that at present the purpose of the 
institution should be confined to supplying the place of the sub- 
treasury, and the incidental regulation of exchanges. In proof 
of time the capital may be increased if deemed advisable so as 
to regulate the circulation. 

Pardon these hasty hints and believe as ever 

Yr. obt. servt. 
& friend. 

From Nicholas Carroll*® A. 

New York & Market St., 
April 7th, 1841. 

Since we parted so many matters of deep and startling interest 
have occured that I believe some account of their effect here will 
not be entirely without interest to you. 

You will remember that the general impression in Washington 
when you left was that Mr. Curtis would be shelved. By a series 
of movements, I believe unparalelled in the history of appoint- 
ments, this position rapidly changed. Senator Tallmadge was 
nominated by the President, but subsequently at his own re- 
quest withdrawn. Mr. Crittenden left Washington for the North 
in the full persuasion that the appointment would not be made. 
Mr. Clay received the promise of the President that it should not 
be made. Content with this, he left Washington & reached Bait, 
on the evening of the 18th. The next day came the news of his 

*° Nicholas Carroll was an active "Henry Clay Whig," of New York City. 

184 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

severe illness. The following day it was known that he was con- 
sidered in a most dangerous and critical state. At this period, with 
every reason to anticipate a different decision, R. C. Wetmore, M. 
M. Noah, 41 & M. L. Davis 42 were thrown overboard, Curtis, Tag- 
gard & Lord (all Eastern men) appointed. 

The Clay men of our City with almost unexampled unanimity 
had selected and nominated J. Phillips Phoenix 43 as the Candidate 
for the Mayoralty. You may judge of their surprize on learning the 
fact of the important oppointments for our City being made in 
direct violation of the acknowledged majority of our citizens. 

One week before this we had every prospect of carrying the 
City by a large majority. The apathy and despondency of the 
Tammany Party and the acknowledged bad character of their 
Candidate almost ensured a triumph. This news fell like a dead 
weight on our friends, and all spirit and activity ceased. The 
ground we had taken in the contest at Washington was high and 
unapproachable. Our objections were not personal to Mr. Curtis, 
but regarding his public and political infidelity. We asked that 
he should not be appointed, but did not presume to dictate at 
all who should receive the appointment. It was but another and 
most painful instance of the want of faith towards the Republican 
portion of the party at the North. The opposition to Mr. C's ap- 
pointment was not local but general, extending even to inland, as 
well as other than our own sea-board states. 

The friends of Mr. Phoenix, among which number I am proud 
to rank myself one, are determined to back him to the uttermost. 
We enter the field with no hopes of success, but with a determina- 
tion to effect all we can by unremitting exertion. Mr. Curtis feels 
that his position is not a safe one, and I believe at this moment, 
if we could know the truth, he and their friends deplore their 
momentary triumph effected as it has been by breach of honor, 
on the part of the Administration, by an alienation on the part 

41 Mordecai Manuel Noah (1785-1851), a native of Philadelphia, lawyer, play- 
wright, and journalist, divided his childhood between his birthplace and Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, in both of which he was a reporter. He was consul to Tunis, 
with a mission to Algiers. After his return, he was sheriff of New York, founder 
of the Enquirer, surveyor of the Port of New York, by appointment of Jackson. 
He resigned, and founded the Evening Star, to support the Whig party. He was 
later, for a brief period, a state judge. 

"Matthew Livingston Davis (1773-1850), of New York, politician, journalist, 
and the adoring friend and biographer of Aaron Burr, was editor of the Evening 
Post. He was one of Burr's seconds in the duel with Hamilton, was grand sachem 
of Tammany, and was accused of fraud, and convicted, and later acquitted. 

"Jonas Phillips Phoenix (1788-1859), of New York, a native of New Jersey, 
who had been an alderman, and presidential elector. He was later a member of 
congress, 1843-1845, of the assembly, 1848, and again of congress, 1849-1851. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 185 

of Mr. Webster's and Mr. Clay's friends if not a coolness between 
those gentlemen & expediting an excitement under the effect of 
which a calamity was induced whose results a nation is now 

I left Washington the Saturday the President was taken sick. 
From the nature of his malady, his feebleness at the time of the 
attack, and the excitement mentally and physically to which he 
had been subjected I feared from the first a fatal termination. 
That anticipation has been mournfully realized. The hearts of 
all here are too full and too much grieved to moralize over the 
scarcely cold remains of this good old man. The respect and 
sympathy of all classes and all parties here is apparent. A deep 
and settled gloom appears to rest over our City & upon all its 
inmates. Today every vestige of business ceased at noon; the 
bells were tolled, minute guns fired, the shipping and public build- 
ings wore their flags draped with black or half mast & all our places 
of amusement were closed. To morrow guns are to be fired from 
sunrise to sunset, and from all our military head quarters the 
flags are to be displayed shrouded in crape. On Saturday the 
funeral obsequies are to be celebrated and the representatives of 
both parties have met to settle the arrangements. 

The Republican portion of our party have the highest con- 
fidence in Mr. Tyler & singular to relate our opponents are dis- 
posed to extend much faith towards him. We all believe that He 
will be President, & allow no behind-the-throne influence to 
operate upon himself. 

You can imagine only partially the amount and extent of 
absolute suffering in our community. Our business matters are 
at a perfect stand. Our monetary affairs in a state of perfect con- 
fusion. No buildings in progress of erection, and our Manufac- 
tories & artizans have either ceased altogether or greatly reduced 
the extent of their operations. I have witnessed many heart- 
rending scenes and situations in my native City within the past 
ten years but I assure you sir there are features of absolute desti- 
tution now which we have never before witnessed. 

Our foreign relations also are in a most deplorable situation. 
We now see the folly of putting such men as Pickens at the head 
of the Comt. on Foreign Relations. His ridiculous report, the 
small men's popularity-seeking speeches, in the popular branch 
with the equally reprehensible remarks of certain Senators have 
had their effect. 

186 N. C. Department of Archives and PIistory 

A very sound and intelligent friend of mine, a Scotchman by 
birth, has just returned from a visit to England. He tells me that 
a strange idea pervades every circle there that we want to annex 
the Canadas. He tells me too that the feeling out of Parlament 
both with the gentry 2c commonalty is decidedly and emphatical- 
ly warlike and that it will require all the Conserveatism of both 
Countries to avert the danger. I have likewise seen letters from 
high authority, from the Continent by the last Steamer. They 
state that we do not appreciate the real tone of the English people 
on this subject. That they who have learned to watch them for 
half a century think now they want to fight. That on the part of 
the whole French people the most intense devotion to ourselves 
is manifested and in the event most to be deplored the Tri-color 
would be as the Lilies of old, side by side with our own banner. 
This they say would be inevitable for however much Louis 
Phillipe might desire peace his people would in that event force 
him out of neutrality. 

Altogether, dear sir, this is a fearful crisis in our history; 
brief as it has been, hitherto its stories are all brilliant. I trust 
and believe in the patriotism, firmness and integrity of all parties 
& the disposition partially reached to bury the tomahawk to meet 
the whole emergencies of our Situation. 

On Tuesday the 13th we go into our contest, and if we have 
not success we shall at all events deserve it. 

That evening I shall leave for Washington where, should you 
have leisure, I shall be happy to hear from you. 

Believe me, sir, very faithfully 

Yr. friend & servt. 

From Daniel Webster. A. 

[April 12, 1841.] 

The enclosed will show you, that if Va. & N. C. consumes clocks, 
nails, furniture &c made in Massachusetts, Massachusetts con- 
sumes no small quantity of the corn of Va. & N. 

Now it seems to me this a great deal better than to compel us 
to raise our own corn, & to oblige you to buy clocks, etc., of Eng- 
land, who will not take a bushel of yours. 

But I will not make a tariff speech. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 187 

We have gone through great events and great agitations. Thus 
far Mr. Tyler conducts in the best manner possible. 

Our intercourse with him is of the pleasantest kind. 
I have hopes that he will supply our great loss. 

Yrs, with most true regard. 


To Daniel Webster from Sam F. Bridge. 


April 10th. 1841. 

Since I had the honor of handing you Mr. Colman's Agricul- 
tural reports, I have ascertained the amount of Indian Corn rec'd 
at this port coastwise for the years ending Dec. 31, 1835, 1836, 
1837, 1838, 1839 & 1840 by which you will perceive the amount 
for 1840 is nearly double that of 1835. 

The consumption of the article has been rapidly increasing for 
the last five years in consequence of the facility of transportation 
by our railroads. 

You will perceive the quantity was larger by 140,000 bushels 
in 1838 than in 1840. This was owing to the large quantity re- 
ceived from New Orleans in 1838, but which on arrival was found 
to be heated & mouldy, altho' bro't on the cob, or unshelled. 

In addition to the quantity of Indian Corn, which is almost 
"two millions bushels," there is a very large quantity of Indian 
Meal, annually rec'd in Boston for the consumption of the State 
and for exportation. I did not push my researches to this article, 
but can, if you think it desirable. 

I also annex the quantity of Oats, Rye, and Shorts for the same 
years, which may be interesting or useful. 

The principal quantity, in fact nearly the whole amt. of Corn 
is rec'd from Maryland, Virginia and the Carolinas, and consumed 
by our manufacturing population, our farmers cannot grow it 
under 70 cts. a bushel, & therefore they sell their Hay, Potatoes 
etc. & buy Corn. 

Waiting your further commands, I remain 

Your frd. & obt. Svt. 


N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Statements of the quantity of Indina Corn, Oats, Rye & 
Shorts imported into Boston coastwise for the years ending Dec'r 
31. 1835. 1836. 1837. 1838. 1839 & 1840. 

Indian Corn 


Dec 31 1835 

948,115 bushels 

Dec 31 1836 

354,113 bushels 

" 1836 


" 1836 


" 1837 


" 1837 


" 1838 


" 1838 


" 1839 


" 1839 


" 1840 


" 1840 




Dec 31 1835 

23,649 bushels 

Dec 31 1835 

53,904 bushels 

" 1836 



" 1836 


" 1837 


1 1 

" 1837 


" 1838 


t ( 

" 1838 


" 1839 



" 1839 


N. B. The above is for Boston alone, the quantity rec'd at the 
other ports in Massachusetts viz Salem, New Bedford, Nantucket, 
&c &c is not known, but the amount must be large, I should think 
equal to that of Boston, making four millions bushels of Indian 
Corn annually consumed in the State of Massachusetts. 

From Nathaniel P. Tallmadge. 


Washington City, 18th April, 1841. 

I have made arrangements at Mrs. Ballards for a Senatorial 
Mess, at the Extra Session. 

Her home fronts the North end of the Capital & nearly op- 
posite the great Northern Gate. It is delightfully located for a 
Summer residence. 

Mrs. B. can accomodate 8 or 10 persons at 8. 9. 10. 11 & 12 
dollars pr week. The price will depend upon the size and location 
of the rooms. A 11 the rooms are very neat and comfortable. 

I boarded with Mrs. B. during one Session & therefore, can say 
with confidence, that her table will be well & plentifully supplied, 
and her house clean and neatly kept. 

As I believe that a Mess composed of Senators may be both 
convenient and agreeable during the Extra Session I shall be 
pleased to have you join me in the arrangement. 

Please direct a letter to me at Poughkipsee N. Y. at your 
earliest convenience. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 189 

From George E. Badger U. 

Washington, 28 Apl., 1841. 

I write a line to make a remark & to prefer a request— First the 
remark: I am decidedly of opinion that as far as depends on the 
new President the cause of the Country is safe. He behaves with 
much dignity and courtesy, is intelligent and appears to realize 
what the Country expects from his administration & to be re- 
solved not to disappoint their expectation. Everything here in- 
creases my hope of a favorable issue of the administration so far 
as the good interests of the Country are concerned. I hope though 
that our friends will be as active zealous & confident as if our late 
Chief had not been taken from us. Now for the request: I shall 
be anxious to have the very final news of our elections. 

Will you yourself give me returns so far as you can & ask per- 
sonally or by letter some of our friends to do likewise? It will 
gratify me much. 

In great haste affectionately 

From Robert B. Gilliam. U. 

University of N. C, 
May 31st, 1841. 

Jg. «tf» Jfc «M» «M* 

W TF w w TP 

Whilst I am in my seat, I will call your attention as a Senator 
to a subject which I think may turn out to be one of some im- 
portance. I have seen it stated in the publick journals, that Mr. 
Joel Eastman of N. H. has been appointed District Attorney for 
the State of New Hampshire. I have read a letter ascribed to him, 
and written as recently as 1838, in which he avows deliberately 
Abolition opinions, of the genuine Tappan and Garrison schools. 
If the letter be genuine, I have no hesitation in expressing my 
opinion, that he ought to receive the countenance of no South- 
ern Whig. You can doubtless procure a copy of the letter at Wash- 
ington, but for fear of your being unable to get one, I will 
forward to you, a paper containing it, if I have not mislaid it. 

You will excuse the liberty I take in mentioning this subject 
to you. I do so, because I thought it possible you might not re- 

190 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

ceive any information in the matter, if I did not in this way 
bring it to your notice. 

I am with high regard 
Your friend. 

From John Bell. U. 

June 1st, 1841. 

Do me the favor to take your dinner with me tomorrow at 
5 o'clock and eat a piec of fresh salmon. 

Oblige me by an answer, as the salmon will not keep, and I 
hope to be able to find friends enough to consume the entire 

respectfully & very truly 

P. S. Webster told me he had engaged Mr. Mangum. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

June 4th, 1841. 

I wrote you a hasty, slovenly note from Gadsby's Hotel on 
Monday, merely to let you know, that I had arrived here in 
safety. I have since taken lodgings at Mrs. Bowen's near the City 
Hall in company with Messrs. Bayard of Del. Clay of Ky. & 
Henderson 44 of Miss, all Senators. The last has his wife and grown 
daughter here at present, but they will leave for New York in 
a few days. We find it more convenient to form a mess, composed 
entirely of the members of our own body, as we can then regulate 
our meals without reference to any thing but our own adjourn- 

# # # # # 

Br. James has, I believe, taken rooms by himself where he is 
furnished with breakfast and Tea, & will dine at one of the Hotels. 

**John Henderson (1795-1866), of Mississippi, who, after service in the state 
legislature, was United States senator, 1839-1845. He moved to Louisiana, and in 
1851 was tried and acquitted of complicity in the Lopez expedition against Cuba. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 191 

I called on Mrs. Badger a few days ago but did not see her. 
I dined in company with Mr. B. at the House of Mr. Bell, Sec. 
War, on day before yesterday where I met a large party of 

Yesterday I called to see the President, whose anteroom was 
thronged by a goodly company. After waiting a short time Mr. 
Bayard and myself having sent in our cards, were admitted & 
spent a few moments with him. He seems much worn down with 
fatigue, but is quite cheerful and courteous. He politely invited us 
to come up after candlelight in the evenings if we wished to see 
him en negligee. It is altogether doubtful how long the Session 
of Congress may last. The Senate, I think, will go on with dis- 
patch, but there has been much disorder in the House of Reps, 
and I fear some discord there among our own friends as to 
measures. I still hope however to leave in course of the next 

•u* «M» <&u «M» Jfr 

VS" "TT *A" *7T *7«" 


From Thomas J. Holton. 45 

Charlotte, June 4, 1841. 

Having been advised by my friends to write to Mr. Webster and 
Mr. Granger requesting them to bestow upon my establishment 
such encouragement as they could consistently with the princi- 
ples of the Whig Party, I have to request of you the favor of rec- 
ommending my paper to their notice, especially to Mr. Webster, 
as he has the bestowing of the publishing of the laws of Congress. 

In our District the Lincoln Republican a rabid Loco Foco 
print, publishes the laws, and I think friends ought to be favored 
in preference of opponents where the chances are the same. 
Under other circumstances I should not have brought myself to 
the notice of these gentlemen, but the Loco Focos having estab- 
lished a Press in this Town by a Joint Stock Company (one of its 
objects being to prostrate my establishment if possible) I have 
to rely altogether on my political friends for support. 

By conferring this favor you will much oblige me. 

Please inform me of your success so that I may know what to 
calculate on. 

45 Thomas J. Holton, proprietor and editor of the Charlotte Journal. 

192 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From Duncan Cameron. M. 

June 7th., 1841. 

I see from the Nat: Intelligencer the Secretary of the Treas'y 
has prepared, and submitted to the consideration of Congress, 
a plan for the establishment of a "central fiscal agent," etc.,— 
this plan, I presume, has been prepared with reference to the 
views of the President on the constitutional powers of the Govern- 
ment over that particular subject, if so, the friends of the ad- 
ministration will favor the establishment of a National Bank, & 
will be expected to support the Secretary's plan, indeed, they 
ought to do so, unless there be found— on consideration of it 
seriously, that there is some insurmountable objection to it. 

The necessity for establishing a National Bank being absolute, 
the friends of the measure should hazard nothing of it's success, 
either in its progress through Congress, or its adoption by the 
approval of the President, by a difference of opinion, either as to 
the structure of the plan, or its details. Some plan must be adopted, 
and it is most likely that the plan proposed and recommended by 
the Sec'y of the Treas'y will be most acceptable to a majority of 
the friends of the Administration, & to the President himself. 
Under this impression, I trust [that] you will hold me excused 
from a compliance with the promise I made, to furnish you with 
a sketch of a plan for a Bank,— instead of aiding you in digesting 
a suitable plan, my views might serve only to create doubts and 
difficulties in regard to the plan proposed by the Treas'y Depart't, 
and now under the consideration of the committee. 

I have read the President's Message with much satisfaction, it 
is pretty sane, & what I expected and asked for on the subject 
of a "fiscal agent," he has gone as far in favour of the conversion 
as his former position in regard to that subject will reasonably 
allow. Care must be taken by its friends, in issuing the Charter, 
not to force immediate opposition to it by introducing into its 
composition any provision unaccaptable to him. His own good 
sense, and conviction of what is required by the deranged and 
suffering interests of the Country, must be relied on for approving 
such a plan as will correct the evils complained of. 

I fear you will have difficulty in deciphering this letter— my 
shattered nerves do not allow me to write legibly at any time,— 

The Papers of William A. Graham 193 

and the sudden and intense heat of this section has much in- 
creased my inability to write fairly. 

Present my kind regards to our friends in Washington, & to 
your Brother. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

June 8th, 1841. 
My Dearest 

I cannot deny myself the pleasure of communing with you on 
this, the anniversary of our happy union. It brings with it recol- 
lections, which I delight to cherish and which I hope never to 

Five years have now passed over us, since we pledged to each 
other our perpetual fidelity & love. Years in which we have been 
made to undergo privations & trials, yet in which we have been 
blessed, most signally. Though in that period we have to lament 
the loss of parents and other friends, we may still rejoice, that 
we are spared to each other, and that our attachment is strength- 
ened by stronger & stronger ties, by the remembrance of mutual 
good offices and kindness, and by the pledges of affection with 
which we have been favored in our children. It is pleasant there- 
fore, now in the maturity of our joys & hopes to recur to the 
Spring time of our love. It may serve also to refresh our sense 
of mutual obligations & to keep bright the chains which bind us 

I am every day more and more solicitous to hear how you are, 
& must beseech you to be careful of your health. It would per- 
haps not be prudent to venture again on so long a ride as to the 

#<&i* •!£* -ai* «if. 

*n* TT "7V* *7P 

I believe we have nothing new but political excitement in the 
last few days. I will send you by the first opportunity some like- 
nesses of distinguished men which are printed here. Washington 
has a large crowd of strangers of both sexes who throng the Gal- 
leries in this hot weather. 

I went one day last week to see the races, 4 mile heats. There 
were many ladies in attendance, & much of style and parade. I 
was much amused to see the impression made on some of the 

194 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Northern members of Congress who are not accustomed to race 

I have cool pleasant quarters, but rather distant from the Capi- 
tol, & quite a pleasant mess. 

Kiss my children & be assured that five years have made no 
change in my affections. 

From Frederick Nash. A. 


June 8th., [1841.] 

Mr. Norwood delivered me your message. No apology was cal- 
led for; I did not expect you, the evening you promised to call, 
for I knew you would be too busy preparing for your absence 
from home; for the same reason I did not call the next day. 

The business to which I wished to call your attention was the 
following: In Princeton, New Jersey, resides Mrs. Susan Solomons, 
the daughter of Dr. Samuel S. Smith, 46 formerly President of the 
College at that place, & grand-daughter of the Rev. Dr. John 
Witherspoon 47 of Revolution memory. She is a lady, as you would 
suppose, 8c in very needy circumstances— has resided all her life 
in Princeton, & thinks herself competent to the discharge of the 
duties of Post-master at that place. She writes me that it is under- 
stood the Post-master there is to be removed, in which case it 
would be to her greatly desirable to receive the appointment. So 
far as a female may be competent to discharge the duties of such 
an office, it could not be conferred on one in every particular 
more deserving or better qualified. 

I had a short conversation with Mr. Mangum, while here, on the 
subject, & he suggested I should write to you or to him. 

^Samuel Stanhope Smith (1750-1819), a native of Pennsylvania, who, after 
graduation from Princeton, became a missionary in Virginia, and raised the 
money to found Hampden- Sydney Academy (later College). In 1779 he joined 
the Princeton faculty, and in 1795 he became acting president, and president 
in 1802. Stern and bitter in discipline, he was liberal in his thinking. 

47 John Witherspoon (1723-1794), a native of Scotland, educated at Edinburgh, 
became a Presbyterian minister. Emigrating to America, he became president of 
Nassau Hall (now Princeton) in 1768. He was active in the preliminaries of the 
revolution, was a member of the New Jersey provincial congress of 1776, and of 
the continental congress, 1776-1779, 1780-1782, and was a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence. He was a member of the legislature in 1783, 1789, and of the 
state convention, of 1787. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 195 

The message of President Tyler has given, I believe, general 
satisfaction. It has one peculiar merit— shortness. 

You have commenced business in your house in a spirit highly 
gratifying to every reflecting man. The spirit of kind feeling & 
of forbearance exhibited in the debate upon the publication of 
the Message— particularly as between Mr. Clay and Mr. King 48 
is, I trust, the harbinger of a better state of feeling in the Senate. 
May it continue throughout your deliberations. 

The whole country is indebted to Mr. Webster for his masterly 
reply to Mr. Fox. 49 So much for having master workmen to carry 
on business. We are looking forward with anxiety for Badger's 
report, nothing doubting but it will sustain his high reputation 
& honour the Old North State. The time, so long desired, has 
come, when North-Carolina can point to her public servants & 
proudly say— such are the men we delight to honour. 

Jfc Jt. -Jfc. J£. J£> 

vT w TT TT w 

From Henry W. Miller. U. 

Raleigh, June 9, 1841. 

I have taken the earliest opportunity to comply with your re- 
quest. The Yeas & Nays were not taken on the passage of the 
Resolutions either in the H. of Corns, or Senate. I do hope we 
shall have a Bank & that too at once. The politicians have, I think, 
been experimenting long enough. I speak this in due deference to 
any Whig experiments, but not to those of the Locos. I wish 
that the Honl J. Q. Adams could be any where else but in the 
Ho: of Repts; It is shameful! The Presdt has called an Extra 
Session to relieve the distresses of the Nation & he is Cocked & 
primed, ready, to harrass,— yea, insult Southern members by his 

48 On March 9th, William R. King, of Alabama, in the debate on the public 
printing, said that Frank P. Blair had been the "political friend" of Henry Clay, 
and "his confidential correspondent." Clay replied, declaring Blair a "common 
libeller," and the "Globe" a. libellous sheet, and that for King to put him on an 
equality with Blair was "false, untrue and cowardly." King declined reply or 
comment at the time, and, on March 14th, William C. Preston expressed regret 
at the interruption of the "characteristic harmony" of the Senate, saying that he 
was sure that King meant nothing of what Clay read into his speech. Clay 
apologized, and King replied that he had no such intention as Clay imputed to him. 

49 Henry Stephen Fox (1791-1846), the British minister, 1825-1851, to whom 
Webster, then secretary of state, had written an elaborate argument in the McLeod 
case, which was finally settled amicably. When he was succeeded by Lord Ash- 
burton, he remained in Washington for the rest of his life. 

196 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Abolition petition Fanaticism. It can be called nothing less harsh, 
2c I hope the House will have sense & decency enough to treat 
with contempt all attempts to introduce such a discussion at this 
time. If it is to come, let it be at the regular Sessions. I do hope 
the House will check the discussion on this subject at once. 

I hope you will give us a speech on the Bank or the distribu- 
tion of the Pub: Lands. The former would be (I should suppose) 
best calculated to do good to our cause in N. C. 

Any speech or documents you may think interesting or useful 
will be thankfully reed. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 
June 12th, 1841. 

Your letter of the 8th. reached me last night by which time I 
hope that mine of that date had been received by you. It is most 
gratifying to me to know that our thoughts were mutually turned 
on that day, to the event which we have so much pleasure in 
remembering. Long may we continue to regard it as the com- 
mencement of the happiest period of our lives. 

On yesterday I dined with the President at the White house, 
with a party of about a dozen gentlemen, and the ladies of the 
household, some four or five in number. The invitations were 
verbal by his son the Secretary on the preceding day to attend at 
4 1/9 o'clock. I arrived a little before 5, and about half the com- 
pany had assembled. After the rest had come in, the ladies made 
their appearance, that is Mrs. Tyler, Junr., the daughter of 
Cooper 50 the player, her sister Miss Cooper, Miss Tyler & Miss 
Harrison from Virginia, grand niece of the late President. 

His Excellency did me the honor to assign me to wait on the 
last, and to take seats on his left. The dinner was well served in 
the style customary here, of dressing the table with flowers, and 
carving the dishes on side tables, and handing around the pieces 
on plates. The conversation was keen, & social, in small parties, 
and sometimes general, the wine good, & the company quite 

50 Thomas Abthorpe Cooper (1776-1849), an English actor who was a failure 
at home, but was a star in the United States from 1801 until his retirement in 
1838. His daughter, Priscilla, married Robert Tyler. He held various government 
posts during Tyler's administration. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 197 

A gentleman near me, occasionally jeered the President in an 
under tone about the table furniture, which was so conspicuous in 
some of the Congressional speeches last year— especially the golden 
spoons, which are merely smoked over. 

Among the gentlemen present was Cooper, the player, the 
Father in Law of young Mr. Tyler, who was a guest in the family. 
He bears the appearance of extreme dissipation but was quite 
courteous in his manners. 

After dinner I walked in the grounds in the rear of the Presi- 
dent's House which are quite handsomely improved, commanding 
a fine view of the Potomac. On returning & being about to take 
leave, a lady sitting by the President addressed me as an old 
acquaintance, whom I recognized to be Mrs. McCauley just from 
Tripoli, having arrived at New York six or seven days ago. She had 
called on business relative to her husband's office and I remained 
only a few moments longer. 

Mr. J. Cameron 51 & Syme 52 of Petersburg who are here, call- 
ed for me, and we went to Mr. Badger's but did not find them 
at home. 

4b Jfe .Jf. <SL JL 

TT *A* *75» *w* "JT 

I am still unable to say how long Congress will be in Session. 
The House of Representatives is a scene of confusion & mani- 
fests no disposition to expedite business. 

Old Mr. Adams is agitating the subject of Abolition, and he 
is encouraged by those who wish to waste time & make the Ses- 
sion abortive. 

Bro. James has taken rooms not far from me, and is quite well. 

Kiss my boys, & tell them Father will come back after a while. 

51 Probably John Cameron, of Wilmington. 

M John William Syme (1811-1865), of Petersburg, whose mother was a sister 
of Judge Duncan Cameron. He was a graduate of William and Mary College. He 
studied law in Hillsboro under Judge Frederick Nash, and began practice in 
Petersburg, soon abandoning it to become editor of the Petersburg Intelligencer, 
a leading Whig paper. He also served in the state legislature. In 1856 he acquired 
the Raleigh Register. After secession he became an intense and somewhat violent 
supporter of the war. In 1863 he moved his paper to Petersburg. 

198 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Washington City, 
June 13 th, 1841. 

On yesterday the Sec. of Treasury communicated to the Senate 
a plan of the "Fiscal Bank of the United States" with a capital of 
30 millions of dollars, the principal Bank to be placed here. The 
Government of U. S. to own 1/6, & the States the amount of the 
fourth instalment of 1836, with power to establish no branches 
in the States except by the consent of the States, saving merely 
offices to collect and disburse the revenues of the U. S. It is under- 
stood to be a sort of compromise between the President and Sec. 
of Treasury, and will require essential modifications to make it 
efficient. Some doubt is entertained whether the President will 
approve a Charter materially different. The opposition dislike 
this, but will fall back on it no doubt if we abandon it. Sus- 
picions are entertained that President Tyler designs to run for 
the succession and that he may break with the Whigs on this 
question, hoping to carry off a fraction of the party and unite 
with the Locos. I give it you however as mere gossip which may 
do him great injustice. 

I think we can easily get all our measures through the Senate, 
but there is very little improvement in the House. The new 
Speaker 53 is but little better than Hunter, 54 and the uproar & 
waste of time there are as great as ever. You will see that the 
Repeal of the Subtreasury has passed the Senate, while the House 
was getting organized. 

President Tyler labors very assiduously every day and must 
be bored nearly to death with applications for office. I called last 
week to pay my respects, and was detained a while in the ante 
room, and then went in ahead of about a dozen persons I found 
there. I have since had the honor to dine with him in company 
with 15 or 20 gentlemen and the ladies of the household. His son, 
you know, married the daughter of Cooper the actor. She and 

53 John White (1802-1845), of Kentucky, who had been a member of the house 
since 1835. He became a state judge just after his retirement from Congress. 

64 Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter (1809-1887), of Virginia, graduate of the 
University of Virginia, a lawyer, who, after service in both houses of the legis- 
lature, was a member of congress, 1837-1843, 1845-1847, and had been speaker 
in the previous congress. He was United States senator, 1847-1861, member of the 
Confederate Provisional congress, secretary of state, 1861-1862, and senator, 1862- 
1865. He was one of the members of the Hampton Roads conference. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 199 

her younger sister were of the company as well as the Father, 
who wears a fiery red face, but was quite genteel in his deport- 
ment. A gentleman near me took occasion to jeer his Excellency 
about the "gold spoons" which on being produced were merely 
smoked over. He is quite affable, and does the honors of the man- 
sion in good style. Sec. Badger is quite devoted to his Department, 
and I think, gives general satisfaction. I have seen but little of 
him since my arrival. 

Mr. Sergeant has been offered the mission to England, and will 
probably accept. 

The President is rather chary about removals from office, & 
I believe will not act except upon a written statement of the 
causes of removal. I have heard nothing this Session as to 
Ocracoke, New Bern. 

The Loco's are in bad temper, and will resist every measure 
as long as possible. 

P.S. The weather is very warm 2c dry here. The dust of Penna. 
Avenue fills the air in all that part of the City. 

From William R. Albright 55 U. 

William A. Graham and Willie P. Mangum. 

Sandy Grove, [Chatham Co.,] N. C, 15 June, 1841. 

I have been looking over the sayings & doings of Congress So 
far as they have come to my knowledge, & I thought, it might not 
be taken a Miss by you to Recev a line from me by way of in- 
struction. You know in as much as you are in part the workman- 
ship of my own, not that I know more than you do. or that I 
know half or quarter as much as either of you. but you know I 
am one of the democracy of the Country. I am mixing with the 
Good People of this Section every day & I know what they wish 
you to do about some things; they wish you to econimize in 
time & in Money. If Mr. Clay will only hold on the Course he 
has taken, & he should live four years longer he is obliged to be 
the President of these United States, I mean to go for Retrench- 
ment & Reform in every instance where it is possible, & for a 
United States Bank. Our people will be satisfied with nothing 

06 William R. Albright, of Chatham, was state senator, 18361848, 1852. 

200 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

short of this, 8c you had as well go to work at once. Say to Mr. Clay 
go a head. I have voted for him every time he has been a Candidate 
for President 8c that I wish to pick the flint and try it again. 
The President's Message is much approved off here abouts; we are 
with him in all its measures, 8c Especially in the division of the 
Land Money. I think it the best Method of Reducing the Expens 
of the Government; the Land Money belongs to the States & let 
us have it and do what we think best with it & if the Govern- 
ment Needs more Money to Carry on the affairs of the Nation 
let Congress increase the duties on imports, or Rather lay duties 
on such articles of Luxuries as are duty free. I do hope to see 
it stated that W. A. Graham or W. P. M. one or the other has 
introduced a Bill or is advocating a Bill to lay duties on Silks 
& wine. I do Really think it is an imposition on our people that 
the Necessities of life should be taxed 8c that those luxuries, Silks 
& Wines should be duty free. The People have just found out that 
it is so 8c it must be altered, or they will Rise in their might & 
Chastise their agents for being delinquent in duty. 

I wanted also, say to you lookout all those Custom house of- 
ficers when the salary amounts to much more than is collected 
by them, let them be done away with. It wont do to hire a Man 
to work when he does not make for us what we have to pay 
him. Cut down the salaries of officers. Generally, they can afford 
to work for less money now as one Dollar is worth as much as 
two used to be. 

I would say, I think you ort to be very carefull how you make 
appropriations at present, we are in debt, the whole Country is 
in debt, let use then Get along with as little as possible. I would 
be glad Mr. Clay would take this view of the subject as well as 
your selves. 

I am weary and must come to a close. Would be glad to hear 
from you. 

Very respectfully yours, 

P. S. If you dont obey you need not resign at present, or untill 
you hear from me again. 

W. A. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 201 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 
June 19th, 1841. 

I have reed your letter of the 15th. and hasten to reply. I am 
much vexed at the conduct of Isaac, & will write by this mail to 
Mr. Turner. The breaking into a negro house situated as that 
is, is not, I think a capital offence, and if it were, I believe, I 
should feel better satisfied to let the law take its course. The 
loose discipline which has prevailed among the negroes in our 
vicinity for some time past, requires some examples to be made. 
As it is, the punishment in case of conviction would be only 
whipping and I shall propose to Mr. Turner to chastise him 
with proper severity, without a prosecution in Court. 

Indeed, I much question whether the case is not triable by a 
single Justice of the peace. I will also aid in getting back the 
stolen property or pay for such as cannot be recovered. I will 
determine when I return whether or not I will send him off. 
You will please therefore to direct him to go to his work at the 
plantation, and if any person comes for him to submit implicitly. 
His conduct in breaking custody is almost as censurable as the 
original crime. Please also direct Mr. Bishop to endeavour to 
get back the stolen property. I feel the more provoked that you 
should have been annoyed with this affair in my absence. 

*»M» •ilm «M» 4Bi 

T^ TT Tr "7r 

Mr. J. Cameron & Mr. Edmunds have spent a week here and 
have gone on to Kentucky. I have been much fatigued this week, 
meeting the Bank Com' tee at 10 o'clock, the Senate at 12, and 
a meeting for the consultation of our friends at 5, every day, untill 

Affairs are yet in the utmost degree of uncertainty, as to the 
great measures for which Congress was convened. It will be with 
some degree of inconvenience that I shall be able to go home in 
the early part of July as I had hoped, though I still expect to do 
so. Write me frequently and let me know how you are. 

202 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Memorandum. U. 

[June 24, 1841] 

To meet Mr. Buchanan Sc silence him and his party, do you 
call on the Sec'y of Treas'ry and ask him to issue a circular to 
the several Auditors & Comp'rs., etc., to answer who were ap- 
pointed under Gen'l Jackson & under Mr. Van Buren, and if the 
Secretary's call is full, you will be astonished at the answers. 

In the 3d. Auditor's office, a Mr. Hampton was from party 
grounds promoted over the heads of the Whig clerks, by Mr. 
Woodbury, and Mr. Ewing, the present Sec'y of Treasury, as 
soon as he was informed of it, countermanded it, and promoted 
the gentlemen who were entitled to it. Mr. Hampton was a loco- 
foco & belonged to a locofoco Club, which was made known or 
represented to Mr. Woodbury— this, Mr. Woodbury can't deny- 
in an other auditor's office, an Irish bar keeper, at Gadsby's 
tavern, was brought in over the heads of gentlemen old and ex- 
perienced, & regularly entitled to promotion; he was put on 
copying, while they were kept on accounts. Gen'l Jackson had 
worked at Gadsby's— another vacancy occurred, and the other 
person, named Overton, a relation to one Judge Overton, 56 of 
Tennessee, was brought in over these gentlemen— he too was 
put on copying, while they were on accounts— he was so worthless 
and such a drunkard, that he could not even copy, and got an 
other person to do it for him; yet he was retained over the 
gentlemen till he was transferred to an higher station, when the 
duty ceased by law & he left—: or Mr. Van Buren appointed a 
Doct. Martin in this same office over the heads of all; the Doct'i 
admitted he was unfit, and that he could not be an accountant,— 
and last Summer Mr. Van Buren appointed a Mr. Dunscomb 
over the heads of the gentlemen in this same office— Here, Sirs, 
is a matter for Mr. Ewing to look into— A circular addressed to 
the several Auditors, Comptrollers, kc.Scc. &c. if drawn up proper- 
ly, will shew you, what Mr. Buchanan will be ashamed of, & 
make Mr. Woodbury blush to see. 

Let a call be so framed, that the answers must come, so 
searching, that you will not hear any thing more about removals, 
&c. I am no office holder, and want none, but give you facts to 

58 John Overton (1766-1833), a native of Virginia, who moved to Kentucky, and 
then to Tennessee, where he was intimately associated with Andrew Jackson. He 
was a judge of the state supreme court, 1804-1810, 1811-1816. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 203 

move on, to meet Mr. Woodbury's conduct, and his party. I 
have addressed Mr. Mangum, to whom hand this, to frame his 
enquiries from 

24 June 1841. 

From James A. King. U. 

Brandon, [Miss.,] 

June 24th, 1841. 
# # # # # 

I have purchased an interest in a plantation in La. and early 
in the Fall shall remove to Mobile, Ala. having formed a co- 
partnership with Judge Martin in the practice of the Law at 
that place— Judge Martin formerly of Salisbury, N. Ca. I had 
for some time determined to quit this State; every thing here is 
so utterly deranged, and men generally have so entirely cut 
themselves loose from all restraint, both moral and legal, that 
I think it becomes all men having a due regard to their welfare 
and character to abandon the State. For example, we are gravely 
discussing the question whether we should pay the State Bonds, 
and the State is divided into Bond and Anti Bond payers; this 
question for the present is absorbing all others, and I would not 
wonder if the Anti B. payers succeed at our Fall elections. Ulti- 
mately doubtless the honest men of the Country will prevail, but 
for the present I fear that utter disgrace awaits our State; the 
contest will be an angry one. 

I am requested by an Uncle of mine, Andrew King, to ask your 
attention to an application he has made for the appointment of 
Land Receiver at a new land office to be established in this State 
on the Missi River at Victoria; he has written Mr. Henderson on 
the subject, & would regard it as a fav'r if you would confer with 
him about it. I feel free to state that he is every way well quallified 
for the appointment; he is a gentleman of great integrity of 
character $c highly respectable intelligence and would not fail 
to give satisfaction to all parties concerned. He was speaking to 
me on the subject, and I told him that I thought I could take 
the liberty of asking your attention to the matter. I do not know 
that you knew any thing of him in N. Ca. If you should have 
occasion, see Hon'l L. Williams and your brother, both of whom 

204 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

knew him well. I suppose you must be exceedingly harassed with 
communications of this kind, and it is therefore with some 
reluctance that I have ventured to trouble you. 

I will take this occasion, the first that I have had, to offer you 
my sincere congratulations upon your election to the Senate. 
I should like on many accounts to have had a hand in that 
election. I am not in the habit of exulting over political adver- 
saries, but I should have over Haywood and his followers. 

But apart from this I am glad to see you in a position where 
you may render our Country important services, besides acquir- 
ing for yourself such a reputation as your friends are anxious 
that you should and believe that you can. 


*7v* "Vf* "vr "Tv* 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

June 26th, 1841. 

I reed your letter of the 22nd. on yesterday, and read with 
infinite gratification your account of the little boys. I am de- 
lighted to hear that Will is walking, and that they all keep me 
in remembrance. I have hoped to visit you in the course of the 
next week but as the Bill for establishment of a National Bank 
is under discussion in the Senate, I would not be excused for 
leaving untill it is finished. 

Possibly I may come the week following but do not expect 
me too certainly. Public affairs are in a most troubled sea, and 
it will require the exertions of every one to bring them to a safe 
result. Indeed, I think, a fortnight now will determine whether 
the Whig party are to be broken into fragments; I still however 
hope for the best. 

I am quite indignant that Bishop shd. have circulated the false 
information you mention, and if he persists in it, I hope you will 
dismiss him from the plantation at once. I have written to Mr. 
Turrentine respecting Isaac and also to Mr. Norwood, consenting 
that he shall be whipped in an exemplary manner without the 
form of legal trial, if the evidence shows him to be guilty. He 
should be directed therefore to return forthwith to the plantation. 

*.AZ, ,\/. ^ *yL 

TP W "7T "7P 

The remains of Genl. Harrison were taken from here today, 
by a Committee from Cincinnati. Among them I found an old 

The Papers of William A. Graham 205 

friend and school fellow, Mr. Vaughan, formerly of Camden, 
S. C. now a lawyer of Cincinati. 

The coffin was encased in Zinc, and then, put in a plank box 
making a very heavy weight. A procession attended it, from the 
Congressional burying ground to the railroad depot, where an 
immense crowd assembled to see it embark. The President and 
Cabinet rode up just before the departure. 

Genl. McComb, 57 Commander in Chief of the Army died here 
on yesterday of Apoplexy. His Funeral will take place on Monday. 

Jfc. Jjt. J&. JJ- Jfc 


The heat here has been more oppressive than I remember to 
have felt it in N. C. Mr. Clay, who is in my mess, rises by 5 
o'clock every morning and rides on horseback untill breakfast. 
I am not so industrious, but usually take a considerable walk 
with my friend Bayard in the evening. 

Many members of Congress from the South have their families 
with them, and contemplate going to some of the watering places. 
I wish we could do likewise. 

To the hands of a merciful Creator I commit you. 

From Matthias E. Maiily. U. 

New Bern, 
June 30th, 1841. 

gp ^p gp yfc ^p 

Since my election to the bench I have abstained as much as 
possible from all interference in politicks or political appoint- 
ments. I do not now wish to be understood as recommending the 
removal of anybody. Your friendly aid is only solicited in the 
event of the removals being decided upon and when the matter 
shall regularly come up before the delegation for debate. 

I do not know what the views of the Rep. from this district are 
but take it for granted they are favourable. I am satisfied at any 
rate that my friends should abide his judg't. 

I am obliged to you for documents; Mr. Washington has also 
been kind enough to transmit important papers, and I will thank 
you to tender him my best respects and thanks for the same. 

07 Macomb. 

206 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

I have felt deep mortification at the recent proceedings of the 
house of Rep. There is hardly a man in the country, however 
rude his own actions and conduct may be, that does does not turn 
away from it with loathing. 

Mrs. McCauley has been here and I think is rather more excen- 
tric & comical than she was formerly From her own account I 
take it you must have had a queer affair with her at the Presi- 
dent's Mansion. She says that she wants me to write to the Presi- 
dent! or to you about her affairs; what they are I can't exactly 
learn but (as the phraze goes) I suppose she is up to any thing. 

There is a story in circulation here that Mr. Sec'y Badger 
treated Mr. Southard very rudely at the dinner table of the 
Sec'ty-of War. How is this? 

Your friends here are well There is a great revival of religion 
going on in all the churches but chiefly in the Baptist and Mrs. 
Washington is perfectly happy 

4fr «ai» «tt* *M» 4U 

w *«" w ■«• "re* 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

July 2nd, 1841. 
My Dear Susan 

I write this morning, not that I have any thing to say, except 
that I am was disappointed in not hearing from you, yesterday 

There are several gentlemen here from N. C. viz. Gilliam, 
Roberts of Granville, W. B. Wright, 58 Fayetteville, Jas. Ruffin 
& Allen Jones, from Alabama. Almost every body who travels in 
the hot weather takes Washington in his way. 

The Sessions of the Senate are quite laborious, Commencing 
at 10 o'clock Sc often continuing untill 4 or 5. The Bank bill is 
under discussion on the question which divides the Whigs. 

Bro. James is well. 

68 State senator, 1862-1864. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 207 

From Daniel Webster. U. 

Department of State, 

July 2nd, 1841. 

In answer to your note of the 1st. instant, I have the honour 
to inform you, that the papers appointed to publish the Laws of 
the present session, in the State of North Carolina, are the 
Raleigh Register, The Newbern Spectator and the Highland 

I have the honour to be, 

Your obedient servant, 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 


Sunday Morning, July 4th, 1841. 

I am much obliged by your letter of the 29th. June, and 
although I believe I wrote you a brief reply a few mornings ago, 
I seize this opportunity to do so again. 

«afr 4t* .a. «m» «u» 

"7F TV" "TV" "TV* "A* 

Mr. Bishop should correct Joe at once for his insubordination, 
and Isaac also if he was present & did not interfere. 

3^ Zfc 7fc Zjf 

I had yesterday a letter from Parson Witherspoon 59 suggesting 
some ideas on the Navigation of our Coast, in which I was glad 
to learn that the Wheat crop is likely to turn out well in Orange. 

I had yesterday a visit from old Mrs. Royall, 60 who you know 
publishes a defamatory paper here, in which she describes per- 
sons, characters, etc. And I presume I am to be Gazetted without 
much delay. 

Last evening Brother James & myself went and took Tea at 
Mr. Badger's sans ceremonie. George Little of Raleigh is there 

58 The Rev. John Nash Witherspoon, a graduate of the university, D. D., 
Princeton, 1836, A. M., 1853, moderator of the Presbyterian general assembly, 1853. 

60 Anne Newport Royal (1769-1854), of Washington, "Godless Anne Royal," a 
native of Maryland, traveller, author, who for some time edited a newspaper 
which was vigorously critical of Government officials, and public men generally. 
She was convicted in Washington of being a "common scold." She was shrewd 
and poisonous. 

208 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

& has made a handsome speculation in getting a pension for an 
old woman of $3,000. of which he is to have one third. Mrs. 
Badger is quite admired in society here. 

For several evenings past there has been a military parade of 
a company of Flying artillery of U. S. troops in the open grounds 
near the President's House, who have kept up a canonading 
which has attracted large numbers of spectators; this is the only 
company of the kind in our service. You may remember that we 
saw a similar company of British troops maneuvring with a regi- 
ment of Infantry at Niagara. 

There has been no gaiety in the City this Session; the weather 
has been oppressively warm, but for a day or two past, it is 
pleasant. My time has been passed in delving into questions of 
Banks, currency, etc., and in attending the Sessions of the Senate. 
Except our social hours at meals I cannot say that it has been 
pleasantly spent. 

For a few mornings I have ridden before breakfast on horse- 
back, which I have found quite a recreation. 

To Susan Washington Graham, A. 

Tuesday, July 6th, 1841. 

The Senate adjourned over from Saturday untill Tuesday to 
observe the ceremonies of the anniversary of Independence on 
the 5th. There were military parades, dinners, processions, etc. 
The Sunday Schools of the District of Columbia appeared in 
procession with all their pupils to the number of 2,000, and were 
addressed in the Capitol grounds by Mr. Southard President of 
the Senate. The rooms of the President of U. S. were open for the 
reception of company from 12 untill 3 P. M. I rode up with 
Mr. Clay & remained about an hour. The company was small, 
perhaps owing to the shortness of the notice & the fact that the 
House of Reps, was in Session. 

None of the ladies of the Secretaries were there, and no one of 
the Foreign Ministers. 

In the crowd I met with Frank Stanly 61 whom I had not seen 
for several years. 

61 Frank Stanly (d. 1862), a son of John Stanly, of Craven, was briefly a student 
at the university, and became a Methodist minister. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 209 

Bro. James dined with a large company at the President's in 
the afternoon. 

Your acquaintance, Lieut. Russell is here, and desirous to be 
restored to the Naval reserve. 

W ^P 7r TP 

There is no telling when Congress will adjourn. In the course 
of this week I presume more can be ascertained on the subject. 
There are various speculations about the President's course on 
the Bank question, but it is not known what he will do. 

I fear I may not be able to be with you for a few weeks. Write 
me frequently, however, & if you desire I will come. 

My blessing on my children. 

From Priestley H. Mangum. 62 U. 

July 7th, 1841. 

I drop you these lines for information. Appearances in Congress 
have caused me much uneasiness, and I am apprized that a correct 
estimate of them can be made only by those whose position at 
Washington affords an insight into the under current of the great 
stream of events. Why is it that, even in the Senate, there is so 
much diversity of sentiment upon Whig measures, which we all 
thought in this Country commanded the undivided support of 
the friends of Gen'l Harrison? Do I correctly perceive, as I think 
I do, a Cabinet attempt (I mean the Webster portion of the 
Cabinet) to thwart and postpone Mr. Clay upon the subject of the 
Bank, under the sinister pretence of going for the only plan of a 
Bank which Tyler will sanction, & thereby keep together and 
impart strength to the Whig party, whose success would otherwise 
be destroyed by the President's veto? When in fact and in truth, 
the postponement of Mr. Clay is a sweeter morsel than the tri- 
umph of our principles to some Gentlemen? 

Or is it, that Ewing's plan of a Bank with its Democratic feature 
of establishing Branches whereby the Constitutional power is 
virtually surrendered, really is the best? If I were a Whig Congress, 
I fear I should act the despot. For I am much inclined to think, 

62 Priestley Hinton Mangum, of Orange, a graduate of the university, lawyer, 
teacher, member of the commons, 1832. He was an elder brother of Willie P. 

210 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

that if President Tyler is— in common with Wise, Gilmour, 63 
etc these Virginia Whigs in power,— an impracticable & under the 
influence of that clique of politicians; the sooner he stood upon 
his own bottom, the better. He should take the responsibility. 
And if he proved craven, and shewed the white feather, upon his 
own head rest the fault— for my President is dead and I couldn't 
help it. But this would not do in practice. If we can't get the best, 
we will the next best— & if not that, the best we can. Yet it is 
vexing to see some of your Bank Whigs in the Senate and some 
of your land-distribution Whigs in the House I What does all this 

You can't well imagine how the party are chuckling over your 
divisions. I begin to apprehend that many of our political brother- 
hood possess but little more merit than our opponents. 

Will you write me about these things— all about the political 
movements among you. For I take it for granted that there are 
such, 2c that they are likely to prove ultimately an impediment 
to the success of those vital principles for which we have been 

We are generally well here— nothing local of any moment. The 
absorbing subject throughout the land is the critical position 
apparently of— I can't say with certainty— of the Whig administra- 
tion, for it is with us growing very doubtful, whether since the 
death of Gen'l Harrison the Country is to be considered under a 
Whig Administration, or not. This is the subject upon which 
the whole thinking Country is seriously, gravely, painfully but 
silently engaged in the most fearful contemplation. 

Say to my Brother that all are well. 

Your friend 

From Edmund Strudwick. U. 

9th July 1841, Friday, 

Hillsboro, N. C. 

On Wednesday about 2 o'clock P. M. the 7th inst. the little 
stranger 64 for whom you felt much anxiety arrived safely— in the 
midst of a smart thunder storm. Mrs. Graham is very well— had a 

08 Gilmer. 

64 James Augustus Graham (1841-1909), later a graduate of the university, 
Confederate captain, lawyer, and state senator, 1870-1872. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 211 

"good time"— & is now— for I've just seen her— as well as I ever 
saw a lady under similar circumstances. I congratulate you, Sir, 
on being the proprietor of a team of boys— I might say babies— 
for I believe Joe the eldest is only 4 years of age. 

I wrote yesterday to Jas. Ruffin & begged him to make a repre- 
sentation to Mr. Badger in behalf of Dr. Ashe. 65 

If there is anything that I could do to promote his success that 
I have omitted, if you will be kind enough to suggest it— I'll attend 
to it promptly. 

I take no Washington paper, & will be obliged to you to send 
me the Madisonian— tri weekly— begin the paper with the 1st 
of this month. 

From Edward B. Dudley. U. 


July 10th. 1841. 

My old friend Major J. D. Ward having been indulged with 
your frank to convey to me a packet, I trust you will pardon my 
replying through the same medium, and to ask the favour of you 
to have the enclosed delivered at your convenience to him. I will 
take the opportunity to thank you for the friendly disposition 
which he says you have evinced in his favour. I believed him 
patriotic and capable to discharge the duties of any office to which 
he might aspire, 2c I know he needs something of the kind for 
support or else I should never have asked your friendship to him. 
He was a light hearted, thoughless youth 2c spent without much 
advantage to himself the property he inherited from his Father, 
2c now in more advanced age, and threatened with sickness I fear 
will feel the want of it. Endeavouring to be frank and independent 
he lost the confidence of his political party, and the Clerk of the 
H. of R. discharged him 2c I fear without gaining any hold on the 
Whig ranks "between two stools" he is likely to come to the 

My humble opinions having been dragged before the Senate on 
the subject of Banks, I will take the opportunity to say to you 
that I verily believe Mr. Clay's bill is the very best expedient 
which can be devised to releave the Country from its present 
distress 2c prostration. 

85 William Cincinatus Ashe, 

212 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

My preference for remodelling a system of State Banks under 
the auspices of the Federal Government proceeded somewhat 
from the station I occupied, and mainly from the difficulty of 
re-chartering a National Bank, and to avoid if possible the oppor- 
tunity to demagogues to convulse and revolutionize the pecuniary 
affairs of the Country to the great injury of all. (And who have 
we to thank for it). In other things I would give a National Bank 
the preference. 

My plan was not responded to, it is true. Nor was any other 
reported on, or advocated. If I had recommended a National Bank 
it would have been avoided with equal if not greater dread. The 
last Legislatures were afraid, or ignorant, of the subject, and 
would not touch. The fact is, I believe at least, that if our State 
was polled, a very great number of our population would be 
found to be very indifferent on the subject— that they are dis- 
trustful of Corporations of any kind & are ready to oppose masses 
of wealth in corporations or individuals at the polls or elsewhere. 
None but business men think or care for such matters, & they are 
not a majority in our State. If both sides of them, I believe, 
desire a National Bank under the full conviction of its necessity 
to releave the Country; the Democrats won't say so without you 
fail to make a Bank which would bring both sides on Congress. 
If you make a Bank the Democrats will denounce you for the 
deed, at the same time will be extremely glad to partake of the 
benefit— even Mr. Calhoun could not prevent So. Ca. from asking 
a branch, if it was so conditioned, as No. Carolina did in her 
palmy days of democracy, & that through Mr. Macon 66 for a 
branch of the old Bank, & so would So. Ca. through Mr. Calhoun 
of the new, if it could not be otherwise obtained. 

Congress is looked to anxiously for relief, & if something is 
not done, the execrations of the people will be deep & wide. 

I regret to see so many frivalous amendments offered to the 
bill; it seems to be forgotten that there are two sides to a Bank 
by the friends of the measure, the enemies of course will do all 
they can to defeat openly & insidiously, but the friends should 
recollect that some inducement should [be] offered capitalists 
to venture. The odour of such institutions both with Progress 

89 Nathaniel Macon (1757-1837), of North Carolina, a Revolutionary soldier, 
lawyer, and planter, was educated at Princeton, was state senator, 1780-1782, 1784- 
1785, a Democratic member of congress, 1791-1815, (speaker, 1801-1807), United 
States senator, 1815-1828, (president pro tem, 1826-1828); president of the con- 
vention of 1835. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 213 

and the People may scare them off. They may refuse to enter an 
institution where they might be considered as rascals in the face 
of the Charter and in that way defeat the wishes of your patriotic 
Statesmen & others. Excuse my scribling I have done, while I 
have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully 
Yr. obed't. Serv't. 

From James Graham. U. 

H. R., Thursday, 

July 15 th, 1841. 

Mangum has made an agreement with Rives of Va. who is 
absent that, he will pare off with you, if any vote on the Bank 
should be pressed on, or before next Wednesday. 

I think there will be no question taken on the Bank 
in the Senate before Wednesday. Rives will probably not return 
before Saturday week. 

Still you of course will return as soon as you can with propriety. 

I think the Bank cant pass the Senate. 

To Charles Plummer Green. 67 U. 

T. J. Green Mss. 

Washington City, 

July 18th., 1841. 

I hasten to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of 14th. inst. 
I perceive by the R. Register that Mr. Henry will go out no more 
during the Canvass. So that our Candidates for the Legislature 
will have a fair field in their respective Counties. I have the most 
cheering accounts from Orange, Stokes, & Surry, and our North- 
ampton friends, I learn by a letter from one of the Candidates, are 
in good spirits. Craven, I presume, we shall lose, as there were 
no Whig candidates at the latest dates, though we had the mem- 
bers in the Commons of the last Assembly. We can afford to lose 

67 Charles Plummer Green, of Ridgeway, Warren County, an active Whig, and 
a friend of Graham. He was a brother of General Thomas Jefferson Green, (q. v.) 

214 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

18 from the last Legislature, and still retain our majority. We 
calculate on gaining one in Orange, the Senator from Greene and 
Lenoir, and one perhaps in Stokes, and the prospects are fair for 
a gain in Columbus. 

As to the $6,000 for furniture of President's House, it was con- 
tained in the Civil and Diplomatic appropriation Bill, 3rd. March, 
1841. You know that V. B. was then President, and had a majority 
in both Houses. Gen'l Harrison was installed the day after this 
Bill was approved, and the next Congress did not meet, untill the 
called session, 31st. May. Our N. C. members were not elected 
untill May, and so of some other States. 

The Yeas and Nays on Bankrupt Law, which have been re- 
cently published in most of our papers, shew that it could not 
have passed but by the aid of Demo, votes. Even the appropriation 
to Mrs. Harrison was voted for by Buchanan and Walker, two of 
the most conspicuous men of the party. 

I have sent some documents to our friends in Northampton, 
and will add such others as may seem to be useful. 

My impression is that we will carry the State by a handsome 
majority, though much will depend on the counties you mention 
as doubtful. 

The great subject of agitation now, is the Tariff. The true 
ground for our friends on that subject is that it is not now, as 
formerly, a question of laying duties for protection, and raising 
more money than is wanted for revenue. But the simple state of 
the case is, that the Gov't costs 20 odd millions of dollars per year. 
The reduced duties now existing (if by Law we have any exist- 
ing) yields about 13 millions. Now, the question is, whether the 
balance is to be raised by a Tariff, in which men only pay as they 
consume foreign goods, or by direct taxes on lands and slaves, as 
was done during the war. He who is not for the latter (and no man 
with us will acknowledge that he is) must agree to raise the 
amount needed, by a Tariff. Or he is in favor of what is worse than 
either, and that is withholding supplies, and disgracing the Gov't. 

I write you in great haste. 

Very truly yours, 

P. S. I am afraid we can't adjourn in time to get home to the 
elections, tho' we hope to do so by the 1st. Aug. I can't there- 
fore say when I will pass Ridgeway. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 215 

From U. 

Fayetteville, N. C, 

July 20, 1841. 
Dear friend of liberty 

I am sorry for my misfortune of not being personally acquainted 
with your kind honour, as my circumstance at this time is such 
that I should be acquainted, & certainly I would feel easier in 
my mind. 

I have written a letter on the 30th. of last month to the high 
honourable Senator from Ky.— Henry Clay— who I think is the 
most honourable, honest Patriot of this, or any other Country, 
& I also think he is the most useful man, & the greatest Solomon 
we have seen since the days of Solomon, King of Israel. 

I have written another letter the same day, to the very fine, high 
honourable Secretary of War, John Bell, who answered it amedi- 
ately, through his department, with his commanding officer telling 
me my letter would be attended to as soon as Congress could make 
an action on the case, & also asking the officer all about, $c its use 
to us running Congress. 

The Commanding officer says to me, he recommended the use 
of it to them in the highest consideration, & that he thought you 
shorely must have it [in] Congress. 

My object is to introduce the sale of one of the finest Spring 
in this or any other country, it emits some like Three hundred 
Gals, of the pure, cool, clear, fine tasted, hard, healthy, light water 
in the twenty four hours, it emits out of the base of a high hill, on 
which the Arsenal Buildings are agoing on, it lyes with in fifty 
yards of the Officer's Quarters, now built and a building, & about 
equidistance from them both, its use can be brought to any of 
the houses by an incline pump in the Arsenal yard. 

Dear good man, I now stand before a stranger, under the neces- 
sity of living unacquainted with your kind honour; some of my 
Whig friends have told me of your good kindness & purfection. 
I know your are one of our own statesmen, & our chosen & by that 
means you will be desirus at any rate to doe all the good you 
can & no harm. 

I have got in debt here very lately owing to a friends death, who 
left a large estate of land amoung which there is a certain plan- 
tation is worth Twelve thousand, if it was mine and paid for I 
would not take any money for it that could be got for it, & there 

216 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

is a debt of Three thousand five Dollars over it, & If I cannot rase 
the money I cannot go into the purchase. 

There was a move made last Congress to buy the said Spring at 
5000$, sixteen of the Senators went into the buying it & sixteen 
others against it & the speaker after some pause went against 
buying it & by that means lost the sale at that large price, though 
it is fully worth it, & if your Congress was to see it, you would 
most shorely say so, indeed, and now for the sake of my necessity 
I am willing to take the $3500. for it. 

There is another Spring close on to this, of the same quality 
& size, that was sold as follows, one half at $2760, & the other 
$1950, equal to 4710$ to this Town water company, & now my 
distress rules me very hard, & shows me to any thing like the usual 

If it should be the will of the Lord that I could get your honour 
to take my case in to consideration & go to the excelent fine Secre- 
tary of ware, John Bell, and also Messrs. Clay and Mangum, and 
put your head together I am very shore the poor Whig's cause 
would come out safe, victorius, it will be a shame at any rate if 
they do not buy it now after geting water out of it so long, all 
hands of them, or shall the grate honour of the nation subject 
themselves to beg such small favours of a poore beger like I, or 
any poor man else. Now as I have always left it to their honour 
I will do so yet. I should be more than glad if the If I could regu- 
late the friends to go in to the purchase of the Spring, I would 
gladly come subject to any fare compensation that would satisfy 
a Gentleman & would think my self favoured from Heaven if 
your Honour could assist in the very desired business, that would 
cause such a grate lift to a poor Whig in his distress. I was beged 
the hardest to change with upposition & they would have my 
Spring bought & they would give as much credit & help as I 
wanted. I always loved my country and my God, above all things, 
I have no more to say but my prayers. May it please the Almighty 
to rule in your harts & direct your honour in the way of wisdom 
and peace with all nations now, Amen. 

Please to hand this letter to our friend, 
Honourable Mangum. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 217 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

July 22nd, 1841. 

tF tF tF tF 

I believe there is nothing new here of the least interest. Public 
affairs go on slowly in the Senate. No vote has yet been taken on 
the Bank Bill, and it is doubtful what will be its fate, though I 
have more hopes of a settlement of the question, than there has 
been for some time. I still hope that Congress may adjourn by the 
middle of next month but that is also doubtful. 

I walked yesterday evening to the grounds near the President's 
House, where a large crowd had gathered to hear the performance 
of the musical Band from the Navy Yard. But there was such a 
cloud of dust by the way, that I had but little pleasure in the 

The Misses Gaston are still here but I have not seen them. 
They appear not to have gone out to any public place in Wash- 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

Saturday, July 24th, 1841. 

The weather here is oppressively hot, yesterday and today the 
Thermometer has been at 89 or 90 in the coolest part of the 

The Senate meeting at 10 and sitting continuously 'till 4 
o'clock, the Sessions are exceedingly laborious. 

Nothing has occurred since my last of the least interest. The 
Bankrupt Bill passed yesterday its second reading and will prob- 
ably become a law. The Bank still hangs in the Senate. It will 
probably be disposed of, next week, and probably passed with 
some change from its original form, so as to reconcile all con- 
cerned. Having no other news to write you, I am compelled to 
give you political news. 

-U* «!«. Jt, J£- .U. 

w tF tF tF tF 

I wrote a few days since to Dr. Washington informing him of 
our recent good fortune, but have not had a reply. Perhaps it 
may bring like intelligence in relation to his own family. 

I still hope that we may adjourn by the middle of Aug. 

218 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

July 25th, 1841. 

I have just read your kind letter of the 22nd which reminds me 
of the birthday of John. Poor Fellow! amid the cares and anxieties 
of public affairs here I had suffered it to pass without remember- 
ing the fact. I regret to hear of your debility and fear that you 
will continue feeble during the warm weather; the heat has been 
intense here for some days. There is something of a thunder 
shower falling now, and I hope it will become more pleasant. 

#ml ja, 4f> 4U 

w w w w 

The weather and lapse of time has somewhat wearied our 
speechmakers in Congress, and we have hopes of an adjournment 
by the middle of Aug. but we cannot tell with certainty. Tomor- 
row will probably determine the fate of the Bank Bill in the 
Senate, that is, whether it can pass, though it may be some days 
in getting through. 

I am glad to hear from your letter that Wiseman has gotten 
the portrait, as the members of the family have for a long time 
desired likenesses of my Father. . . . 

To David L. Swain. U. Swain Mss. 

Washington City, 

July 26th., 1841. 

I learn that in the settlement of the debts of the United States, 
and the several States, in 1793, under an act Congress in relation 
thereto, there was charged to the State of N. C. $501,000. and to 
several other States different sums— some more, and some less. 
In the Bill for the distribution of the proceeds of the public lands, 
the 4th. Section, (as it passed the House Reps.) requires, that, if 
any debt be due & payable to the U. S. from any State, the share 
of such State in the monies to be distributed shall be retained in 
satisfaction, etc. The section was designed to enable the Govern- 
ment to recover the Smithsonian fund, etc., which have been 
lent within a few years to some of the States, but it is apprehended 
that it may extend to these old debts. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 219 

I am unable here to obtain the Journals of our Legislature, 
but my impression is, that this arrangement of the Revolutionary 
debt (requiring payment according to Federal population, when 
it was expected to be paid, according to the volume of settled 
lands) drew forth a violent remonstrance from the General As- 
sembly, and that the State has never, in any manner, admitted the 
Justice of this balance of debt. 

My principal purpose in writing you, is to inquire whether, in 
the negotiation pertaining to our claim on the General Govern- 
ment for expenditures in the late War, (which I believe was 
settled under your administration) any offset was claimed, or 
insisted on, on account of the old claim before referred to, or 
whether it was waived by the Federal Government. 

I do not wish to move an amendment to the Bill, unless it be 
absolutely necessary, and would be obliged to you for any infor- 
mation in relation to the matter, in your possession. I think it 
will probably not be taken up for several days, or perhaps a week, 
(in which time I hope to hear from you.) 

You are aware that public affairs are in an uncertain condition 
here. An attempt is on foot to compromise the Bank question, 
which I hope may succeed. It will be no doubt determined on, 
in a day or two. 

The session will probably continue untill the middle or last of 
Aug., and I hope will yet result in harmony & public benefit. 

Please present my respects to Mrs. Swain, & Believe me, 

Very truly, 

Your Friend & Serv't 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

July 28th. 1841. 

On yesterday the Bank Bill passed the Senate by a majority of 
3, after having been amended so as to make it more agreeable to 
a majority of Senators. It will no doubt pass the Ho. Reps, and 
we hope will be approved by the President. 

Other measures are before us which will occupy some time. It 
is to be hoped not more than two or three weeks, but there is no 
telling what turn things may take. 

220 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

I have had your watch repaired, and it is running, but as I 
found it not to keep the correct time, it is still at the silver smith's. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hale 68 of Fay'ville are here, on their way to the 
North, as I learn, but have not seen them. 

Mr. Yarbrough 69 from Raleigh informs me that Judge Cameron 
and Col. Jones & part of their families have gone to the Fauquier 
Springs in Va. 

I wish very much that I could get home in time to take a jaunt 
with you to some of the watering places this Summer. 

#£L dL Jfe *U> 

tp tp tp tt 

From William Gaston. A. 

Raleigh, July 29th, 1841. 

I received a letter a few days since from Wm. B. Grove Tay- 
lor, 70 the nephew of my late friend Chief Justice Taylor, 71 which 
has caused me some embarrassment. From my great regard for 
the writer whom I have known from infancy, as well as from his 
connection with one whose memory will ever be most dear to me. 
I have the strongest disposition to render him every service in my 
power. But I have an invincible repugnance to making applica- 
tion for office in behalf of any one. I may call it invincible now, 
for although it has been made to yield under very peculiar cir- 
cumstances, I think nothing can occur to prevent its having 
henceforth absolute sway over me. Under these circumstances I 
have concluded to make known to you the substance of Mr. 
Taylor's communication, and the facts within my knowledge in 
relation to his character, and then to submit to your well known 

68 Edward Jones Hale (1802-1883), of Fayetteville, a native of Chatham, was 
trained under Joseph Gales of the Register, and then was with Gales and Seaton 
on the National Intelligencer. He bought the Carolina Observer, changed its name 
to Fayetteville Observer, and edited it with vigor and distinction. He declined 
an offer to head the publishing firm of A. S. Barnes & Co., and another to edit 
the New York World. He was a Whig, and in 1860-1861 a Unionist, but, when 
Lincoln's call for troops came, he became an intense Confederate. He had much 
to do with the selection of Vance for governor in 1862. After the war, he founded 
a publishing house in New York. 

69 Edward Yarborough, proprietor of the Guion Hotel, and, later, of the 
Yarborough House. 

70 William Barry Grove Taylor was appointed a midshipman in 1815, and 
resigned in 1836. The navy registers contain no other mention of him. 

71 John Louis Taylor (1769-1829), a native of London, came to Virginia in 1781, 
attended William and Mary College, and settled in Fayetteville. He studied law, 
represented the borough in the commons, 1792-1794, moved to New Bern, and 
in 1798 was elected a judge of the superior court. About 1811 he moved to 
Raleigh. He served as president of the court of conference, and in 1818, when the 
supreme court was established, he became its first chief justice. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 221 

friendship and sense of propriety the decision of the course which 
shall be pursued in relation to the object of his wishes. 

Mr. Taylor (who I believe is at present boarding officer at the 
Batise, below New Orleans, and commander of the U. S. Revenue 
Schooner Izard) mentions to me that not long since he had with 
a boat and six hands captured the Piratical Vessel Independence 
Captn. De Putren and seven of his crew; that this act had so 
recommended him to the Citizens of New Orleans that the Mu- 
nicipality, the Chamber of Commerce, and the U. S. Attorney 
had interested themselves to procure for him the command of an 
armed Steamer to be stationed on the neighbouring coast, and 
that he is satisfied that in doing so they act with the general con- 
currence of the Citizens of New Orleans. He apprehends however 
that the berth is so good an one that some of the old officers of 
the Navy may endeavor to have his pretensions superseded. He 
reminds me however, as is the fact, that he served as a Midship- 
man in the Navy during the late War, that he is senior in service 
to all the Cutter Officers, that many years ago upon my application 
Mr. Crawford 72 promised him the first vacant commission of 
Captain that should fall in, that he has been rendering for four- 
teen years the most laborious services as Inspector of the Revenue 
at the Batise during all which time his home was on a mud-bank, 
and adds that / firmly believe that no individual in the U. States 
has so intimate an acquaintance as he possesses of every bay port 
haven & shoal from the Bay of Campeachy to the Capes of Florida. 

I feel no hesitation in saying that he is among the most gallant 
and noble-spirited fellows I ever knew— and I venture to endorse 
the assurance he gives in his letter that if he gets the command 
which he asks not a woolly-head is smuggled into Texas or the 
adjoining country, and every energy which can be required to 
render such a steamer efficient in protecting lawful trade and 
putting down fraud and piracy will be fully exerted. 

I pray you to believe me my dear Sir 

Very truly & with much esteem 

Your aff ectte friend 

72 William Harris Crawford (1772-1834), of Georgia, a native of Virginia, whose 
family removed to Georgia in his childhood. He studied under Moses Waddell, 
became a lawyer, and rose quickly to prominence. After a brief service in the 
legislature, he was elected to the United States senate, in 1807, and served to 1813 
(president pro tern. 1812). He was minister to France, 1813-1815, secretary of 
war, 1815-1816, secretary of the treasury, 1816-1825. He was a candidate for 
President in 1824, but suffered an apoplectic stroke, and was not elected. He was 
a state judge from 1827 until his death. 

222 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Washington City, 

July 30th, 1841. 

Jb Jfc, Jfe 4U Jg; 

W "IT "«• W TP 

The Bank Bill has passed the Senate with an amendment as to 
the Branching power, which was the result of a compromise to 
procure a majority of the Senate in its favour. It will pass the 
House without doubt, but there are serious apprehensions as to 
the course of the President. Mr. Wise, who professes to have the 
controul of him, sneers at the compromise, and talks confidently 
of the veto. Others, however, believe that he will approve it. The 
Cabinet will approve the compromise, and will exert their influ- 
ence with the President to secure his approval. How it will result, 
I think, a week more will determine. 

The Session of Congress will probably continue for 3 or 4 
weeks yet. Our measures are all beset with more or less difficulty. 
The passage of the Bill for the distribution of the proceeds of the 
lands through the Senate is uncertain. So many interests are to be 
conciliated on all these subjects, that it is hard to get a majority 
for any. 

The fate of the Revenue Bill, in the House, will be known 
today. If it pass there in the present shape, the land Bill can 
probably pass. 

Our greatest difficulties however are likely to arise out of some 
Executive appointments to high stations, or persons having a 
strong taint of abolition. If they are rejected we shall identify 
abolition with the freedom of opinion in all the free States, as it 
is now identified in many of them, with the right of Petition. On 
the contrary, if they are confirmed we shall be weakened and 
perhaps ruined, at the South. Of this, of course you will not speak 
at present. It is a subject of deep and painful anxiety with us 
from the South at the present. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 223 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

Aug. 1st, 1841. 
My Dear Wife 

The date of this letter reminds of the flight of time, and my 
long absence from home. I hope I may be able to return to you 
before the end of the month. 

George and his family arrived here evening before last, (friday) 
having lost their baggage on the route. And he was compelled to 
go back yesterday in search of it. He supposed that it had been 
put on the train of cars going to the Springs in Va. at the junction 
of the two railroads on this side of Richmond. If so, he will prob- 
ably recover it in a day or two. Catherine is here at Brown's 
Hotel. I went with her yesterday to the Capitol, where the House 
was sitting, the Senate having adjourned over untill Monday, 
shewed her the Capitol grounds, Library of Congress, etc. And 
then visited the Patent office, where I had not been before. Among 
various other curiosities collected there, is the suit of uniform 
worn by Genl. Washington when he resigned his Commission as 
Commander in Chief of the Army. It is in a good state of preser- 

We afterwards rode around the President's square & viewed the 
grounds and buildings of the different departments, but as C. had 
a deficient wardrobe she declined going in to be introduced. 

I had an engagement to dine with Mr. Kerr, 73 Senator, from 
Maryland at 5 o'clock, and could not therefore go with her to hear 
the music at the Capitol, which is customary on Saturday evening, 
but on calling after dark I found that Wm. Washington had 
called and gone with her. 

If your strength would have allowed it, I would have been 
much pleased had you come on with George. Or if an opportunity 
should offer in a week or two, you might perhaps be able to make 
the Journey. I think you will find it much to your advantage to 
ride out, and drink a Glass of mineral water at Judge Norwood's 74 
before breakfast each morning, or if you would prefer it, to go to 
the Buffalow Springs 75 for a week or two. You will have a suffi- 

73 John Leeds Kerr (1780-1844), of Maryland, graduate of St. Johns College, 
lawyer, soldier in the War of 1812, Whig member of congress, 1825-1829, 1831-1833, 
elector, 1840, United States senator, 1841-1843. 

74 Now known as Occoneechee Spring. 

75 The Buffalo Lithia Springs, Mecklenburg County, Virginia. 

224 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

ciency of money to bear your expenses if you desire to go, and you 
should not permit the expense to be of the least consideration. 

The Bill to raise revenue by additional duties passed the Ho. 
Reps, yesterday; they will take up the Bank Bill tomorrow & pass 
it in the course of this week, probably. Rumors are still afloat, 
as to the veto of the President, but nothing is certainly known. 
Mrs. Badger, with whom I dined last week in company with the 
President & a large number of gentlemen, told me that Miss Polk 
of Raleigh & several other of her friends, now at the Fauquier 
Spring in Va. would visit Washington in the course of a week or 
two. She also stated that Mr. Rayner was an admirer of Miss P. 76 
and that she wished him success. Mr. R. has gone home at present 
in consequence of the death of a brother, to whom he appears to 
have been much attached. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

Aug. 6th, 1841. 

^ TP w TP 

Mrs. Stanly will leave here tomorrow for Philadelphia in com- 
pany with Mr. Battle, formerly of New Bern, who is now here, 
on his way from Mobile to New York. She is very desirous that 
her husband shall go on a Foreign Mission, and has had an inter- 
view with me this morning on the subject of the Mission to Spain. 
I, of course, will not decline to give my aid in the matter, as far 
as it will be available. You will of course not speak of it for the 

The Bank Bill will probably pass the House today, it is still 
doubtful what the President will do with it. Rumors are rife that 
he will not approve it. But two gentlemen who have spoken with 
him within the last day or two, assure me that he will approve it. 
I however doubt it. More from the company which habitually 
surrounds him than from any other circumstance. 

The painful state of suspense in which the public, not only here, 
but throughout the country, has been kept by the mystery which 
is observed at the White House is most remarkable. Nothing else, 
scarcely, is talked of, or inquired about, in all circles. 

The time of adjournment is like the horizon, which seems to 
recede as we advance towards it. It becomes doubtful whether 
we shall not get off before the first of next month. 

79 Miss Sarah Polk, later Mrs. Kenneth Rayner. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 225 

From William F. Strudwick. 77 U. 

Greensboro, [Ala.,] August 6th, 1841. 

I saw some time since in one of the Washington papers a notice 
of an improvement in the construction of Stoves. They are made 
air tight & consume a very inconsiderable quantity of wood, corn- 
paired to other stoves. 

Will you be so good, as to make some inquiry about it, & let 
me know, where they can be had? & at what Cost? 

I would not have troubled you with this communication, but 

since we Whigs have been disfranchised, I have no acquaintance 

with any of our present delegation, therefore must request in your 

leasure moments you will obtain the desired information for me. 

Your friends here are well. 

Respectfully your friend. 

P. S. Is there a probability of Dr. Ashe's getting the appoint- 
ment of Surgeon of the Hospital in Mobile? 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

Aug. 8 th, 1841. 

jfc Jb jfc jfc jfc 


The Bank Bill passed the House of Representatives on Friday 
and is now before the President; there is still uncertainty as to 
what he will do. He is allowed by the Constitution ten days to 
decide. The solicitude on the subject has now become intense, & 
is the matter of conversation in all circles. Should he refuse to 
approve the Bill, I fear a universal burst of indignation, and the 
most direful consequences to the Whig party and the country. 
If he shall take the counsel of his Cabinet, he will sign the Bill 
without hesitation, but there is a cabal principally of Virginians, 
not in political life, who have been about him of late, and will do 
their utmost to procure a veto. This week will probably determine 
the fate of the measure. 

Judge Cameron's family, Mr. Bennehan & Miss Boylan arrived 
here yesterday evening from Fauquier Springs, and Col. Jones' 
party are expected tomorrow. Judge C. is going to Philadelphia in 
a day or two. And will meet Col. Jones at Baltimore in the course 

77 William Frederick Strudwick, a brother of Dr. Edmund Strudwick, of Hillsboro. 
He was also a physician, and had settled in Alabama some years before. 

226 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

of a week, whence they are to travel home together. I called of 
course on them, and will show them such civilities as I can, 
though my time will be much occupied during the residue of 
my stay. 

I am anxious to be with you in two weeks from the receipt of 
this, especially as the County Court of Orange comes on then, and 
hope that I can do so. But am not sure. How I would be pleased 
to be with you on this Sunday evening! I have spent rather an 
unprofitable day. 

Give my love to Mother & the Children— And be ever mine 

Invitation. U. 

The President of the U. States having announced his intention 
of visiting the ship Delaware, off Annapolis on Saturday, 14th. 
inst. Com: Morris will be happy to see you on board at the same 

Accomodations will be provided to take the visitors who may 
accompany the President from Annapolis to the ship. 

N. B. Be pleased to shew this card to the Conductor of the 
cars at Washington; and to the person who may command any of 
the Boats provided for the occasion at Annapolis. 


9. Aug. 1841. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

Aug. 13 th, 1841. 

*jj, j*. jji. «u„ 


Judge Cameron's family have gone to Phila. Col. Jones & his 
party, including Miss Sarah Simpson, have been here for two or 
three days, also the Misses Mordecai & Miss Polk. I have called 
to see them at their boarding house, and met them last night at 
a party at Mr. Badger's. The young ladies were much admired by 
the company. Miss Mary Jones was too unwell to go out. I have 
promised to call and introduce them at the President's when she 
is better. I do not know whether Mr. Allen Jones has devoted his 
attentions to Miss Simpson or Miss Polk; he having been an ad- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 227 

mirer of both. Mr. Rayner, it is understood, is quite devoted to 
the latter. He has however lost a brother recently, and was not 
out last night. 

The anxiety is every day more intense as to the fate of the Bank 
Bill. The President has had it under consideration nearly a week, 
and the rumor is, that he will veto it, but it is not yet certain. 
Should he do so, it will inevitably lead to a rupture with his 
friends, and probably a dissolution of the present Cabinet. His 
return of the Bill is looked for today, and there is of course great 
curiosity on the subject. 

**&■ Jfr *3fr «M» 

w w w w 

From James W. Osborne. U. 

August 15, 1841. 

Young Mr. Davidson 78 is on his way to become a member of 
the law school at Harvard University. It may be important to 
him to have some testimonials of character and to convey to the 
officers some evidences of literary attainments in order to secure 
his admission. Should you write any such in his favour, you may 
say, (and you would much oblige him & myself by doing so) , that 
he is a graduate of Davidson College, where he sustained a very 
respectable standing, and since he took his degree about a year 
ago, he has been reading with diligence a course of history and 
law preparatory to his entrance into the law school at Cambridge. 
Of law he has read Blackstone and Kents Commentaries. In pri- 
vate life his character is most unexceptionable. I hope you will 
interest yourself in his favour as he is himself deeply anxious to 
avail himself of the advantages of the institution, and his father 
(Uncle Jacky) sympathizes with him most warmly on the subject. 

By this time the state of suspense which in common with other 
portions of the American people you have felt as to the course of 
the President on the Bank question will be relieved. Deep anxiety 
prevails at this moment among our Whig friends in this quarter 
on that subject. I fear the worst. The indications are certainly 
unfavourable. It will be a terrible responsibility on the part of 
the President and his convictions must be inveterate and most 

78 Edward Constantine Davidson (b. 1820), an early graduate of Davidson College, 
after securing his law license, settled in Charlotte. He was a lieutenant ojE 
dragoons in the Mexican War, and a member of the commons in 1850. 

228 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

unquestionable if on such a question at such time he determines 
to place himself in opposition to the expressed will of the repre- 
sentatives of the people. As far as my information has extended 
our Senators reflected the feelings of the Whigs on sustaining the 
propositions of Mr. Clay. The compromise offered by him is cer- 
tainly the last concession which they think ought to be made on a 
matter involving so important a principle. It will be fortunate 
hereafter, when it may be necessary to bring into exercise the 
power in question, that should the President veto the Bill, there 
will be but his opinion against the expressed opinion of the repre- 
sentatives of a large majority of our Country. 

It will be a matter of deep regret that in the Senate there should 
be several States in the Union wholy nonrepresented— or partially 
so— so that its vote is no fair exponent of public opinion. 

The dissensions which have occurred at Washington City have 
had an unfortunate influence on the state of feeling among the 
Whigs. It has changed the opinions of no one but has depressed 
the spirits of all. Such dissensions certainly were natural— and to 
be expected. That they have been in any degree harmonized is 
the source of greater astonishments. . . . 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

Aug. 16th, 1841. 

I regret very much to say to you that the President has deter- 
mined to reject the Bank Bill. I had an interview with him yester- 
day evening in company with several gentlemen, and he an- 
nounced that his mind was made up, and that a veto message 
would be sent in the course, probably, of this day. What are to 
be the consequences it is impossible to foresee. They cannot be 
otherwise than injurious to the Country, and the Whig party. 

Col. Jones' party, who seem to gather numbers every day, left 
this morning to join Judge Cameron's at Baltimore, whence they 
are to go down the Bay to Old Point Cft. and expect to reach home 
by the last of the week. Mr. Rayner is to accompany Miss Polk 
as far as Baltimore. I do not know what are his prospects of 
success with her. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 229 

Mr. Alfred Jones 79 of Raleigh & Saml. Holt of Orange are also 
to go with them— & Nat Hill. 

A large party went to Annapolis Md. on Saturday to see the 
U. S. Ship Delaware, which is a 74 ready for sea. They were enter- 
tained on board with a sham battle, champaign etc. and returned 
about dark quite merry. 

Mr. Pettigrew is now here, and Mr. J. C. Johnston 80 of Edenton. 

I cannot fix with certainty the day of adjournment, but shall 
look for it with hope and joy. 

To William Gaston. U. Gaston Mss. 

Washington City, 

Aug. 17th, 1841. 
My Dear Sir 

I forget whether I replied to your letter of recommendation in 
behalf of Capt. Wm. B. G. Taylor. I have laid the application 
before the proper department and I will with pleasure afford him 
any aid, in my power, in attaining the command he desires. 

You will have heard before this reaches you, that the President 
of the United States did on yesterday return the Bank Bill to the 
Senate with a veto. He assumes the ground that the Constitution 
gives no power to establish a Bank of discount with branches in 
the States without their assent, but insinuates, and it is said, 
agrees, that a Bank with agencies to receive deposites and deal 
in exchanges would receive his approbation. The veto message 
will be considered today, and of course the Bill cannot receive a 
majority of two thirds in either House of Congress, and will 
therefore fail. There is much excitement among our friends, but, 
as yet, every thing has been conducted without any burst of feel- 
ing. I very much fear, that we shall not pass any Financial meas- 
ure, as a substitute, at this Session. Indeed I very much incline to 

79 Alfred Jones, of Wake, who lived on a plantation outside of Raleigh. He 
was active in the militia, and was regularly mentioned as a "Captain." He fought 
a duel with a Faucett, of Orange, and was wounded, which so alarmed his 
adversary, that he disappeared. 

80 James Cathcart Johnston (1782-1865), of "Hayes," Chowan County, a son of 
Governor Samuel Johnston, and probably, at the outbreak of the Civil War, the 
wealthiest man in North Carolina. He was a man of great culture, and assembled 
a large and valuable library, and many portraits, all, with the exception of one 
of Judge Ruffin, of Federalists and Whigs. Violently opposed to secession, he 
disinherited his relatives, all of whom favored secession, with one exception, and 
distributed his property among friends,, 

230 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

the belief, that the President does not desire it. Some of the leaders 
of the opposition say that, although they will sustain the veto, yet 
that they cannot coalesce with him. But the great body of them, 
I think, are disposed to receive him into full communion— or 
rather to take possession of him. He himself disclaims all idea of 
going over, but is evidently disposed to fortify himself against 
his friends as well as foes. Every thing is in uncertainty and there 
is no such thing as forseeing results. A week more must deter- 
mine the fate of the Whig party, and of this administration. 
I write in great haste and have not time to say more. 

I remain With great regard 

Your Friend & servt. 

Will. A. Graham. 

From William Gaston. A. 

Raleigh, August 19th, 1841. 

Occupied as I am with the duties of the Court, more laborious 
at this term than they ever have been except on one occasion, I 
can bring no mind to the consideration of the perplexities and 
dangers which the President's veto brings upon the Whig Party, 
and of the evils which it menaces to the whole Country. It would 
argue however an insensibility which I can not admit, if I did not 
avail myself of your kindness in corresponding with me on the 
subject to throw out the thoughts crude as they are which have 
occurred to me. 

In the first place it is indispensable to the character of the Party 
that its proceedings in Congress should be marked by decorum 
and temper. Violence, and Petulance will lower it in the public 
estimation, and afford advantages to its Adversary which will 
certainly be seized. But they are demanded by yet higher consid- 
erations. Deeply as the Party must feel the blow from the hands 
of one, whom it has elevated to the station which enables him to 
strike, it must make allowances for the motives which in his judg- 
ment left him no other alternative. It ought not— it cannot be 
rationally believed— but that he would have infinitely preferred 
acting with his political friends on this occasion rather than 
against them, had he thought that this could be done without self- 
degradation. If no allowance is made for a separation from them, 
in an isolated though most important case when there is so irre- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 231 

sistible a cause for it, the consequence must be a complete disrup- 
tion of the ties by which he and they are bound together. All the 
objects— great and glorious as they are— for which he and they 
contended in the late struggle must then be sacrificed. On the 
contrary a reasonable allowance of justice and toleration from 
his Whig friends upon this occasion will prevent him from being 
thrown for support upon men who are unworthy of his confi- 
dence, and whose schemes must be ruinous to the Nation. Though 
the Whig party may not be able to do all the good which it is 
anxious to accomplish, and to do it as speedily as it may wish, it 
may do much, and in so doing prove itself a blessing to the Coun- 
try. Time too, the great healer of all diseases not incurable, may 
effect a co-operation in regard to this very subject, which now 
seems impracticable. It is my earnest hope therefore that Congress 
will proceed calmly to act upon the other matters before it pre- 
cisely as if the Veto (I believe that I shall always hate the term) 
had not been sent in. 

In the next place I would observe that I trust no further attempt 
will be made at this session to create a Bank. From the desire 
to get around the constitutional scruples of those who were 
opposed to an old fashioned Bank, the one lately projected con- 
tained many features highly objectionable. Further attempts in 
this way, should they succeed in procuring a law for the incorpora- 
tion of such an institution, would give us a ricketty affair that 
might fail to accomplish the only purposes for which it ought to 
be established. 

I know little of Mr. Tyler personally, but I have always had a 
high opinion of his honesty of purpose, and in my judgment it is 
no small blessing to a Community to have a perfectly honest man 
in the Executive Chair, altho' some of his political notions may 
be wrong-headed. But if honest men will not aid him, he must 
seek for aid elsewhere; and with counsellors wanting his honesty 
and more wrong-headed than himself, the result is the same as if 
the President himself were dishonest, and unwise. 

It is the misfortune of Mr. Tyler and great calamity I regard it, 
to have imbibed in his youth certain political dogmas, not wanting 
in plausibility and even partially founded in truth, but as 
preached and expounded by political zealots, impracticable and 
absurd, as the revelations of perfect verity. He ought not to be 
severely blamed for not being able to free his mind entirely from 
the bondage of his early faith. It requires mighty powers to do 

232 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

this. Such intellects as those of James Madison and of Henry Clay, 
have been able to effect it— but not until such observation and long 
experience had demonstrated fallacies too plainly to be over- 

I make no apologies for the evident haste with which these 
remarks are penned. You will regard them I am sure as evidence 
of the personal esteem and affection with which I am, my dear Sir, 

Truly your's 


From Henry K. Burgwyn. 81 


Augst. 22nd, 1841. 

If there be any seeming impropriety in addressing you in the 
manner I am about to do, I hope you will find an excuse for it, 
in the situation: I am here placed, a Southerner, shut up, as it 
were, for some two months among Northerners, hear'g every day 
their feel'gs opinions expressed on all the various affairs of public 
interest, that are now before your "honorable body"; Among 
these there is none, that seems to excite so universal & absorb' g 
an enquiry as whether the Southern Senators are about to vote 
against the nomination of Abolitionists to offices at the North- 
out of the way of the Southern interests— simply on the ground 
that no Abolitionist must be allowed to hold any office? even 
here? in other words, that freedom of opinion is not to be allowed 
among any of the Petty Officers of Govern'mt. 

This question has been agitated recently, from the fact that 
several Northern papers have stated— see the N. Yk. Commercial 
of the 17th 18th. inst.— that the nomination of Mr. Ed Everett of 
this State, & Gen'l Wilson 82 Of N. Hampshire, had & would con- 
tinue to be opposed on this ground. I can truly say that the dis- 
appoint'nt consequent on the Veto & the loss of the Bankrupt & 
Land Bills, would not excite one half the feeling of indignation 
among all classes $c parties if it were to be the case that these two 
appoints were voted down by Southern Senators on the ground 

81 Henry King Burgwyn (1813-1877), of "Thornbury Plantation," Northampton 
County, a wealthy planter. 

82 James Wilson, Jr., (1797-1881), of New Hampshire, was educated at Middlebury 
College, and became a lawyer. He was a member of the lower house of the legis- 
lature, 1825-1837, (speaker, 1828), 1840, 1846, and a member of congress, 1847-1850. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 233 

that the peculiar tenets of these Gent'n were denominated Aboli- 
tion principles. It would unite all parties, both personal foe & 
friend of Mr. Everett, & create a feeling of animosity against us, 
that would destroy the feeling of good will now almost universal 
among the better informed at the North towards us, and would 
go far— as a personal friend said to me today— "to make us all 
Abolitionists." These gent'n say that Mr. Everett is no Abolition- 
ist, that he lost his election because he refused to accede to the 
principles offered to him by an Abol'st Committee, & lost it solely 
on that ground; that he is opposed to slavery in the abstract they 
say has nothing to do with it. In my replies during the course of 
the various arguments I have held, I state that most assuredly the 
South will not suffer an Abolitionist to represent us at the Court 
of a Power that is only wait'g a favorable opportunity to destroy 
that institution among us by any means they could bring to bear 
upon the Southern Country, even by the employ'nt of Negro 
troups to excite our slaves: but that the South would not call Mr. 
Everett an Abolitionist if his principles are those I hear avowed 
to be his here, (indeed I am sometimes inclined to think Mr. Ed 
Everett has been confounded with his Brother who is a Locofoco 
and Abolitionist) and of course would not oppose his nomination 
on that ground; indeed the South would feel inclined to give the 
representation of our Country at the Court of St. James to a New 
Englander, both on acc't of the present preponder'ce of Southern 
and Western men in office, & that a more speedy & satisfactory 
adjus'nt of the Boundary question would ensue from the fact of 
their more immediate interest in the settlement of the matter & 
being more familiar with the premises. That the South would not 
do what they blame the Abolitionists for attempting— viz— to in- 
terfere with Northern feelings & relations among themselves & 
wholly apart from any Southern connexion or influence whatever. 
If you Northerners with an officer of customs, or any similar one 
who may be a an Abolitionist in his principles, in God's name 
have him, we care not, but when the question is whether we shall 
place the interests of the South in the hands of a man whose creed 
is that he is doing "God's will"— as they term it— when he is 
arousing our slaves to cut our throats, that he may destroy an in- 
stitution among us that his own ancestors chiefly founded, when, 
I say, our interests are to be thus deposited, and he who ought to 
be their guardian is to be surrounded by those most desirous of 
destroy'g them, & who would be glad to see Slavery & the Cotton 

234 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Culture destroyed with us, that they might flourish with theirs in 
the East, then it would be suicidal in us not to prevent it. 

Pray if it be not against the usual etiquette, let me hear from 
you on this matter; it is one of more than a little interest here & 
I must say I think justly so, & I have heard enemies of Mr. Ever- 
ett say he would unite in opposing such a mov'nt among the 
South'n Members. You cannot imagine the joy that the late ac'cts 
of the passage of the Bankrupt Bill & other mov'nts have created 
among us. The Loco's fired 100 guns on the veto, the Whigs in- 
tend send'g them money to fire 100 more as soon as we have the 
"Exchange Agent" passed. Bancroft the Great Loco here said 
Tyler would not go far enough to suit his party, nor the Whigs 
& would be drop'd by both. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

Aug. 22nd, 1841. 

I had but little expectation of being here still, when I left you. 
But such is the uncertainty of political affairs that no definite 
opinion can be formed of the duration of the Session. The veto 
was discussed in the Senate on Wednesday by Mr. Rives & Mr. 
Clay & disposed of. The general opinion here is that Mr. Clay has 
never made a more eloquent speech since the war, than he did 
upon this occasion. It was a severe criticism but personally re- 
spectful to the President who is said to have taken it with good 
humor. But I fear he is surrounded by influences which will make 
it difficult to unite with him on another measure. A Bank Bill 
has been however introduced into the House, which, it is sup- 
posed, will meet with his approbation, but I believe it is far from 
being certain. The Land Bill drags on in the Senate & its passage 
is doubtful; and so of other measures. 

We have a new batch of North Carolinians here every few 
days. Mr. Lassiter called on me last week, & I had expected to see 
him again, as he told me he was going to Orange Court this week. 
But I presume he has gone. 

. , . An old acquaintance from New Orleans who knows Mr. 
Scott of Hillsboro' told me that he had seen him in Texas; that 
he had a leg broken by a fall from a Horse a year or two ago, and 
that the fracture never healed; that this infirmity had prevented 

The Papers of William A. Graham 235 

the confirmation of his appointment as a Judge, which was con- 
ferred on him by the President of that Republic. And that he was 
but little improved in his fortune. I mention this to you, but sup- 
pose it is not proper to communicate it to the family. 

#<M» Jfc >B» lit- 

w *Jr "IP tp 

I regret to hear from Princeton that my nephew, young With- 
erspoon, & another student had been severely injured in a fight, 
which seems to have been somewhat general, among the students 
on the arrival of the veto there. I hope it is not a serious injury. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

Aug. 27th, 1841. 

I write merely to keep you advised of the probability of the 
time of the adjournment of Congress, because of your anxiety on 
the subject, rather than because I have any thing to communicate. 
The Land distribution bill passed the Senate yesterday, and has 
gone back to the House with some amendments. There is no 
doubt that it will become a law, unless our Veto President shall 
reject it. There is however no prospect of that, so far as I can hear. 

The Senate is today engaged in the discussion of the Revenue 
Bill, which will consume several days, after which we shall have 
the new Bank Bill, which has already passed the House. I fear we 
shall be found here, two weeks hence, for besides what I have 
mentioned, the Executive business of the Session (passing on 
nominations to office) will take some time. 

The relations of the President to Congress are not better than 
they have been. The report now is, that he will veto the new Bank 
Bill, and I fear it is too true. If so, a breach with him is inevitable. 
He seems indeed to be too weak, to form or to propagate a scheme 
of his own, but is changing his ground every day, or at least at 
every new consultation of his domestic advisers. In short, he seems 
to have no mind of his own, upon the whole subject of Finance. 
This of course, I write only to you, as I know with what avidity 
the declarations of a public man are caught up, & repeated for 
purposes of mischief. 

Mr. Botts of Va. a friend formerly of the President, has put 
forth a violent publication against him in consequence of an im- 

236 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

prudent letter of his, which was written to a friend in Richmond, 
having been unexpectedly published. 

# # # # # 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

Aug. 29th, 1841. 

I again write you without any thing to communicate, except 
that the period of adjournment is still uncertain. The Session 
must continue however, more than a week yet, and I shall not be 
able to reach Granville Court next week. If I can reach our own 
Court the week following I will deem myself fortunate. 

Yesterday the Senate was engaged on the Revenue Bill which 
will consume the greater part of next week, after which comes 
the new Bank Bill. The House of Reps, owing to a strictness in 
their rules of proceeding have nearly finished every thing before 
them & are now ready to adjourn, but there is a disposition in the 
Senate to extend the Session with the hope of defeating measures, 
and the rules of the body are at present such as to allow an abuse 
of the priviledge of speaking to an indefinite extent. The pre- 
vailing report is that the President will disapprove the new Bank 
Bill, which has been formed in accordance with his views, (if he 
has any); If this be true, it must inevitably separate him from the 
Whigs. Indeed, such a feeling of distrust has already grown up 
between them, that there can hardly ever be a cordial reconcilia- 

I attended last night a party of gentlemen at Mr. Crittenden's. 
The President came in late, the company being in high glee, and 
many of them having not seen him since the veto. Mr. Clay with 
his never failing self possession greeted him very cordially, "Well 
Mr. President what are you for?" (After a pause of embarrass- 
ment on the part of the latter) "Wine, Whiskey, Brandy or Cham- 
pagne? Come show your hand." The P. replied that he would take 
a drink of whiskey, and they accordingly drank together with a 
good deal of merriment. 

I went to hear the music at the Capitol yesterday afternoon, 
where I met Mrs. Badger. In walking with her about the grounds, 
she said that they expected soon to return to N. C. and I should 

The Papers of William A. Graham 237 

not be surprized if at the adjournment of Congress, the Cabinet 
should be dissolved. It is a most singular state of things now, that 
another set of persons know far more of the intentions of the 
President than the Cabinet Ministers. 

*«M. 4£» «U» •itm 

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From Thomas S. Hosktns. 83 U. 

Edenton, N. C, Aug. 30, 1841. 

I have had the honor of receiving from you the most admirable 
and conclusive speech of Mr. Morehead 84 of Ky. on the Fiscal 
Bank Bill, also the remarks of Mr. Washington of N. C. in the Ho. 
of Representatives on the same subject, for which you will please 
accept my sincere thanks. It is with pleasure that I now address 
you but a few lines, for the first time since you have occupied the 
distinguished station of U. S. Senator from the Old North State. 
I was very much gratified at your election, & hope you may long 
continue to hold the same office, to assist the great patriots, & 
distinguished Statesmen of the Country, (the Whigs) in dispens- 
ing blessings & posperity upon a now suffering people. 

What a calamity it was,— the death of our beloved Harrison! 
Nothing could have happened to compare with it. It has placed a 
man in the Presidential Chair, who was not even thought of by 
one in a thousand, when we cast our votes for the lamented Har- 
rison for that elevated station. A man too who does not ' 'under- 
stand the true principles of the Government," & does not ''carry 
them out," particularly as regards the late Bank Bill. I have just 
read Mr. Clay's speech on the Veto, & I think he completely uses 
it up— tears it all to atoms— leaves not a spot upon which Tyler can 
stand. Clay is our man. He must be & shall be our next President 
by the help of God. I reed, a short communication from him the 
other day, for which please tender him my thanks, & also for his 
admirable & inimitable speech on the Veto. That Veto makes 
Clay President, beyond a doubt, on the 4th. March 1845. I sup- 
pose Tyler will also veto Sergant's Bill from the House, unless 

83 Thomas S. Hoskins was an ardent Whig. He represented Chowan in the 
commons, 1835-1836. 

84 James Turner Morehead (1797-1854), of Kentucky, was educated at Transyl- 
vania, and became a lawyer. He was a number of times a member of the legislature, 
was lieutenant governor, 1831-1832, and governor, 1832-1836. 

238 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

the term "Corporation" will cause him to forget that it savours 
of a Bank. 

Notwithstanding the loss of the Bank however, I am pleased 
to see that you have done much that will no doubt redound to 
the good of the country. I see that Humbug Benton raves and 
rants occasionally about the bank ruffians, bank bullies, etc. He 
must cut a contemptible figure when he acts so. 

The Va. Cabal I suppose, stands no chance. One of them, Mal- 
lory, has been completely used up by his Norfolk constituents. It 
was with great reluctance that I gave up my seat in the commons. 
But I had got married, gone in the country to farming, & could 
not well leave home at the time of the meeting of the Assembly. 

I should be pleased to hear from you, & also to receive other 
able speeches in pamphlet form, should others be at any time 
conveniently at your command. 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

Sept. 5th, 1841. 

This, is the anniversary of my birthday, and brings with it the 
ten thousand recollections, that are incident to such an occasion. 
I had most fervently hoped to spend it with you, but have been 
doomed to disappointment. It induces me, however to look back 
upon my life, as it has been, & is, and presents vividly before me, 
those, to whom I am attached by the tenderest ties. 

I hope Congress will adjourn in time to allow me to reach 
home by this day week, or the day following. I was very much 
tempted to break off with George and Mary, who left here yester- 
day, and will have reached Hillsboro' by tomorrow or the next 
day. George did not apprize me that they were here untill a few 
moments before they left. You will therefore excuse me for not 
writing by them. 

The President has signed the Land Bill, and has now before 
him the new Bank Bill which it is believed he will reject as he 
did the former one. If so, he will necessarily separate from his 
friends. The Senate has now before it, the Revenue Bill, after 
disposing of which there is but little business of importance ex- 
cept to pass upon the nominations to office, some of which will be 
much contested. My hope is that the business will be so far ad- 
vanced that I can leave here on friday next, though I may be 
detained longer. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 239 

I attended last evening a party at Mr. Badger's, and on Thurs- 
day evening preceding, one at Mr. Bell's. The Cabinet seem dis- 
posed to make merry, as if they were in no trouble. But I very 
much apprehend a dissolution. The President was not out last 
night, but was at Mr. Bell's. He is evidently laboring under great 
anxiety, and if he could divest himself of the small squad, who 
have had charge of him during the Session, I have no doubt he 
would gladly sign the present Bill. His approval of the land Bill, 
will effectually separate him, I presume, from the other party, 
and he is destined to have an irregular & hobbling administra- 
tion, from which I apprehend the country will experience but 
little benefit. 

■M. 4fc. 4fr 4g» 4U 

•7T TV" *?P TP *«• 

To Susan Washington Graham. A. 

Washington City, 

Sunday morning, 
Sept. 12 th, 1841. 

I had packed my trunk on friday & was ready to set out then 
for home, so as to have been with you this morning, but have been 
prevailed on to stay by reason of the importance of the business 
before the Senate. The President has rejected the second Bank 
Bill, and Messrs. Ewing, Bell, Badger & Crittenden have resigned 
their offices. Mr. Webster & Mr. Granger, the other two members 
of the Cabinet, had not resigned today, though I hear that the 
latter will probably do so. The President has nominated to the 
Senate, to fill the vacancies made: 

Walter Forward 85 of Penna. Secy, of Treasury. 

John McLean 86 of Ohio, now a Judge, Secy, of War. 

A. P. Upshur 87 of Va. Secy, of Navy. 

H. S. Legare of S. C. Atto. General. 

^Walter Forward (1783-1852), of Pennsylvania, lawyer and Democratic editor, 
who had been a member of congress, 1822-1825, delegate to the state convention 
of 1837, and a treasury official. He was secretary of the treasury until 1843. 

86 John McLean (1785-1861), of Ohio, a native of New Jersey, who moved to 
Ohio by way of Kentucky. He was an editor, a war Democrat, 1813-1816, a judge 
of the state supreme court. He was postmaster general, 1823-1829, and, declining the 
war and navy portfolios, was appointed to the supreme court, and served until 
1861, apparently always hoping to be President. 

87 Abel Parker Upshur (1791-1844), of Virginia, educated at Princeton and Yale, 
became a lawyer. He served in the house of delegates, 1812-1813, 1825-1827, in the 
convention of 1829, and on the court of appeals, 1827-1841. He was a champion of 
state rights, and of slavery. He was killed by the explosion on the "Princeton," 
later in the year. 

240 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

These gentlemen are all Whigs, and I do not know that they 
can agree together, better than the late Cabinet. We are destined 
to have a stormy & troublesome time during the whole reign of 
Mr. Tyler who is a weak indecisive man, having no mind of his 
own, but is driven about according to the suggestions of others. 

Messrs. Wise and Stanly had a personal rencountre on the floor 
of the House of Reps, day before yesterday which was well nigh 
leading to a general fracas. It was however suppressed and has 
been reconciled. Mr. Wise received a mark or two on the face 
which he carries yet. 

Great indignation and disgust at the course of the President is 
felt throughout the country. And it is probable that publications 
will be made by some of his Cabinet to shew his indecision if not 
perfidy. Nothing else is talked or thought of here. 

I regret exceedingly that I shall not be able to get home in time 
for my business in Court this week. Congress will adjourn on 
Monday, tomorrow, and I shall probably be able to leave here on 
Tuesday so as to reach home on Thursday or Friday. 

I am much tantalized by the detention here, and will break 
off, at the first moment when I can be spared. 

I have been looking out for a boarding house for us next 
winter, but do not know that I shall make any engagement, 
untill you come on, & examine, so as to make an agreeable se- 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Washington City, 

Sept. 13th, 1841. 

Congress will adjourn today. You have heard no doubt of the 
veto upon the second Bank Bill. Messrs. Ewing, Bell, Badger & 
Crittenden resigned their offices on yesterday, and there has been 
nominated to the Senate Walter Forword of Pittsburg, Penn, now 
Comptroller of the Treas. to be Sec. of Treas. Judge McLean of 
Ohio, Sec. of War. Judge Upshur of Va. Sec. of Navy, Mr. Legare 
of S. C. Atto. Genl. 

Mr. Granger was waited on by the N. Y. delegation and re- 
quested to resign, & I hear, did so on Saturday evening. 

Mr. Webster continues, it is said, at the special request of the 
President, who desires him to stay untill he weathers through 
the pending difficulties with England. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 241 

You can well conceive of the excitement which prevails. The 
President has lost the respect of almost every body, and if revela- 
tions are made of the facts attending the passage of the last Bank 
Bill, he will stand convicted not only of imbecility & folly but of 
treachery also. I learn that before the Bill was introduced, (he 
being waited on by some members of Congress who were sent to 
consult him) he called a Cabinet Council where it was discussed 
some time, and he yielded his assent to it in the very words in 
which it was introduced and passed. And then drew the title of 
the Bill in his own handwriting. Yet you see the veto comments 
on the title with reprehension, as well as on the act itself. The 
Cabinet have therefore not left him for mere disagreement on a 
measure, but for trifling and treachery towards them. For weeks 
past the correspondent of the New York Herald has been a con- 
stant and favored guest at the White House & is seen escorting the 
President's daughter at public places, though he has been daily 
writing libels on every member of his Cabinet. They were not 
consulted about the last veto and never saw it untill published. 
Indeed, for some time past no persons here have been more igno- 
rant of the designs of the Executive. Poor silly man! he seems to 
have surrendered himself to the keeping of a small clique, and I 
should not be surprized if he lost his understanding altogether 
long before the end of his term. Disapproving all systems of Fi- 
nance which have ever been tried, he begs Congress to adjourn 
and allow him a few months to see if he can discover one which 
"per se" he can approve. The Locos will not take him up, though 
they use him. The new Cabinet has strong Nullification tenden- 
cies, and there is reason to believe that he expects to build on it 
a third party with the aid of the "Corporal's guard" now about 

There is great regret in the social circles here at the dissolution 
of the Cabinet. The Secretaries and their ladies have added a 
charm to society in Washington which it had not derived from 
the officials for many years before. 

Mr. Badger procured the nomination of your friend Moore to 
a Pursership in the Navy, and I hope it will be confirmed today. 
It is said that the Cabinet will put forth an address, and there is a 
proposition to do so by the Whigs in Congress, but I fear that 
the matter may be overdone. The weakness and folly of the Pres- 
ident may be exposed by the Cabinet, but if Congress also assail 
him, he may persuade the Country that he is persecuted. 

242 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

The nomination of Everett to England will probably be con- 
firmed today. With much difficulty I have brought my mind to 
sustain it, though he wrote a most foolish letter to the abolition- 
ists when last a Candidate for Governor. But the Legislature has 
previously passed resolutions of the same purport. And it seems 
more proper to withhold from Massachusetts, appropriations for 
defence, or to retaliate in any other way on her than to deny con- 
firmation in office to one of her citizens for saying he approved 
the resolutions. 

I hope to leave here tomorrow and reach home on Thursday 
or Friday. This is the week of Orange Supr. Court, which I am 
compelled to lose as well as that of Granville last week— 

*jt jt jt, jt, 

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From James W. Osborne. A. 


Oct. 16th., 1841. 

The character of an office seeker is at all times odious, and any 
one of right sensibility reluctantly troubles his friends with solici- 
tations for such an object. But I am peculiarly situated, and under 
existing circumstances, I have banished the objections which arise 
from my own feelings, and venture to ask your aid, if there exist 
no objections with yourself in obtaining an appointment under 
the general government. I am convinced that it is required by my 
welfare that I should leave this state; at all events, it is sincerely 
my wish to do so. Yet I am bound to it by obligations to which 
no well disposed mind can be insensible. And my wish is to keep 
up an intercourse with North Carolina, and at a future day return 
to it, an office, therefore, which I could properly fill, & the emolu- 
ments of which would leave me something beyond the expendi- 
tures incident to it, seems to me the only practicable mode of ef- 
fecting my object. My friends have suggested to me to become 
an applicant for the appointment of charge des affaires in Texas. 
I am interested in a planting interest in Louisiana, not very dis- 
tant from the Texan Capitol, and which it is most inconvenient 
to me at this time to superintend. This consideration would make 
the office at that quarter acceptable. And tho' I know it is the 
duty of such officers to reside at the foreign Capitol, yet the rela- 
tions of the United States to that Government are so well settled, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 243 

and the points of diplomacy are so few, that that requisition will 
not be rigidly enforced. If the appointment can be obtained, I 
should be gratified to have it. Its salary, I suppose, would be more 
than the expenditures incident to the situation, and its duties 
would, I presume, imply no great difficulty. Success in the appli- 
cation will, I am aware, depend wholly on the influence which 
may be exerted by ones friends. But, as I understand it, such 
offices fall within the control of the department of State, and 
depend chiefly on the officer who occupies that department. With 
the delegation from this State, my acquaintance is not very inti- 
mate, nor very general. I knew Mr. Mangum when a boy, but 
since I came into life, I have known little of him. Of his disposi- 
tion in this matter, I can therefore form no opinion. With Mr. 
Rayner I am better acquainted than with almost any other Whig 
of our delegation in the House of Representatives, and I might 
hope for his assistance should no other person interfere. I have 
submitted this matter to you— have communicated with no one 
else— and would be guided by your advice in relation to the matter. 


From B. Baker, H. W. Miller, C. L. Hinton. U. 

Raleigh, N. C, 

Nov. 9th, 1841. 

The Whigs of Wake County have tendered the Hon'l George 
E. Badger a public Dinner as a token of their respect for his pri- 
vate character, and in approbation of his public Course, which he 
has accepted, and he has signified that on Saturday next it will 
be convenient for him to meet his friends. 

We have been appointed a Committee to say to you that it will 
afford much pleasure to those of your personal and political 
friends who may be present, to have your Company on that occa- 
sion & we do hope you can find it convenient to attend. 

We are with sentiments of 

high respect and esteem, 

Your Ob't. S'vts, 

244 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From David L. Swain. U. 

29 Nov., 1841. 

Your predecessor Judge Strange franked at my instance some 
hundreds of the annexed circular, 88 and Gov. Davis 89 when Sen- 
ator, was the medium of a protracted correspondence between Mr. 
Bancroft and myself on the subject of Am. History. 

I am preparing for publication in the Am. Quarterly Register 
at Boston, a catalogue of the graduates and of those who have 
reed, literary distinctions at this institution, from its foundation 
to the present time. 

Fortified by the precedents loco-foco and Whig, above referred 
to, I venture to beg of you as a Trustee, either to send me half 
a doz. franks to be used for the purpose stated and that only, or 
to let me transmit the papers to you at Washington, that you may 
send them from there under your frank. Doct. Montgomery 
(much to my surprize, I confess) tendered his services to us, in 
the latter mode. I did not avail myself of his kindness, but Dr. 
Mitchell did in various instances. 

My dispatches will be ready in two or three days. 

To David L. Swain. A. 

Washington City, 

Dec'r. 5th, 1841. 

Your letter was handed me after I set out from home, for this 
City. I send herewith several franks for disseminating the docu- 
ments of which [you] make mention, and I will with pleasure 
aid in sending abroad any other papers pertaining to the Univer- 
sity which you may forward to me here. 

-V- M, .*/. JjL Jt 


You wrote me last session for a copy of the census, etc. I was 
unable to procure one then, even for my own use. I will, if I can 
obtain it, send you one in a short time. 

The members of Congress are coming in. I believe there is 
nothing new in the political circles beyond what you see in the 

88 The letter was written on a printed letter of the executive committee of the 
Board of Trustees, dated April 15th., 1837, containing the curriculum, the entrance 
conditions, and the laws and regulations relating to the university. 

89 John Davis, of Massachusetts. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 245 

papers. There seems to be no prospect o£ a reunion between the 
Whigs & the President. 

I will be pleased to hear from you occasionally during the 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Washington City, 

Deer. 22nd, 1841. 

I had intended to have written you before this, but have been 
so much engaged that it has been omitted. 

In public affairs there is a great dearth of news. The Fiscal 
Project of the Sec. of the Treas. is in today. The report accom- 
panying it bears Webster's mark strongly, and is an ingenious 
appeal to the public. There has been no expression of opinion in 
relation to it, except Benton's attack when the President's mes- 
sage came in. It meets but little favor as yet, among the members 
of either party, but no prediction can be made, as to its ultimate 

Deer. 27th. The foregoing was written several days ago, when 
I was interrupted. I now resume, the Senate being in Session. 
Nothing new has occurred as yet, things are still in a state of 
quietude. The President has given thus far a dinner on each Fri- 
day. I had the honor to be present on the second occasion— thirty 
or Forty were there, taken about equally from each party. Wright 
of N. Y. being on the right hand, and Evans, 90 M[aine], on the 
left. He is playing, I think, for the Loco Focos, though he pro- 
fesses to stand indifferent between parties. 

We have taken lodgings on Penna. Av. not far from the Rail- 
road depot, in a small mess consisting of ourselves, Miss E. Wash- 
ington, and Gov. Morehead's family from Kentucky. There are 
more ladies connected with the members of Congress at this 
Session in the City than have ever been here before. The Winter 
however does not promise to be very gay, as the new Secretaries, 
with the exception of Webster, are boarders only in the City. 
Nevertheless, with so many families present, we can have abun- 
dant society, in a more quiet way. 

60 George Evans (1767-1867), of Maine, a graduate of Bowdoin, a lawyer, who had 
been speaker of the lower house of the legislature, Whig member of congress, 1829- 
1841, and was senator, 1841-1847. 

246 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Mr. Clay is here, and has been sick with a cold since the com- 
mencement of the Session untill today, when he is present in his 
seat. He will continue here not more than two months when 
Crittenden will come in to his place. His health is not perma- 
nently bad, but the result merely of cold contracted on his jour- 

The Locos profess to be in high spirits and so long as they do 
not nominate a Candidate for the Presidency, they will cohere, 
but when that takes place, there will danger of a severance. 

The events of this Session will try very much the strength of 
party connexions. The Tariff will be an apple of discord among 
the Whigs, and may produce a new explosion in the Cabinet. The 
Secretary of the Treasury being as you see, a Tariff man, and 
even higher toned, I learn, than his report indicates. 

The Fiscal project, you perceive, has gone into the hands of a 
Com' tee in the House, of whom a majority are friends of the 
President, or as they are called here, the Corporal's guard. The 
Madisonian complains of this; I don't know what they will pro- 
duce. The Senate has not yet determined what Com'tee to consign 
it to. 

Preston moved last week to print a number of extra copies of 
the Secretary's plan. Buchanan 91 asked delay, saying, that he de- 
signed to make some remarks and was then unwell. And on his 
motion it was postponed 'till today. 

I see that the Locos are calling meetings every where to send 
delegates to a Convention in Raleigh. Montgomery's faction in 
Orange, propose Brown for Gov. and condemn the relief of the 
Railroad Cos., etc., in the two last Legislatures, thereby giving 
a blow to some of the most prominent of their own party. Brown 
would be a stronger Candidate than Henry, 92 though Morehead 
can beat either, very easily. I think our friends should turn out 
in full force at their Convention in the Spring, or it will have a 
depressing effect upon the spirits of the party. 

91 James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, then a senator. 

92 Louis D. Henry. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 247 


From William Gaston. U. 

Jany. 5th, 1842. 

Since my arrival at this place I received a letter from Mr. Isaac 
Guion of Newbern stating that he was an applicant for the ap- 
pointment of purser in the Navy, and requesting from me any 
little aid I could afford him in effecting his object. This I trust 
will be received by you as an excuse for troubling you with this 

Mr. Guion is a young man, I suppose about 24 years of age, and 
now holds the office of Teller in the Merchant's Bank of New- 
bern, the duties of which I understand that he performs to the 
entire satisfaction of his employers. Altho' the salary attached 
to the office affords him a decent support, it does not furnish the 
means of improving his condition in life, and he is naturally 
solicitous to engage in some business which may prove more 
profitable. He is a good accountant, has an unimpeached charac- 
ter, and is of business habits. It would afford me much gratifica- 
tion if he could obtain the situation which he desires, and I 
entertain the confident belief that, if he should, the duties of it 
would be discharged with fidelity. 

You must, I think, have been acquainted with his father, John 
W. Guion. He was the Cashier of the Bank for many years, and 
no Institution ever had a more upright or faithful officer. At the 
time of his death, which occurred about two years since, he was 
among the oldest friends I had on earth, and a better man it has 
seldom happened to me to meet with. He left a family of many 
children, who had been carefully trained up in the paths of vir- 
tue, but left very slender portions wherewith to commence their 
career in life. 

I will thank you to exhibit this letter to Mr. Mangum and to 
Gen'l Saunders, both of whom, I believe, were well acquainted 
with the late Mr. Guion, and who I hope will feel an interest in 
the success of his son. 

Believe me, with great regard 

Your friend & obed't Serv't 

248 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

To David L. Swain. A. Swain Mss. 

Washington City, 

Jany. 6th, 1842. 

I desire to know what were the terms on which the Proc. money 
of our State was issued, and what were the causes which kept its 
credit up, or at least that of some of it, untill a particular period, 
I believe about 1808. Was it not a legal tender between individ- 
uals or receivable in payment of taxes, under the Laws which 
created it, notwithstanding the prohibition in the Constitution 
forbidding future ''issues of Bills of credit"? And did not our 
Banks for some time receive & use them as specie? I feel confident 
that there was some peculiarity in our Legislation, which kept a 
part of it equal to specie. But I have not the means here to make 
the investigation. 

My reason for desiring this, is that Mr. Calhoun in 1837 re- 
ferred to our paper money as an illustration of the success of 
Government paper, which he then considered as the best of all 

Will you do me the favor to give me your views of this subject, 
which I know you investigated thoroughly, during your Legisla- 
tive & Executive career. 

I desire also to know whether the Merchant's Bank at New 
Bern has suspended specie payments with the other Banks. My 
impression is that they have not suspended, but that exchange is 
no better between New Bern and New York, than between 
Raleigh and that City, thus contradicting certain theories now in 
vogue in the Country. 

Please inform me if you have this information, though I will 
write to New Bern for the same matter. 

There is but little new here. Woodbury is making a speech 
against "the Fiscality" as it is called, in which he is endeavouring 
to justify his policy in the Treasury department. He inveighs with 
vehemence against the plan of the Secretary, as all his party have 
done. Our friends are equally opposed to it, except the Webster 
section and the conservatives. All however say they won't take it 
as it is. But think that something may be made of it, "and the 
people expect something." It will be referred of course, but I do 
not now suppose that any thing effectual can be made of it. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 249 

Mangum and Barrow 1 have made pretty spicy attacks on Tyler, 
as you see, and the great body of our friends have no confidence 
in him. His entertainments embrace both parties, and about equal 
numbers at the same time. And he refuses to remove any more 
officers, & when vacancies occur, he nominates some personal 
favorites. In one or two instances persons removed by Harrison. 

From David L. Swain. U. 

Chapel Hill, 
Jan. 11th, 1841. [1842] 

Your favour of the 6th. was rec'd by this morning's mail. 

I recollect very distinctly Mr. Calhoun's reference to the history 
of our paper currency. I intended at the time it met my eye, to 
furnish a newspaper paragraph for some of our editors, but ulti- 
mately concluded to abide by the determination not to enter into 
political speculations, while in my present position. In 1828 and 
1829, when a member of the Ho. of Com. and again in 1834, at 
the instance of Mr. Wilder of Ga., I was induced to examine with 
some minuteness every source of information within my reach, in 
relation to our revolutionary Bills of credit. I have preserved 
many things, in various shapes, but they make parts of bound vols, 
that cannot be conveniently transmitted. I will give you some 
abstracts however, and if you need more particular information, 
will endeavour to supply it in answer to such inquiries as you 
may propound. 

The first emission of Bills of credit was in 1713, the last in 1785. 
The total amount emitted during this period of 42 years, was 
£29.133.350 or $72,833,375. The total value of real estate in N. C. 
in 1798, was $28,000,000, and the whole wealth of the State real 
and personal, was doubtless of less value than the amount of this 
debt. In Jan. 1778 the scale of depreciation was 3i/£ to 1— Jan. 
1779-6 to 1-Jan. 1780-32 to 1-Jan. 1781-210 to 1-Jan. 1782- 
800 to 1.— At the latter rate— (800 for one) it was rec'd and ab- 
sorbed at the Treasury in payment for entries of land. 

Of the various emissions made during the Revolution, or pre- 
vious to the adoption of the Federal Constitution, the two last 

1 Alexander Barrow (1801-1846), of Louisiana, a native of Tennessee, educated at 
West Point, lawyer and planter, served in the state legislature, and was United 
States senator, 1841-1846. 

250 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

(in 1783 and 1785) of £100.000 each, were made a lawful tender 
in the payment of debts. The Bills were of two denominations 
only, 40 S. or Five Dollar Bills and 20 s. or $2.50 Bills. These 
emissions were of course unaffected by the provision in the Fed- 
eral Constitution that no State "shall" emit Bills of credit. They 
continued a lawful tender, until they were absorbed in the pay- 
ment of subscriptions for Stock in the old State Bank in 1811, and 
burnt. Notwithstanding the immunity afforded by the tender 
laws at the period of the adoption of the Federal Constitution, 
they had depreciated at the rate of 2 for one, and the utmost 
extent which they appreciated at any time was 5 to 4. 

You doubtless are old enough to recollect when the old Forty 
Shilling Bills were current at $4, although it was an indictable 
offence, and various Scotch merchants were indicted and pun- 
ished at Hillsboro, for refusing to receive these at the rate of 8 
Shillings to the Dollar. 

The amount of Proclamation money (as it was called) in 
existence when our first Bank was introduced by stealth in 1804, 
under the name of "the Marine and Fire insurance company of 
Newbern," is supposed to have been between 2 & $300,000. The 
Banks of Newbern and Cape Fear divided 10 per-cent annu- 
ally until the establishment of this State Bank in 1810 by issuing 
notes ad libitum, and thrusting these brown, ragged, hideous, 
lawful tender at all applicants for gold and silver. 

The great object sought by the creation of the State Bank, was 
to deprive the Banks of New Bern and Cape Fear of this shield, 
and it was, as you doubtless recollect, one of the conditions of the 
charter that it should be redeemed by 1815. 

In 1811 Mr. Stanly 2 published his famous pamphlet entitled 
"Common Sense," in defence of "old Proc," and the old Bank, 
and against the Bank of the State. I regret that I cannot send the 
pamphlet. The following extract in the peculiar manner of that 
remarkable man, will give you some idea of the spirit and argu- 
ment of the whole. 

"It is alleged this paper money will not pass out of the State. 
This is true, and in my opinion this confinement of a certain 
portion of our Cash to our own market is a most valuable quality; 
the more so certainly that this fleeting commodity called money 
can have imparted to it, the quality of sticking by us." 

2 John Stanly. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 251 

"The man who has saved money enough to speculate, and goes 
to Virginia or Maryland to buy Negroes, the trader who is in- 
debted for goods to the Northern merchant, the foreign creditor 
or his attorney having pursued to judgment and Execution his 
delinquent creditor; the man who is about to leave the State, and 
who having sold his property here and removed, calls once a year 
for his payments; these are the men who want Dollars for their 
purposes abroad, and these, if not the whole, are certainly nearly 
the whole whose occasions require specie." 

"The first certain, inevitable consequence (of the withdrawal 
of this currency) will be to convert every existing debt due from 
the citizens of this State, not only judgments and executions, but 
bonds, notes and book accounts into a "hard money debt" and to 
expose the property of every unfortunate debtor to sale by exe- 
cution for Gold and Silver only." 

Prof. Roberts 3 who returned from Newbern on Monday last, 
thinks that the Merchants, is not a specie paying Bank, except so 
far as relates to a supply of change, but is not certain. 

So much in relation to what you; none with respect to informa- 
tion that I desire. 

And first will Mr. Spencer 4 send Prof. Phillips to West Point. 

Secondly, are we not entitled to some books among those pub- 
lished by Congress, that have not been sent us, and if we are not, 
cannot you obtain them for us? The executive and legislative 
documents of each Session, are transmitted regularly and we have 
received a copy of Gales and Seatons edition of State Papers and 
the two Vols, of Clarke & Ferns Doc. History. We need particu- 
larly a late edition of Gordon's Digest, and more especially a copy 
of the Diplomatic Correspondence of the Revolution, and would 
be thankful for other favours. Are we not entitled to copies of 
these and of Gales and Seatons Register of Debates? 

If you revive your Bill in relation to monuments to Gen'l Nash 
and Gen'l Davidson, is not the Campus of our University, the 
most appropriate location? 

3 John Jones Roberts (1819-1908), a native of New Bern, graduate of the uni- 
versity, and professor, 1841-1842. He later became an Episcopal minister, and spent 
the rest of his life teaching, in Massachusetts, and New York. 

*John Canfield Spencer (1788-1855), of New York, a graduate of Union College, 
lawyer, soldier in the War of 1812, Democratic member of congress, 1817-1819, 
member of, and speaker of, the state assembly; secretary of state of New York, 
secretary of war, 1841-1843, secretary of the treasury, 1843-1844. In 1844 Tyler 
nominated him to the supreme court, but the Whig majority in the Senate, enraged 
by his support of Tyler, refused to confirm him. 

252 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

I fear that my caligraphy gives little evidence of the favourable 
effects of time, upon my physical constitution. 

From William W. Holden. 5 U. 

Raleigh, 18th January, 1842. 

Application has been made to me by several Whigs here to 
engage with Mr. Lemay 6 in the Editorship of the Star. 

Mr. Miller has kindly proffered his services and influence in 
the premises, and has written to our Whig delegation in Congress 
upon the subject. Mr. Lemay is perfectly well qualified to conduct 
the Star, but his other engagements are so numerous that he has 
little time to bestow upon it. The object of this communication 
is, to request you to use your influence with the Whig delegation, 
and to impress upon the party in this State the necessity of a plan 
similar to the one I propose. 

If the Whigs will give me $200 and Lemay $100 I will engage 
to do all I can through the ensuing campaign; and this sum, I am 
persuaded, can easily be obtained. If the Whig delegation should 
take the matter up, and write to Mr. Lemay urging the plan, I 
make no doubt he will assent to it. 

Be pleased to inform me as soon as possible with regard to it. 

Very truly your friend 

Speech on Roanoke Inlet. 7 

In Senate, 

January 28th., 1842. 

Mr. Graham, on leave, introduced a bill making an appro- 
priation to reopen Roanoke Inlet. 

5 William Woods Holden (1818-1892), a native of Orange, a Whig editor, and 
then the editor of the influential North Carolina Standard, of Raleigh, the father 
of secession" in the State, who boasted, not without reason, that politically, he had 
"the power to kill and make alive." Defeated for the Democratic nomination for 
governor and senator in 1858, he became a Unionist, and opponent of secession. He 
was a delegate to the convention of 1861, and voted for secession. Always opposed 
to the war, and hostile to the Confederate government, he was a peace candidate 
for governor in 1864, but was defeated. Johnson appointed him provisional gover- 
nor, and he was defeated at the first election. Having become a radical Republican, 
he was elected in 1868. In 1871 he was impeached, and removed from office. 

6 Thomas J. Lemay edited several papers in North Carolina. He later moved to 

7 From Congressional Globe, January 28th, 1842. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 253 

Mr. G. said that, although he had given notice of his bill 
several weeks since, he had delayed asking leave to introduce it, 
until he could obtain certain information which he desired, from 
a distinguished Civil Engineer, who had made a survey and report 
under the Legislature of North Carolina, on the subject of re- 
opening Roanoke Inlet. The work was one of deep concern to 
the people of that State, whose General Assembly, at each of its 
last two sessions, had adopted resolutions urging it upon the at- 
tention of Congress as, in the highest degree, important to the 
commerce and navigation of the Union. He held in his hand a 
copy of these resolutions, and of the report of the Engineer, 
(Major Gwynn) to which he had already alluded, and wished to 
lay these on the table for the information of the Senate, and of 
the Committee to whom they might be referred. He would, there- 
fore, enter into no discussion of the object of the bill at present, 
except to remark that Roanoke Inlet was once the direct channel 
of communication from Albermarle Sound to the Atlantic Ocean; 
that, in process of time, it had been filled up, and the waters of 
the Sound were compelled to seek an outlet by forcing their way 
southwardly to Pamlico Sound, and thence through Ocracoke 
Inlet to the sea. By the change which had taken place, vessels 
from the Albermarle, or any of its tributaries, bound to New 
York, or any northern ports, were obliged to take this southern 
direction out to sea at Ocracoke, and to perform a voyage of more 
than one hundred and twenty miles to return to the latitude of 
Roanoke Inlet or Nags Head, encountering in its progress the 
expense of lighterage over shallows, the risks of a narrow, difficult, 
and often changing channel, before reaching the ocean, and then 
the peril of doubling Cape Hatteras, which mariners more dread 
than almost any part of the American Coast. This bill contem- 
plates reopening the ancient entrance to Albermarle Sound, near 
sixty miles north of Cape Hatteras, by proposing a passage 
through a sand beach, about one-half or three-quarters of a mile 
in extent, and thus avoid all the difficulties and dangers of the 
present course of navigation. It will be seen, in the report of the 
engineer, that the commerce, now laboring under these impedi- 
ments, amounted annually to at least $3,000,000., that it fur- 
nished employment to more than 100,000 tons shipping, is one 
of the best nurseries of American seamen in all of our coasting- 
trade, yet that the burdens under which it is carried on, and the 
frightful loss of human life which attends it, for want of the old 
Inlet, are almost incredible. 

254 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Whether, therefore, the work proposed be regarded as opening 
a new harbor of refuge for our commerce from an enemy in time 
of War, or from the frequent and violent storms of that Coast, as 
relieving our seamen and vessels from the dangers of shipwreck, 
or as freeing the commerce of one of the most productive sections 
of the Country,— a section more extensive in territory, and more 
populous than several of the States of the Union,— from burdens of 
of the most oppressive character, it equally demanded a favorable 
and immediate attention of the Government. 

Newspaper Comment. B 

"Hon. Wm. A. Graham, of N. C— This Senator is the brother 
of James Graham, who has long represented the "Buncombe" 
district in the popular branch of Congress, and has a number of 
years been an active politician. Previous to his elevation to the 
high position he now occupies, he was elected to the State Legis- 
lature, and was chosen Speaker of the lower house. He is in the 
prime of life, of medium size, light hair and, complexion, blue 
eyes, very expressive— handsome forehead, high and arched. His 
features are of the Grecian cast, and the expression of his face is 
strikingly agreeable and intelligent. According to all physiological 
rules, he must be a man possessing a good deal more than common 
intellectual qualifications. He is exceedingly modest in his de- 
meanor, pleasant in his private intercourse, happy in his disposi- 
tion, and enticing in his manners. He is very studious, and enjoys 
a very high legal reputation; is conversant with constitutional 
law, and has a clear, sound and philosophical mind. There is 
nothing about him of a doubtful character,— rather avoids than 
seeks applause,— and every movement he makes is founded upon 
a substantial basis. As a Senator he will, I imagine, be found more 
useful in the committee rooms than in debate, though there is no 
reason why he should not take an active part in discussion; for he 
has a good voice and a pleasing delivery; and what is better than 
all, a logical mind, highly cultivated. Let him be where he may, 
he will be always sure to command profound respect, both for the 
beauty of this intellect, and the excellency of his heart." 

8 From the Hillsborough Recorder, February 3rd, 1842. Quoted from the New 
York Mercury. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 255 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Washington City, 

Feby 10th, 1842. 

My engagements have prevented me from writing you as often 
I had wished. The events transpiring here have not been of much 
general interest, but there has been the customary amount of 
gossip, scandal, etc. 

My children have not been well for a week or two past. John 
now has the measles, and I presume of course the two younger 
children are to take it. Jo. has had an attack of fever which yielded 
to a dose of calomel, and some lighter medicines. 

Susan and Cousin Eliza are quite well, and are somewhat 
pleased with the society of Washington. The latter has been to 
numerous parties, and amuses us much with a fac simile of the 
dancing of Lord Morpeth, 9 who is now here, and who is said to 
be so proficient in the saltative art. He seems to be an unassuming 
gentleman, and takes great interest in the observation of our 

There has been no public entertainment for him, but he has 
received hospitalities from many gentlemen in private. Dickens 
(Boz) has been feted magnificently at Boston, and is to be again 
at New York. 

Mofritt the Methodist preacher (Chaplain of the House) is a 
great lion here just now— and is a real stage player in the pulpit. 
The crowds which gather to hear him are greater than attend at 
any of the discussions of Congress. And he is as much a subject of 
Tea Table chat as any other gentleman who has separated from 
his wife, and is under suspicions of bad morals. He has a musical 
voice, sings like a Nightingale, and recites poetry in the true 
theatrical manner & elocution, and strings together all the Heroes, 
demigods, Poets, philosophers, & sages of antiquity, touches on 
gravitation, steam, electricity, etc., and thus fills out an hour and 
a half. There have been some criticisms on him in the New York 
express, which are Capital caricatures. 

There is no prospect of an agreement between Congress and the 
President on the Currency and Finances. He is so poor an imbe- 

9 George William Frederick Howard (1802-1864), 7th Earl of Carlisle, who, until 
he succeeded to the title, had the courtesy title of Lord Morpeth. He had been 
fifteen years in Parliament, had been chief secretary for Ireland, and was later lord 
lieutenant. He spent a year in America. 

256 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

cile that there is no such thing as keeping terms with him. His 
nominations are made, with reference to his own popularity 
solely. We shall be able to disappoint him on some of them, and 
but for Webster's control in a part of New England he would not 
have the semblance of support, in the Senate. Some of his favor- 
ites we shall blow up— others will pass with reluctance. He seems 
disposed now to make some removals, but appoints loose Whigs 
instead from whom he exacts fealty to him. 

Waddy Thompson has been nominated as Minister to Mexico, 
Washington Irving to Spain, and will be both confirmed. A Mr. 
Blackford 10 (one of the numberless tribe of Virginians who ab- 
sorb all the offices of Government) is nominated to Guatamala. 

Bradford n of Phila is nominated for district Judge, in place 
of Binney, who declines. Botts has placed Upshur in deep diffi- 
culty by his last publication, proving that he has been an unquali- 
fied and boasted advocate of a dissolution of the Union. 

The Secretaries are all Boarders in the City, except Webster, 
and I believe, entertain no company. It is rumored that the Secy. 
Treas. will go out upon an office. He is certainly unfit for his 
place, and I have it from unquestionable authority that Webster 
wrote every word of his Report on the Fiscal agent. 

You have seen the proceedings of the House in the case of 
Adams' Petition to dissolve the Union. He is a great nuisance, 
and the prosecution has been a great force. On yesterday Gilmer 12 
Proffitt, 13 etc., asked to be excused from serving on the Com'tee 
of Foreign affairs with him, and were taken at their word. I do 
not know who succeeds them. 

Mr. Clay will resign about the last of March and be succeeded 
by Crittenden. He will not go to N. C. this Spring, as some of our 
friends desire, but tells me in private that he wishes next winter 
to go to New Orleans and Cuba and will probably return by way 
of Charleston, and visit Raleigh during the Session of the Legis- 

10 William Matthews Blackford (d. 1864), of Lynchburg, Virginia, lawyer and 
editor, appointed charge d'affaires to New Grenada, and served from 1841 to 1844. 
After his return, he edited the Lynchburg Virginian. 

11 Thomas Bradford. 

32 Thomas Walker Gilmer (1802-1844), of Virginia, who was a Whig member of 
the house of delegates, 1829-1836, 1839-1840, (speaker, 1839-40), governor, 1840- 
1841, member of congress, 1841-1844, secretary of the navy, 1844. He was killed a 
few days later, by the explosion on the "Princeton." 

13 George H. Proffit (1807-1847), of Indiana, a native of Louisiana, merchant, 
lawyer, member of the lower house of the legislature, 1831-1832, 1836-1838, was 
a Whig member of congress, 1839-1843. He was nominated minister to Brazil, but 
was not confirmed. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 257 

Our delegation here feel much anxiety that there should be a 
respectable turn out of our friends to the Convention at Raleigh 
in April. We have also suggested the propriety of at once nomi- 
nating Clay for the Presidency. Tyler has not only disappointed 
us on the currency, but withdrawn from us his confidence, set 
himself up for reelection contrary to his repeated and vehement 
declarations before his election. Nor has he, in twelve months 
from the beginning of his administration proposed a single meas- 
ure of reform or economy. Will you think of the propriety of an 
immediate nomination, and if you do not go to Raleigh, suggest 
your views of it to our friends there. If it will not aid us, it 
should not be done, but would it not be an advantage to have a 
distinct flag up in the summer elections? 

I have not seen Mr. Henrys acceptance of the nomination for 
Governor, but am told that it goes beyond Allison and Wheelers 
report at Raleigh. A great effort will be made upon Craven, 
Northampton, Halifax, Orange, Stokes, Surry, and Rowan, but 
with united action we shall be able to carry the State. 

Old Poindexter 14 of Miss, has been introduced at my boarding 
House within a day and is in a bad humor. He came here last 
March for an office— was soured with Harrison for not giving it 
to him. When Tyler succeeded he had much influence over him, 
and was appointed one of a Commission to investigate the N. York 
Custom House. He says now that he has discovered the most 
astounding frauds in the Custom House, but that as he implicates 
Curtis as deeply as Hoyt, Webster (a devoted friend of C's) has 
prevailed on the President not to receive the Report. He has 
called twice, and didn't see Tyler; has written and received an 
answer, but that is not satisfactory, and he swears that he will not 
call again untill he is sent for. If he is not appeased he will make 
an explosion. You have perhaps seen in the papers that he quar- 
relled with one of the other Com'ers and challenged him; and 
accuses him of bribery, etc. 

This is but a part of the running gossip. I must defer more for 
the present. 

"George Poindexter (1779-1855), a native of Virginia, who, after settling in 
Mississippi, was attorney general, member of the assembly, and delegate in congress, 
1807-1813. He was a soldier in the War of 1812, Federal judge, 1813-1817, member of 
congress, 1817-1819, governor, 1819-1821, United States senator, 1830-1835. 

258 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From George McClellan. A. 


Feby. 14, 1842. 

Although my attachment to our good Whig cause has been so 
often discouraged by untoward circumstances it has never been 
thoroughly disheartened. I still feel impelled to go onwards & 
try once more for success: and I have promised my friends to take 
to the stump for that noble old fellow Henry Clay in the next 
campaign. You must excuse me therefore, for troubling you with 
this hasty expression of my sentiments upon a matter which is 
likely to affect our prospects seriously in this district, if not in the 
whole State. Many of our best friends have thought it very im- 
politic to quarrel with Mr. Tyler upon the now odious Bank 
question, and prefer to let him go quietly with a decent appear- 
ance of party support through his term of office. They disapprove 
of any such opposition as may tend to break up the integrity of 
our party, and heartily desire to preserve an unbroken phalanx for 
a sally at the next Presidential election. Among the chief of these 
has been my old friend and neighbor Thos, Bradford, Esq. who 
I know has always been the unwavering friend & admirer of Mr. 
Clay, and upon whose influence in our cause I calculate as fully 
as upon the coming seasons. Now to allow him to be put down by 
the influence of any of Mr. Clay's avowed friends in the Senate 
will destroy every prospect I have indulged of a final triumph of 
my hopes. The whole of our large band of Judicious and temper- 
ate Whigs who have preferred to keep John Tyler as long as pos- 
sible in the ranks of their party will become disgusted, and I fear 
will leave us to our fate. 

But I need say nothing to you on this point. What I desire 
particularly to state to you is my knowledge of Mr. Bradford as a 
man, and his claims for your support of his nomination before 
the Senate as a Judge of the District Court of the U. S. Notwith- 
standing all the representations which may have been made to 
you I beg you to believe that the testimony of all the worthy of 
the Bench and Bar here is absolutely & unqualifiedly in favour 
of his thorough qualifications for the appointment. There can be 
no doubt of his learning, abilities, or (what is of most conse- 
quence in this case) of his John Locke's strong, round-about com- 
mon sense. The excellence of his character as a gentleman and a 
Christian cannot be questioned. I know no one of greater purity 

The Papers of William A. Graham 259 

and honour in this City. He is descended from one of the most 
distinguished families in our Country. You must be familiar with 
the brilliant reputation of his former Uncle, Wm. Bradford, 15 
the Attorney General of the U. States under the elder Adams. 
But his own virtue will prove his best commendation. Since 25 
years ago his brother, the late Samuel Bradford failed, involving 
him to a very large amount by endorsements in two of our prin- 
cipal Banks. Since that period Thomas Bradford, although poor, 
has devoted one half of his entire professional earnings to the dis- 
charge of these debts, for which he never received any advantage 
whatever. I know that he has paid more than 60,000 dollars in 
this way for the pay't of his endorsements in principal & interest. 

In the mean time he has raised and educated a large and ac- 
complished family of children by unremitting toil, without grum- 
bling to his friends, or asking the Banks to abate a shilling of 
their claims. The public will respect such a man; and his numer- 
ous friends will indulge feelings of resentment against any body 
of men who shall appear to lay the heavy hand [of] opposition 
upon him. 

I lay this disinterested statement before your impartial mind, 
and beg you to present my warmest regards to Mr. Clay, & men- 
tion the facts to him. 

My excellent old friend Mr. Chauncey has written upon this 
subject to Mr. Huntington; 16 and I beg you to read that letter 
for a corroboration of my testimony. 

From Elisha Mitchell. U. 

University of N. Ca., Feby. 16th, 1842 

I have been engaged during a considerable part of a week in 
unpacking and arranging a collection of minerals purchased for 
us in Vienna by J. Randolph Clay, 17 lately Charge'd' Affairs of 

15 William Bradford (1755-1795), of Philadelphia, a graduate of Princeton, 
Revolutionary soldier, state attorney general, 1780-1791, judge of the state supreme 
court, 1791-1794, United States attorney general, 1794-1795. 

16 Jabez Williams Huntington (1788-1847), of Connecticut, a graduate of Yale, 
Whig member of congress, 1829-1834, judge of State supreme court, 1834-1840, 
United States senator, 1840-1847. 

"John Randolph Clay (1808-1885), a native of Philadelphia, lived with John 
Randolph of Roanoke, his godfather, while he was educated in Virginia, and went 
with him to Russia as secretary of legation. He was charge there, 1836-1837, 
secretary of legation at Vienna, 1838-1845, and acting charge, 1839-1842, again 
secretary of legation at St. Petersburg, 1845-1847, charge at feru, J 847- 1853, and 
minister, 1853-1860, 

260 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

the United States in that City. They have come to us in good 
order and the whole business appears to have been well executed 
for us. 

I wish to advise him of their safe arrival and perhaps engage 
him to make other purchases. When the appointment of Mr. 
Jenifer 18 was announced in the papers it was stated particularly 
that Mr. Clay was retained as Secretary of Legation, but when 
Mr. Jenifer sailed for Europe no great while since, he was said 
to be accompanied by some person (I forget whom) as Secretary 
of Legation. 

You can I presume easily ascertain whether Mr. Clay has been 
or is to be removed and whether therefore a letter from me is 
likely to find him in Vienna as also whether it will be of any 
use to correspond with him about further purchases. Will you 
do me this favour and inform me at an early date? 

Furthermore, I procured from Russia to be exhibited to the 
classes three Platinum coins— 12. 6. and 3. Rubles. I should be 
very glad to inform them at the same time what the inscription 
and legend are; and with a view to that have copied them as they 
appear on the larger coin. The word Rubles I, can make out, and 
I suppose a part of the legend to state that the platinum consti- 
tuting the coin is from the Oural mountains. The only Russian 
book we have is the N. Testament in Ancient and Modern Russ. 

You will not wonder therefore that I should be at a stand. 

I have formed the opinion of M. Bodisco, 19 the Russian Am- 
bassador that he is a worthy man and well liked in and about 
Washington with the exception that his having married so young 
and pretty a lady displeases the younger portion of the hangers- 
on about the public offices, who would have preferred that she 
should be the wife of some one of their own numbers. 

Could you get this inscription interpreted for me, the pro- 
nunciation in English letters and the meaning either from M. 
Bodisco or from some one of the attaches of the Legation, or is 
such proceeding altogether improper and preposterous? you will 

I had even thought of going farther, and getting you to ask M. 
Bodisco, if he had an old Russian spelling book to give it to me, 
or if he were going to send to Russia for one for his boys to send 

M Daniel Jennifer (1791-1855), of Maryland. After service in the legislature, he 
was a Whig member of congress, 1831-1833, 1835-1841. He was minister to Austria, 
1841-1845. He fought a duel with Jesse A. Bynum of North Carolina. 

w M. A. de Bodisco. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 261 

for me too. But suppose that such begging of a spelling-book from 
a foreign Ambassador, by a professor in an University through 
the medium of a venerable Senator might be a thing unheard of 
in the Annals of Diplomacy. I abandoned the idea altogether. 

From James C. Turrentine. 20 U. 


February 16th, 1842. 

I have made out a list of voters as well as I could remember as 
to their polaticks and marked the letters W. for Whig, Sc V. for 
VanBuren, opposite their names. I have tried to select the young 
men and those who did not take political news papers. I have 
tried to class them as to the proper post office as you will see. I 
have no doubt failed in some instances, in remembering their 
Polaticks & the proper office, Yet I think it will be correct in the 
main. I should have liked that you could have had the list 
early er but my business prevented. Nothing new here. Your 
people are well as far as I know. 


Voters at Hillsborough election Aug't. 1841. 

W. John N. Clark V. Robert Hastings 

W. Alexr. M. Kirkland W. Tyrie B. Ray 

W. And. Mickel W. Lawrence Kinion 

W. John Bain W. Anderson Armstrong 

W. James Webb jr. W. Charles L. Freeland 

W. John Douglass W. Thomas Griffin jr. 

W. Alvis Bishop W. Arch'd McCawley 

W. A. F. Long W. John Brown 

W. George McCawley V. Alvis Durham 

W. Henry Webb W. Harrison Scott 

W. Allen Petty W. Eaton Walker 

W. Benjamin Kinion W. Henry Witherspoon 

W. James Collins W. Duncan Nichols 

W. Thos. D. Cate V. Allen Collins 

80 Sheriff of Orange County. 


N. C. Department of Archives and History 

V. Stephen Clark 

W. Tho. W. Holden 

W. John Wilkerson 

V. William James 

V. Joseph McCullock 

V. Williamson Burton 

W. Wilson Jackson 

W. William H. Thompson 

V. James W. Clark 

V. James Thompson (of Josh 

W. James Jackson (Stiller 

W. Paul Kinion 

W. Andrew Borland 

W. James H. Pratt 

V. John Duly 

W. Cameron Craig 

V. Porter Thompson 

W. David Hayes 

W. Adam Douglass 

V. General Baker 

V. Willie Andrews 

W. Nath'l D. Bain 

V. Nathaniel Bain 

W. Thomas C. Hayes 

W. James Long 

W. Charles Long 

V. Richard Williams 

W. John I. Freeland 

W. William Duskin 

V. David D. Paul 

V. William Gatler 

V, Frederick Williams 

W. William Dixon 

W. Wm. H. Holden 

V. Lemuel Pickett 

W. Jno. U. Smith 

V. Hugh C. Reeves 

V. Sidney Tapp 

W. Andrew Shanklin 

W. William Wolf 

W, Thomas Long 

W. Thomas Pratt 

W. John Walker 

W. William R. Walker 

W. James Sykes (of Tho. 

W. Hugh Faucett 

W. John C. Latta 

W. Silas M. Sink 

W. Alex'r Dixon 

V. David McKee 

W. Stephen Jackson 

W. David Tinnen 

W. John Sykes 

V. Samuel Thompson 

V. Charles Jordan 

V. Calvin Hill 
V. Wm. Ward 
V. Rich'd Cheek 

Voters at Chapel Hill election ) 


V. Dr. Henry Lloyd 
V. Green Andrews 
W. Irai Ellis 
W. Wilson Watson 
V. Chas. L. Cooley 
W. Catlett C. Tinner 
W. Thomas Hogan, jr. 
W. Pinkney Sykes 
V. Duncan Anderson 
V. Wm. F. Smith 
V. Wm. H. Brown 
W. Julius Watson 
W. Alex'r Borland 
W. Jno. Hobbs (David 
V. Abisha Faucette 
V. Henry Cheek 
V. Wm. F. Jones jr. 
V. Thompson Maris 
V, Alex'r Findley 

The Papers of William A. Graham 



V. Abel Madray 

W. Thomas Faucett 

V. Josiah Madray 

W. Jno. Cate (of Milly 

V. Camel Lloyd 

W. David Roach 

V. Jehiel Atwater 

W. Rich'd A. Standford 

V. Thomas D. Faucette 

W. Elijah Pickard 

V. Henry Andrews jr. 

V. Sidney Lindsey 

W. William Strain 

V. David Anderson 

V. William Brewer 

W. Henry Whitted 

W. Alex'r Cheek 

V. James N. Strayhorn 

W. John Morrow 

V. William Woodard 

V. Jno. Andrews 

W. David W. Craig 

W. Thomas Weaver 

W. Jno. Faucette (Sam'l 

W. Thomas Burrhus 

W. David Lockhart 

V. Alfred Boothe 

W. Daniel Thompson 

W. Matthew McCawley 

W. Arch'd Borland 

W. James Crabtree 

W. James N. Craig 

W. Wm. O. McCawley 

W. Joseph L. Turner 

V. George Nevills 

W. Samuel Smith 

V. Charles Nevills 

W. Robert Faucette 

W. Wm. S. Bradshaw 

W. James P. Clark 

V. Wm. Perry 

W. Calvin Smith 

W. Hosea C. Smith 

W. Samuel Holman 

W. Jno. Crawford, jr. 

W. and C. Murdock 

W. Wm. P. Morrow 

V. Ralph Thompson 

W. Dr. Alex'r Morrow 

V. Sam'l Thompson (of 



W. Thomas Brewer, jr. 

Lindley's Store— 

W. Jno. Moore 

Jno. Newlands P. 0. 

V. Geo. B. Morrow 

W. Jonathan Zachary 

W. Alfred Pickard 

W. Dr. Abner Holton 

W. Wm. Smith 

W. Merritt Roberson, Sen. 

W. James S. Morrow 

V. John Bingham 

W. Pvichd. Howard 

W. Oliver Newland 

V. Jno. J. Roberson 

W. Brice Carter 

W. And. M. Steel 

V. Miles Davis 

W. Saurin Standford 

W. Samuel Kirkland 

W. Sidney Whitted 

V. Benjamin McCawley 

V. Berry Andrews 

V. Stephen Lloyd 

V. John Pickard 

W. C. W. Snipes 

V. Thomas Thompson 

(of Jos 

W, Wm, I, Hogan 



N. C. Department of Archives and History 

V. Hawkin Strowd 
W. Thos. E. Oldham 
V. Samuel Bradshaw 
W. John Lloyd 
W. James Newland 
W. Daniel Foust 
V. Robert Cheek 
W. William Bradshaw 
W. Hiram Johnston 
V. James Stewart 
V. Robert Grahams 
W. Isaac Holt 
W. Peter Foust 
V. Jno. Cable 
W. William Johnston 
W. Thomas Woody 
V. Samuel Stockard 
W. James Roberson 
W. Nathaniel Woody 
W. John Foust 

Cummings election ) 
John Stafford's ) 

Snow Camp P. O. ) 

W. John Kirkpatrick 
W. William Wells, jr. 
W. Fred Stafford 
W. William Thompson 
W. Sam'l Kirkpatrick, jr. 
W. Jeremiah Piggott 
V. Thomas Lloyd 
W. Jno. W. Pritchard 
W. William Weaver 

Voters at Morrow's ) 

election ) 

Clover Garden Post ) 

Office ) 

W. Jesse Durham 
W. John Morris 
W. James Morris 

W. Wm. M. Crutchfield 

Fogleman' s Election 
Hunt's House P. Office 
V. Jno. S. Fogleman 
V. Louis Wilson 
V. Rich'd Leavins 
V. Michael Roberson 
V. Henry Fogleman 
W. Michael Shoffner 
W. James F. Shelton 
V. David Bennett 
W. Peter Shaffner 
W. John Webster 
W. William Webster 

Michael Holt's P. O. 
W. Daniel Albright F. R.) 
V. David Graves 
W. W. A. Carigan 
W. David Andrews 
V. David Roberson 
W. Jno. A. Crutchfield 
W. Henry Edwards, jr. 
V. Alfred Thompson 
V. Patterson Thompson 
V. Jno. J. Durham 
V. Wm. P. Thompson 
V. Henry Crutchfield 

Albright's P. O. 
W. Fisher Clendinen 
V. Thomas Truitt 

Haw River P. O. 
W. Wm. M. Rogers 
W. Jeremiah Harden 
W. Rob't F. White 
W. Daniel Harden 
W. Geo. W. White 
W. Jno. Harden 
V. Jeremiah Bason 
W. Jno. G. Albright 

The Papers of William A. Graham 


W. Samuel White, jr. 

V. James Jones 

V. Jno. Cheek, majr 

W. Rich'd Glass 

W. Stephen Glass 

V. Joseph B. McMurray 

W. Robert Moore 

V. Jno. Thomas 

W. Maddison Phillips 

W. Martin Ghaskill 

W. Peter Foust 

W. George Ghaskill 

Patterson's Store 
P. Office 
V. David Patterson 
W. Calvin Johnston 
V. William Mosier 
V. Standford Steel 
V. Thomas Steel 
V. Isaac Patterson 
W. Samuel Coble 
V. George Patterson 

C. F. Faucett's P. O. 
W. William Jones 
W. Abel Faucette 
V. John Raney 
W. Thomas Grayham 
V. Lewis Dishong 
W. Uriah V. Bacon 
V. Jacob O. Hurdle 
V. Phillip Crawford 
V. Jesse Gant 
W. James Faucette, jr 
V. Benjamin Raney 
W. Thomas White 
V. Josiah Hurdle 
V. John Crawford 
V. William Crawford 
W. Martin Coble 
V. Jacob Huffman 
W. James Ferrell 

W. Daniel Shaffner 
W. Emanuel Clapp 
V. Jacob Neese 
W. William Smith 
W. Julius Coley 
W. William Coble 
V. Martin Neese 
W. David Clapp 

Albright's P. Office 
V. George Albright 
V. Jacob Rich 
V. Jno. Holt 
W. George Lay 
W. Samuel Curtis 
W. Joseph Holt 
W. Peter Boon 
W. Lewis Boon 
V. William Tarpley 
W. Jeremiah Holt 
W. John S. Turrentine 
W. David L. Ray 
W. Willis Sellars, jr 
W. William Foust 
V. Wm. Holmes 
W. Milton Holt 

Mason Hall P. O. 

W. Thomas McCracken (Tho.) 

V. Willie Mebane 

V. John Nelson 

V. Paisley Nelson 

V. Anderson Thompson 

W. Joseph W. Steel 

V. John Hamilton 

W. James McCadams 

W. Rowan Tate 

W. Joseph Tate, jr 

W. Thomas Tate 

V. Wm. H. Goodloe 

W. Green D. Jordan 

W. John A. Mebane 

W. Wm. S. Moore 


N. C. Department of Archives and History 

V. Jno. M. Paul 

V. Paisley Kirkpatrick 

W. James Johnston 

V. John Stevens 

V. Jno. Corden, jr 

V. Henderson Fowler 

V. Hugh Kirkpatrick 

V. William Kirkpatrick 

W. Rutherford Love 

W. John Adams, jr 

V. N evils Courton 

V. Grandison Garrison 

W. Bedford McCray 

V. Henry Garrison 

V. Dickey Hurdle 

W. Johnston McCawley 

W. Wagstaff Maynard 

V. Anderson Watson 

V. Obediah Hurdle 

V. Harrison Muden 

V. Jno. Griffis 

V. Geo. Outlaw 

W. Jonathan Harvey 

V. Jacob Hurdle, jr 

V. George Jordan 

V. Jno. Faucette (of Wm. 

W. George Walace 

V. Jesse Tate 

V. Jacob Dickey 

V. John W. Shaw 

Post Office at 
Trollinger's Bridge P. O. 
W. Henderson Crawford 
W. George McCray 
V. Samuel Crawford 
W. Willis Sellars sr 
W. Jacob Holt 
W. Abel Griffis 
W. Henry Bason 
W. Stephen White 

P. Office at Col. 
James Moore's. 
W. William Brannock 
V. Thomas Palmer, jr 
V. Tho. Palmer, Sen'r 
W. Thomas Moore 
V. James Ross 
V. Andrew Ross 
V. David Barber 
V. Thomas Ross 
W. Edw. Brannock 
V. Caleb Busick 
V. John Ireland 
V. Thomas Danilly 
V. Sam'l P. Foster 

Lee's P. Office 
W. Wm. Anderson 
W. Sam'l Hargraves 
V. Empson Walker 
W. Wm. Ward 
V. Lambert Murray 
V. John Benson 
V. Thomas Bird 
W. Juniah Hale 
V. John Enocks 
W. William Eccles 

P. Office Cedar Grove 
W. Tho. W. Hughes 
V. William Roberts 
V. Asahel Moore 
V. Henry Malone 
V. Spency Henslee 
V. Sam'l P. Moore 
V. Thomas Pope 
V. David A. Taylor 
W. James Crawatt 
V. Samuel Dunn 
V. Joseph R. Hester 

P. Office Sam'l R. Wood's, 
V. William Jordan 

The Papers of William A. Graham 


V. Robert Faucette 
V. Sam'l McBroom 
V. Sam'l Madden 
W. Rich'd Breeze 
W. David W. Jordan 
V. Hugh Woods 
V. John M. Ray 
V. Charles Ray 
V. James Ray 
W. Nelson P. Hale 
V. Joseph Brown 
W. Ezekiel Laws 
W. Cyrus Laws 
V. Elza Harris 
W. Thos. Carrington 
V. Hugh Montgomery 
W. Jonathan Nichols 
V. James Montgomery 
V. John Woods 
V. Joseph Medding 
V. Alex'r Robinson 
W. Jno. B. Leathers 
W. William McKee 
V. James Woods 
W. Felix G. Wilson 
V. Mark Parish 
W. Robert Hale, jr 
W. Person R. Nichols 
V. Charles Wilson 

Red Mountain P. Office 

V. Squire D. Umstead 

W. Hinton Mangum 

W. Wm. D. Parker 

W. Jno. Barnwell 

W. Rob't Morrow 

V. Noah Mitchell 

W. Rob't Tate 

V. James McCadams 

V. David McCadams Sen'r. 

V. Shadrack Ward 

V. Robert Whitted 

W. Albert G. Bird 
W. Beaulort Benson 
W. James Ward 
V. Allen Compton 
V. Jno. Squires 
V. Wm. Benson 
V. Hugh McCadams 

Horner's election 
W. Thomas Garrard 
W. John Peed 
W. Augustin Riggs 
V. Ellis Roberts 

Pratts. Burgh P. O. 

W. Duke Glenn 

V. Andrew Turner (Israel) 

V. Joseph Procktor 

V. Jno. P. Cole 

V. Fred. Horner 

V. David R. Allison 

V. Edward Riley 

V. Wm. McCullock 

V. Bogan Ray 

W. Wm. Barlow 

W. Joseph Barlow 

Turner's Mill Post Office. 

V. Washington King 

W. John Collins 

V. Harvey Roundtree 

W. Washington Laws 

W. John Wilson 

W. James Ray, jr 

W. Eli Carrol 

W. Baldy Nichols 

W. Wesley Carden 

W. Jesse B. Geer 

V. Anderson Malone 

W. Harris Woods 

V. Gray Barber 

V. Hiram Vickers 

W. Reaves Mangam 

V. Lewis Hutchins 


N. C. Department of Archives and History 


Rich'd Peed (Round 

V. Reuben Cardon 

Hill P. O.) 

W. Thomas Farthing 


Wm. Piper (Stagville P. O 

) V. Thomas Christian, jr 


Fendal Southerland " 

V. Ezekiel Hailey 


John Duke (Red Mount. 

V. Allen Hutchens 

P. O.) 

V. Allen Ferrill 


Stephen Tilley " " 

W. William Cain (of Allen 


Thomas Hale " " 

V. James A. Pratt 


Joseph Lunsford " " 

V. William J. Duke 


Wm. Beasley (R. Hill 

V. James Stagg 


V. Jesse Clinton 


Yancy Boling (Red Mo't 

W. William W. Guess 

P. O.) 

W. Anderson Cheek 


Wm. Duke, jr " " 

W. John Cheek 


William Mangum " " 

V. Anderson Ferrell 


Benton Ray R. Hill 

V. Jacob Bledsoe 


Moses Leathers 

V. Samuel Merritt 


Jno. Garrand Red Mtn. 

V. John Barbee 


Green Mangum 

W. Pleasant Scoggins 


Sam'l Forsythe 

W. M. C. Herndon 


Willis B. Dillard 

V. James Vickers 


James M. Gilbert 

W. Caslett Herndon 


Thomas I. Leigh 

V. Rowland Cook 


Robert Jeffers 

V. Henry S. Marconi 


Stephen Horn 

V. John Marconi 


Mark Rigsbee 

V. Willis Roberts 


Arch'd Rigsbee 

V. David George 


James N. Patterson 

V. Gabriel Barbee 


John Burroughs 

V. Hugh C. Lyon 


Elisha Glenn 

V. Hiram B. Dalohite 


Hargis Glenn 

W. Henry M. Scoggin 


Ben Johnston 

W. Joseph L. Moring 


James Ferrel, jr 


Jno. C. Lewis 

Wm. Trice's Store P. O. 


George W. Rhoades 

V. David Vickers, jr 


John Vickers 

V. Chesley Herndon 


Thos. W. Gooch 

W. John Neal 


Henderson May 

V. Alsa Carrol 


John Hancock 

V. Marck Pickett 


, Hargis Farthing 

V. Moses H. Turner 


William Procktor 

V. Willis I. Vacun 

The Papers of William A. Graham 269 

W. John Leathers V. Charles Carrol 

W. Presley Cardon V. Harden Couch 

W. Arthur Bobbitt W. Anderson Rhodes 

V. and Turner (Jno. V. Chesley P. Trice 

V. John Cole (Sam. V. Zachariah Rhodes 
V. Henry D. Trice 

From G. Robertson? 1 U. 

Moon's Creek, 

Feb'y. 17th, 1842. 

I send this to let you hear that the Whigs of Caswell are alive, 
and intend holding a Whig meeting on the 7th. of March. 

There is no division among the great Whig Party of Caswell. 
I was a Tyler Whig at the close of the extra Session. I thought 
Capt. Tyler honest in vetoing the Bank bills, and was disposed to 
stick to him, but when his man, John Jones, announced continual 
appointments of Democrats, I then thought Botts right, but the 
Madisonian's attack on the Whig party is enough to convince any 
Whig that Tyler is not one of them. 

I have been a subscriber to the Madisonian for 4 or 5 years. 
I always thought a great deal of Mr. Rives and I became a sub- 
scriber because I thought it was a Rives paper. I want you to pay 
off my a/ct to the editor & send the bill & I will send you the 
Cash; I would send it at this time but don't no the amount. I 
have only pd. $5. some 3 or 4 years ago. I owe some $15. or 20. 
I can't stand it's abuse of Judge Mangum, he ought to have a 
small drubbing. Send him this way & he shall be Lick'd. 

I see you and Judge Mangum Split on the repeal of the Bank- 
rupt Law. We say here, give it a trial before the repeal, there is not 
a Tyler man in my acquaintance, and I have not heard a man 
speak in favor of the Tylercasity or Fisicality of the Finance pro- 
ject among the Whigs, the Democrats say you all will be forced 
to take it, they chuckle at our Situation, they think to beat Our 
Worthy Gov'r. on the Tyler Split. Where they will get their aid 
from— I don't know. 

At our Meeting I will see what can be done for our Whig 
friends at Washington, the Independant and True Whigs. 

G. Robertson of Caswell County. 

270 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Times are so hard and our friends a little cool, I fear but little 
can be done. 

My address you no is at Yancyville. I have set $5. to pay for the 
Independent One year, And the Madison I want stop'd. 

Mr. Kerr Sends his respects to you & says all things will be 
right in the old North State. Accept of my best wishes for your 
Helth & god fortun, and believe me yours, 

Very Respectfully. 

P. S. My Respects to Judge Mangum 

From /. A. Nor com. U. 

Plymouth, N. C, 
Feb'y. 20th., 1842. 

I saw, a few days past, that you had introduced a bill for the 
purpose of re-opening Nag's Head, or Old Roanoke Inlet, in N. C. 

I observed that it had passed its second reading, and had been 
referred, etc. Will you be so good as to inform me what your 
opinion is as to its ultimate fate in the House of Representatives, 
for I expect nothing less than its passage in the Senate, that body 
being heretofore noted for its gravity, intelligence, & Indepen- 
dence, etc. 

Though I saw incidentally a few days past, that the Senate 
came near a disturbance caused, as I suppose, by Mr. T. Benton. 
I was sorry to see it, for I have great hopes in the Senate of the 
U. S. in maintaining the dignity of our Country, and it is my opin- 
ion (If intitled to one) that the thing should be nipped in its 
bud, by expelling positively the first man that attempted to 
break in upon its dignity and character; for God's sake don't let 
the Senate of the U. S. degenerate in its dignity of character, like 
the House of Representatives, the veriest undignified body that 
can be conceived of, pretending to decency and Intelligence. 
Though why should I say any thing of the House of Representa- 
tives, for I am not, nor have I been for some years, represented 
there, prefering to stay at home and not vote, untill the people 
shall have some regard for themselves, and for the character of 
our common Country. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 271 

To John M. Morehead. A. 

Washington City, 

February 23rd., 1842. 

It is my painful duty to announce to you the death of the Hon. 
Lewis Williams, which took place today, between 1 8c 2 o'clock. 

He was attacked suddenly on night before last, with plurisy, 
and sank rapidly, notwithstanding all the efforts of Physicians. 
I have not time to write more, but feel it my duty to give you 
early information of this calamitous event. 

Speech On Leivis Williams 22 

United States Senate 
February 24th., 1842. 

Mr. President: I was a spectator of the melancholy event which 
is announced in the message from the House. It was the result of 
a sudden and violent attack of disease, which, defying all remedy, 
proved fatal in less than thirty-six hours from its commencement. 
On Monday Mr. Williams was in his seat until the close of session 
of the House. On Wednesday, within little more than an hour 
after the meeting of the House, he lay a lifeless corpse. Of the 
dreadful lesson which is taught by this most unexpected calamity, 
it is fitting that others should speak with more propriety than 
myself. But the occasion gives rise to a few reflections in which 
I hope to be indulged. A public servant has been struck down by 
the hand of death almost in the harness of his public labors— a 
man whose long life of near sixty years has been devoted to use- 
ful, honorable and patriotic service. The occurrence is well cal- 
culated to arrest the ordinary course of thought and action here, 
and to turn our minds to the contemplation of that awful change 
to which we are all ultimately destined. It reminds us, too, that 
the older men are passing away from the public councils, and 
naturally excites some inquiry as to the life and character of him 
who has so long shared in the deliberations of Congress, and in 
the gratitude and confidence of his countrymen. 

Mr. Williams was a native of the county of Surry, North Caro- 
lina, in which he always continued his residence. His education 

22 From the Hillsborough Recorder, March 10th, 1842. 

272 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

was liberal, having been graduated at the University of his native 
State, and having remained some time subsequently as a tutor in 
the same institution. Not very long afterwards, he was chosen 
by the Legislature a member of the Board of Trustees of the 
University, of which he was ever one of the most vigilant, active 
and faithful guardians. Anxious to be useful in the employment 
of the country, he seems early to have contemplated a public 
career. In the year 1814 he was returned from the county of 
Surry one of the members of the House of Commons in the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the State; and, although a young man, he took a 
prominent part in the proceedings of the ensuing session. In 
1815 he was elected the Representative in the Congress of the 
United States, of the 13th. Congressional District, which embraces 
the county of his residence; and at every election since that time 
he has been returned by the same constituency to the same station. 
Of his talents and services as a member of Congress, it would be 
superfluous to speak here, in the scene of his labors, and among 
his early and later associates. His legislative history is incor- 
porated with the history of the country for more than a quarter of 
a century, in one continued series, and is found in the journals 
and documents of the House, the reports of its committees, and 
the register of its debates during that period. Few members of the 
House ever performed more useful and laborious service than did 
Mr. Williams for many years, while he acted as the chairman of 
the committee of claims, in adjusting the numerous demands on 
the Government which grew out of transactions connected with 
the late war with Great Britain. And none, it is believed, ever 
possessed the confidence of his associates in legislation in a greater 
degree. With a mind patient, laborious, and strictly impartial, 
he applied himself diligently to this branch of the business of 
Congress, and was found so generally accurate that his opinions 
acquired the greatest weight. His continuous service for so many 
years not only made him the Father of the House, by seniority of 
membership, but his intimate acquaintance with public affairs, 
his enlightened views of the structure and policy of our Govern- 
ment, and his inflexible honesty and manliness of character, 
rendered him one of the most valuable of the public counsellors. 
But, sir, it is not so much his public action in the high places of 
the country, and his capacities to be serviceable there, that I 
wish particularly to mark. His character will bear closer examina- 
tion and a severer scrutiny. I wish to bear my humble testimony 
to the eminent purity of his private life and moral integrity, and 

The Papers of William A. Graham 273 

to speak what I believe is the common sentiment in his wide 
circle of acquaintance, that during his long public career, neither 
the angry contests of parties, the tempting of ambition, of avarice, 
or vice, have sullied his name with a single action which should 
cause one moments regret to his friends. In his public conduct 
he was manly, frank, ingenuous, and devoted to his duties. It 
happened to me in my boyhood to have been sent to school in 
one of the counties of his district; and I well remember to have 
witnessed the feelings of gratitude, of kindness, and affection, with 
which he was cherished by those who so early, and constantly 
honored him with their confidence, and whom he repaid with 
such fidelity and disinterested service. Always moral, he became 
later in life a religious man, and uniformly regulated his conduct 
by the principles of virtue and a conscientious conviction of duty. 

But it was in the charities and kind offices of private and 
domestic life that Mr. Williams was most favorably known and 
appreciated. Although he never contracted the relation of mar- 
riage, there are those by whom his demise will be as deeply de- 
plored as would be that of their immediate parents. He was a 
member of a numerous family, the head of which acquired an 
honorable fame by his patriotism and service in the war of the 
Revolution, and by his public spirit and elevation of character, 
in after life. A twin brother of my lamented colleague now pre- 
sides as Judge in the courts of Tennessee. His elder brother, 
Colonel John Williams, was distinguished for his gallantry as 
an officer during the late war, and for his talents and character 
at a subsequent period, as a Senator in this body from the State 
of Tennessee, and in our diplomatic service abroad. A third 
brother was for a long period the Adjutant General of the State 
of North Carolina. The two latter, though deceased, have left 
children. Others of his brothers, and near relatives yet survive, 
and are among the most enlightened, hospitable and liberal 
gentlemen, both in North Carolina and Tennessee. On the 
families of these, the intelligence of their bereavement will fall 
as the thunder from a cloudless sky. To these, however, wherever 
situated, it will be consoling to know that, though the pangs of 
his dissolution were severe, they were of short duration, and that 
he met his fate with the calmness and resignation which arises 
from the consciousness of a well spent life, and the hope of an 
immortality beyond the grave. 

In reference to the message of the House, I beg leave to 
present certain resolutions. 

274 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Resolved^ That the Senate has received with deep sensibility 
the communication from the House of Representatives, announc- 
ing the death of the Hon. Lewis Williams, a representative from 
the State of North Carolina. 

Resolved, That in token of sincere and high respect for the 
memory of the deceased, the Senate will attend the funeral at 
12 o'clock tomorrow, the hour appointed by the House of Rep- 
resentatives, and will wear crape on the left arm for thirty days; 
and as a further mark of respect— 

Resolved, That the Senate do now adjourn. 

From George C. Mendenhall. 23 U. 

Carthage, Moore, N. C. 
Feb. 26, 1842. 

We are to have a prodigiously hard fought Battle out & out 
the Summer of 1842, hopes run high on the part of the Vans— 
I cannot call them Democrats because they are not so. We have 
had a Whig meeting here this week, & appointed Delegates to 
Raleigh 4th. of April next. 

Last night a Van meeting was had & Resolutions adopted and 
among others inviting Gov. Henry to visit Moore, which I had 
before heard he was to do in May. It is a little likeing the Vans 
are willing to kick off Strange if they could; not having added 
much weight to their cause heretofore. And further it is a little 
thought that Strange & Haywood & especially the latter wish 
Henry to be, or run for, Gov. to have him out of the way, not 
only that one of them might be Senator by the Lo. Co. Legisla- 
ture which is to be elected this year, but also in case of a Van 
President next after Tyler. N. C. must & will have a Cabinet 
appointment, & then if Henry could sooner be supplied with, 
or in the way for office, such appointment would fall on others 
& not him. 

Mr. Henrys letter will be one considerable, if not the principal 
Subject of discussion the Summer Campaign. I may or may not 
be in the field, but whether or not, I should like well to be 
furnished with the facts, & at good length too, which will prove 

23 George C. Mendenhall, of Guilford, an able and successful lawyer, an active 
Whig, who served in the commons, 1828-1829, and in the state senate, 1840-1842. 
He was a devoted supporter and friend of Graham. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 275 

much, if not most, of that Super-Extra, magnificent production 
to be unfounded. 

Judge Nash & all the Bar are well. 

I had intended writing you sooner, & will likely again. I wish 
to write to Mr. Shepperd shortly. 

I fear we shall have but a small majority of Whigs in next 
Assembly N. C. 

From Priestley H. Mangum. U. 

March 2nd, 1842. 

We occasionally hear from you and Willie, thro' the papers 
& with that have been compelled to make a virtue of necessity 
in not complaining. But hereafter that quiescent course will cease 
to be a virtue. Difficulties begin to thicken around us, & every man 
will be called on to do his duty. And first of all in point of time, 
as well as in point of importance, & efficiency, our Senators must 
at least seem not to have forgotten their fitful and jealous con- 

Last week I was in Raleigh where I heard complaints from our 
friends of the silence and inattention of our Senators to that por- 
tion of the State. They say that as this District is represented in 
Congress by a L. F. they think they have a right to expect some 
notice from our Whig Senators. Major C. Hinton & others. You 
must bestir yourself and drop leters to our chief friends, if they 
don't contain anything of importance. The mere fact of receiving 
notices of that sort imparts strength. Men are men, & like the 
ladies, are not insensible to suitable attentions. 

Louis D. Henry is here. On yesterday he addressed the people 
from the C. H. steps in a tirade of three or four hours length. 
Brother Waddell's politeness got the better of his discretion, and 
prevailed upon a reluctant Court to give way and tender the 
C. H. to Mr. Henry. I don't relish this thing. The speaker is the 
most reckless demagogue I have yet heard. His fluency is great, 
& has at his finger's ends the whole of the slang, misrepresentation, 
unfairness, & sophistry of the most thorough Loco foco news- 
papers. But upon the whole, his Circus-like mimicry and buf- 
foonery nutralizes the many good things he says, & by reason 
thereof, I think his effort proves powerless, if not decidedly in- 

276 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

jurious, except in the sole particular of stirring up the venom 
of the bitterest portion of the Democrats. 

You know the Whig State Convention is to take place on 
4th. April; before then, Morehead will not, I suppose, present 
himself before us. But I think Mr. Henry should be met by 
Whig speakers wherever he goes. Others think differently, and 
I have been overruled upon this point here this week. 

I read with pleasure your remarks on the occasion of the death 
of Hon. L. Williams. We feel apprehensive on the score of health 
in your City. The Season has in an eminent degree favoured the 
disease of which Mr. Williams is said to have died. 

I can't say how matters are going; I can hear nothing definitely 
that seems to indicate any loss of strength to the Whig cause in 
the State. Yet I fear. I think the Whigs will rally. The Democrats 
will make a great rush, and it is remarkable what feeling of hate 
and poison seems to influence many of the party. 

Write to your friends often, Sc but little, for you won't have 
time to write long letters to as many as you ought to notice. 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Washington City, 

March 8th, 1842. 

I reed your letter a few days ago, on the subject of Mr. Gibbs 
appointment as Collector of the Port of Beaufort. And will with 
pleasure concur in his nomination. 

#j|. jfc jt. jfc 

"If* tt "a* "a" 

We are very anxious that there shall be a respectable ass- 
emblage of our Whig friends in the Convention of the 4th. of 

Mr. Clay has been invited by a Com'tee at Raleigh to attend 
on that occasion. He has consulted us as to the propriety of his 
going. And believing that it is politic to nominate him at once 
for the Presidency, and that on that account it would be indelicate 
for him to be present, we have dissuaded him from attending. 
Some of the delegation thought a nomination premature, and that 
it might be against us in the Summer elections, but a majority of 
us think differently. It should be well considered by our friends 
in the Convention, and a nomination made or not, as may be 
deemed advantageous by the Convention. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 277 

By the bye, I promised Mr. C. some time since to procure for 
him some of the seed of the longleaved pine. Will you be so good 
as to send me a few of them? I suppose half a dozen would not 
exceed 2 ozs. the extent of my frank. 

The Report of Tallmadge has been postponed 2 weeks; they 
desire, I doubt not, to put it off untill Mr. Clay leaves the Senate, 
and hope to enlist many friends after that event. From certain 
billing and cooing, there is some prospect of a Union between the 
Loco focos and conservatives. Webster's section of the Whigs is 
ready to agree to any thing agreeable to the administration. Boz 24 
has not yet arrived. It is feared that Lord Ashburton 25 is lost on 

the Caledonia. 

# # # # # 

I hear that Henry has opened the Canvass for Gov. by a speech 
at Hillsboro' last week. Our friends think he made no impression. 

From Citzens of Florida. U. 

St. Augustine, Flo: 
10th March. 1842 

The undersigned inhabitants & planters of Florida beg leave 
respectfully to call your attention to the memorial addressed by 
them to Congress at its present Session, on the subject of their 
losses and sufferings by the Seminole War. 

We are induced to address you on this occasion by the con- 
fidence we feel in the justice and reasonableness of our claims, and 
our conviction, that if such be their character they will not fail 
to engage your attention and enlist your support. 

The undersigned trust that in examining into the grounds of 
these claims, and the merits of their demands, it will be steadily 
borne in mind, that the War, by which they have suffered so 
much & which still continues to devastate the Territory, was 
neither brought on by any act of the people of Florida, or com- 
menced at their instance, but was the result of the unadvised at- 
tempt of the Government to remove the Indians without the 

84 Charles Dickens. 

26 Alexander Baring (1774-1848), 1st. Baron Ashburton, British Minister to the 
United States. Famed as a business man, he came to the United States and married 
in Philadelphia. He had represented various constituencies in Parliament, between 
1806 and 1835. He supported economic reform, but opposed Parliamentary reform, 
and was a leader in the final compromise. 

278 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

presence of a Military force, sufficient to command respect and 
prevent the outbreak which the known opposition of a majority 
of the nation to the measure, and their repeatedly expressed 
determination to resist it, gave warning & reason to expect. 

Through this fatal neglect on the part of the Government, the 
inhabitants of the Territory were left without protection on the 
breaking out of the war, and exposed to those disasters and 
losses which form the subject of their claims. They hence look 
with the fullest confidence, for indemnification & relief from the 
same hand, to which the injury (however undesignedly inflicted) 
is properly chargeable: the more especially in this case, where 
the dictates of justice will be found to coincide with those of good 
policy— as with the renewal of their means, the industry & enter- 
prize of the inhabitants will be also renewed and once more set 
in action, a general settlement of the country promoted, and thus 
an important auxiliary be provided towards a speedy and ef- 
ficient expulsion of the Indians. 

We are, 

Very Respectfully, 
Your most obed. Servts. 
David R. Dunham. 
G Humphreys. 26 
W. H. Simmons. 27 

From David W. Stone. 2 * U. 

Raleigh, N. C. 

March 11th, 1842. 

I received a few days since the very excellent and able Report 
of Mr. Tallmadge on the Exchequer Plan for a fiscal Agent and 
am very much obliged to you for your kindness in remitting it 
to me. There are but one but two amendments that I would make 
to it;— I would have no commission charged for issuing certificates 
of Deposite lest it should drive away Depositors, and I would al- 

20 Colonel Gad Humphreys, rose from lieutenant to lieutenant colonel, and 
brevet colonel in the army, between 1808 and 1821. He was Tndian agent, 1822-1830, 
and actively engaged in territorial politics. 

27 Dr. William Hayne Simmons, of St. Augustine, a man of high character and 
standing, served on the commission to locate the capital, and was on the territorial 
council in 1823. 

28 David W. Stone, cashier of the Edenton branch of the State Bank, and, at this 
time, cashier of the Raleigh branch of the Cape Fear Bank, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 279 

low no Banks to be made agents or used as Depositories; they as 
a body have never acted with good faith to the Government & 
I don't believe ever will; there are to be sure some few and 
honorable exceptions, but they are so few that I would not 
voluntarily trust the system again. With these amendments I 
would adopt it with all my heart as it seems to me it cannot work 
otherwise than well, if the agents to put it in operation are at 
all competent to the task. I think too that it would be an im- 
provement to prohibit their taking the Notes of any Bank that 
issued & continued to issue for 12 months notes of a less denomina- 
tion than 5 Dollars; by so doing it would have a strong tendency 
to suppress the small note circulation and infuse silver and gold 
in the currency of the Country, which is the only healthy state for 
it; the wanting exchange and not buying it, is most excellent, and 
the selling exchange will have a happy tendency to equalize and 
purify the currency, as it will make plain to the people that this 
great difference of exchange (as it is falsely called) of 10—15 & 20 
per cent, is not exchange in fact, but the depreciated Bk notes 
in which it is paid, and that very proof will have a mighty in- 
fluence in making them correct the evil, and if Banks can't or 
won't pay, but suspend to make larger profits (as most of them 
do) if forcing them to go into liquidation and cease to palm 
their notes on the Community as money, when they are daily 
and hourly refusing to redeem their promises and are taking 
advantage of the discredit caused thereby to purchase them in 
by way of Exchange at a discount of from 3 to 20 per cent. We 
want some such correction & Demonstration, & believing that 
Mr. Tallmadge's plan would so operate, I for one would be re- 
joiced to see it adopted. 

There is no local news of interest, except that from indications 
so far this Summer's political campaign in the old North State 
promises to partake a good deal of the excitement of 1840. 

From Daniel S. Crenshaw. U. 

Forestville, [Wake Co.,] N. Ca. 

March 16th, 1842. 

by your attention I have received several Speeches, reports, 
and procedeings of the present Congress, for which please accept 
my warmest acknowledgements and allow me to beg your kindness 

280 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

still farther by procureing the Army Regulation and subscribe 
for the Army and Navy Chronicle for me. I would not trouble 
you so far but the first Book cannot be had here and I am un- 
acquainted with the names and address of the Editors of the last. 
I will refund whatever you may advance on sight. Our Gover- 
nor's Election is waxing pretty warm and the Standard is growing 
very inquisitive about Icehouses, from a number of such seeming 
extravagances the Locos are determined to excite the populace 
as much as possible, but I do not believe that they (with all their 
self confidence) are sanguine and I have recently had a fair 
opportunity of ascertaining this fact from the warmest partisans 
of Warren, Nash, Edgecomb & Martin. I believe with all their 
bright prospects elsewhere they are not Egotists enough to claim 
the Old North State we are looking up to the 4 Apl with anxiety 
and hope to see our Favourite of the West Mr. Clay, at our 
Convention at Raleigh, no definite arrangements are yet entered 
into by the Whig party for running Candidates for the Legislature 
from Wake, we are exerting ourselves to make the Locos split 
and at present they have two Candidates allready in the field 
for the Senate. Messrs Whitaker and Shepard both are making 
public speeches and vowing that neither will resign 

our only hope in the Senate is to lie in ambush until the eve 
of the Election then raise a Scouting party and fire a still shot 
into the enemy's ranks, make my respects to Mr. Stanly tell him 
there is one other Whig than himself has beaten Gen'l Wilson 
and given him Edgecomb with his feesimple right to all its inter- 
ests which right he publicly proclaimed in a public speech at Tar- 
boro on the day of our Election there. I do not however claim my 
promotion as a party triumph for I am indebted to the more 
liberal and Patriotic Democrats for my success, and political 
influence would have excited stronger prejudices against me but 
for the fact that Gen 'I Wilson & his friends were so sanguine they 
thought it unnecessary until it was too late, and the possibility of 
my beating never occurred to him until Northampton voted, we 
should be most happy to see you in Raleigh at our Convention 
on the 4 Apl 

I am verry Respectfully & Truly 
Your H'ble Serv't 

The Papers of William A. Graham 281 

From James W. Bryan. U. 


March 19th, 1842. 

I am unable at present to procure the Seed of the Pine for Mr. 
Clay, as it is too late in the Season for them, but will forward them 
to you, whenever the proper season arrives for gathering them. 

* Jb J/. JR. J*. 

TP w w TP 

Our town is very dull and but for an excitement against Mr. 
McRae for preaching against the Temperance Society there 
would be a sort of atrophy in the place. Politics are dead here 
also. I think the Locos will carry this section of the Country very 
easily; they are very active. The Whigs are the reverse and seem 
to be dispirited and dead. . . . 

Mrs. W. has had the fences of the old Castle repaired and it 
begins to look up somewhat, although it requires even now a con- 
siderable expenditure of money to put it in order. 

I am desirous of going Northward this Summer after my Circuit 
is over but the times have come down upon us so hard that I do 
not know how I shall make it out; it would be a convenient 
matter in that way for me to mingle the multum in parvo by 
being a visitor at West Point, if the post is not in too great re- 
quest, and if you can conveniently procure the appointment do so, 
but if not I pray you not to mention it, for I have such a horror 
for office seeking & so much contempt for such applicants that I 
think the whole matter does dishonor to all concerned. I have 
done the powers that be a little service but I ask them no pay for 
it and will not place myself in the attitude of a beggar, however 
convenient the matter may be to me, or severe the pressure of 
the times. I therefore leave it to your sound discretion. 

We have Judge Battle with us and are all much pleased indeed 

with him; he is patient, good tempered, and a very good lawyer. 

The next term of the Supreme Court will present a fearful array 

(in numbers) of cases. Judge Gaston told me that the appeals 

were very numerous in all the Circuits he had heard from. 

^P tF ^F tF W? 

282 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From Ralph Gorrell. U. 


March 22nd. 1842. 

Jfe Mm *\£. JR. ..V, 

W "VT W W W 

Mr. Waddell handed me a letter from you to him last week in 
which you express a desire to be informed what are the opinions 
about Mr. Clay's coming to Raleigh at the approaching Whig 
Convention and also as to the policy of his being nominated in 
that Convention as a Candidate for the presidency. As to the first 
point I think very clearly that he ought not to be there, and that 
his presence at that time would be attended with no beneficial 
results to the Whig party, and in this opinion, hereabouts, our 
friends generally concur. We would all be proud that our old 
State should receive a visit from Mr. Clay at a time when that 
visit would be productive of advantage to him, our cause, and our 
Country, but I believe that time is not now. That he ought to be 
nominated by the Convention I have no doubt and that he will 
be nominated by it I have as little doubt. Our Whig meetings 
throughout the State are nominating him. You will have per- 
ceived before this reaches you that at a Whig Meeting in Bertie, 
Outlaw and Cherry have both declared strongly in his favour, 
and the latter has said that he will be at the Convention and 
intends to have his name put in nomination. The Whig meetings 
are also denouncing Tyler and the party want some name to rally 
around, and Sir whenever Mr. Clay's name is put in nomination 
in my opinion our disspirited & dispersed forces will gather 
around his banner and under his name we will acheive another 
glorious victory not a fruitless victory as our last was made by 
the treachery of (Captain Tyler) but a victory which will fill our 
Country again with contentment, prosperity and happiness. There 
is no Whig in my knowledge that thinks or talks of any body else 
for the next Presidency but Mr. Clay, and this being the case why 
not put his name in nomination at once. If he is nominated and 
the Whigs rally around him to a man which I am confident they 
would do this strong expression of public favour will prevent the 
names of others from being brought before the Country, and by 
a temporising course difficulties of this kind may be reasonably 

Please present my best respects to Mrs. Graham and tell her 
that in walking by your residence, which I did several times last 

The Papers of William A. Graham 283 

week I observed that the trees shrubs and flowers in her yard and 
garden were blooming as sweetly as if she were there altho 

"born to blush unseen, 

And waste their sweetness on the desert air." 
Sincerely your friend 

From Samuel L. Southard. 2 ^ U. 


March 25th, 1842. 

I am still too unwell to attend to my duties in the Senate, & 
desire that you will occupy the chair for the day. 
I am respectfully. 

From Charles L. Hinton. U. 


Apl. 4th, 1842. 

Yours of the 2nd. was reed, by last nights mail. 

I write a line to say that our Convention is numerously attend- 
ed, and I have never seen the Whigs more determined on a hard 
fight than at present. They number about Two hundred and fifty, 
forty Counties represented. 

After the lethargy and indifference which I had supposed was 
felt in our ranks I had no expectation of seeing them so suddenly 
aroused, the best feeling prevails, there was yesterday some differ- 
ence of opinion as to the policy of nominating Mr. Clay at present, 
but they have yielded and I don't know that there will be a dis- 
senting voice. The Committee will report this morning; they 
will hand in an able address, accompanied with diverse resolu- 
tions setting forth the principals of the Whigs, denouncing Mr. 
Tyler, and expressing their entire confidence in Mr. Clay. 

The question of Vice President will be left for future arrange- 

I refer you to the Register of this morning for a more detailed 
and interesting account of the proceedings. This meeting will do 
much good to the Whig cause in this State, every man will return 
home inspired with increased confidence. 

""This letter is an example of a large number received from Mr. Southard 
during this period. 

284 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From John M. Morehead. A. 


April 7th, 1842. 

The measure of any Whig's desires would have been amply 
filled had he been present at our Convention. 

Supposing that you will see it in the papers I shall not attempt 
to give you a detailed account; I can only say that it was every 
thing it should have [been] in numbers, talents, deportment, dig- 
nity, etc., every one left us yesterday & today (except a few) de- 
lighted that they came. 

I am extremely glad that Mr. Clay did not come; that was my 
opinion from the first— that he should not do so. 

Now it is the movement of the people themselves. You will 
perceive there is no resolution authorising his nomination to be 
communicated to him. We did not wish to call upon him to accept 
the nomination; it will be time enough for him to do so when 
many States have spoken in his favor. 

You will perceive I am directly recommended to take the field 
this campaign, if I do I only regret that the Presidential Canvass 
is not now before the people. I should like much to lead Clay 
triumphantly through the State, as we did Harrison; & with the 
same exertion it can be done. I will do half the work this Cam- 
paign & leave the balance to my successor. 

Your suggestions and documents are reed, and duly noted, & 
you will confer a favor to give me any suggestions you may deem 
important, and forward me any thing that you may think impor- 

I saw a letter written by Mr. Stanly to Miller giving a statement 
of Mr. Henry's time of service and his pay as Commissioner, etc. 
Can you procure for me an authenticated statement of that Com- 
mission, and whether he had his draft in the U. S. protested, & all 
the little matters attending it? It is said that he made some specu- 
lation in the matter some way— have it certified Stanly can put 
you on the track. 

He is demagoging very much indeed it is said he suppasses 
any candidate we have had. 

Say to your Brother, that the suggestions in his letter were duly 
attended to. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 285 

I go up in the morning to Greensboro to bring my little girls 

We shall have a merry Canvass this summer, & I think you had 
as well come home as soon as convenient. 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Washington City, 

April 11th. 1842. 

* jfc jfe jfe jfc 


I have also addressed a note to the Secretary of War on the 
matter of Visiter at tho Military Academy. Ever since I have been 
in Congress, Swain has urged the appointment of Professor Phil- 
lips as one of the Visiters, and last year Bell declined to appoint 
him, under circumstances which were not pleasant to me. I ac- 
cordingly renewed his application the past winter, before your 
letter was received. As we had no visitor last year, I proposed your 
name to Spencer also, (and sometimes they have had two or three 
from one State). Since the Raleigh Convention, however, I have 
but little hope that the wishes of the N. C. delegation here will 
have much weight in any future appointments to office. I desire 
however, for the present at least, that they shall not be able to 
say that they did not know that any appointments were desired 
by us. 

The proceedings of the Raleigh Convention have been receiv- 
ed by our friends here with great joy. Winthrop 30 of Boston told 
me he admired the spirit, but thought it premature. I reminded 
him that N. C. had heard that before. It was the reply made to the 
people of Mecklenburg by their friends in Congress when the 
declaration of Independence was announced to them. 

Lord Ashburton arrived last week, and has entered on the ne- 
gotiations of his mission. He is a good looking man, and appears 
to have good address. Webster piloted him into the Senate last 
week for half an hour. He has three or four distinguished young 
Englishmen with him. As yet there are not developments as to 
what he and Webster are doing. The latter is weekly assailed in 

^Robert Charles Winthrop (1809-1894), of Massachusetts, a graduate of Harvard, 
who studied law under Daniel Webster, served in the lower house of the legisla- 
ture, 1835-1840, (speaker, 1838-1840), Whig member of congress, 1840-1842, 1842- 
1850, (speaker, 1847-1849), United States senator, 1850-1851. He was defeated for 
senator, and for governor, in 1851. He had wide reputation as an orator. He and 
Graham were later closely associated, as trustees of the Peabody Fund. 

286 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

the Globe, and many things are charged to him in the highest 
degree discreditable. Some at least of which are no doubt true. 
His moral character is so shocked that I doubt whether he could 
now pass the Senate for a Judicial station, for which his eminent 
abilities so admirably fit him. Tyler is more controlled by him 
than by any member of his Cabinet, and will use all his official 
power to prevent the election of Clay. 

The Clay dinner came off yesterday; the Ball will take place 
next week. After which he will set off for the West. 

I fear that the land Bill is in danger, with the Executive and 
many members of our own party flying the track. 

I hope you will return to New Bern by the time of the election. 
With the spirit gotten up at the Raleigh Convention, I think we 
shall be able to carry the State. 

Speech on the Loan Bill. 31 

In the Senate of the United States. 

April 13, 1842. 

Mr. President: In the division of the labors of this body 
it has not fallen to my lot to have any especial charge of the 
finances and expenditures of the Government. But, being called 
upon to vote for an additional loan for the public service, I have 
felt myself constrained to examine whether it was demanded by 
necessity; and being now satisfied that such necessity exists, I 
must bespeak the patience of the Senate while I endeavor to show 
its existence, and the causes by which it has been produced. 

For more than five years past, the expenditures of this Govern- 
ment have exceeded, very far exceeded its revenues. By an official 
document from the Treasury Department, now before me, it is 
plainly demonstrated that in four years, from the 1st. of January, 
1837, to the 1st. of January, 1841, the expenditures were above 
one hundred and twelve millions of dollars, whilst, in the same 
time, the aggregate income from revenue was but eighty-four mil- 
lions of dollars in round numbers, being an average annual ex- 
penditure of twenty-eight millions, with an annual revenue of but 
twenty-one millions of dollars. I omit the fractions of millions to 

31 Speech of Hon. William A. Graham of North Carolina, on the Loan Bill, De- 
livered in the Senate of the United States, April 13, 1842. Washington: Printed at 
the National Intelligencer Office, 1842. The North Carolina Collection, University 
of North Carolina. Brackets and parentheses are found in the original. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 287 

simplify the statement. It thus appears that, during that space of 
time, expenditure exceeded revenue by twenty-eight millions of 
dollars. [See appendix.] 

In the four years from the 4th. of March, 1837, to the 4th. of 
March, 1841, the precise period of Mr. Van Buren's Administra- 
tion, the excess of expenditures over revenue is still more sur- 
prising. It amounted to more than thirty-one millions of dollars, 
being an average annual excess of expense over income of near 
eight millions per year— an expenditure greater in four years than 
would have been yielded from the average revenues in five years 
and a half. 

Such having been the condition of our monetary affairs during 
the past Administration, the wonder is, not that we are compelled 
to borrow now, but how they have avoided a greater debt hereto- 
fore. Having expended thirty-one millions of dollars beyond their 
income from revenue, that would naturally be expected to be the 
amount of debt which they left to their successors on the 4th. of 
March, 1841, instead of five and a half millions, which they admit. 
Such would have been the amount of debt left by them upon the 
country, had they, like other Administrations, had no other means 
to expend but such as they themselves raised. But, sir, it was their 
good fortune to inherit a full Treasury, in ready money, and to 
have falling into it, at convenient periods during their term, 
millions upon millions of capital stock, (not current revenues) , 
which had been laid up by the Government from the contribu- 
tions of the people in previous years. The surplus in the Treasury 
was seventeen millions of dollars, nine of which had been directed 
to be transferred to the States, as the fourth instalment under the 
deposite act of 1836. Nine millions more were received by them 
from debts due to the United States, principally, almost wholly, 
for the sales of its stock in the late Bank of the United States, at 
$115. per share. Adding these together, you have twenty-six mil- 
lions of dollars of extraordinary means, over and above the reve- 
nue, expended by the late Administration. Yet, in addition to 
this, they borrowed five and a half millions of dollars by the issue 
of Treasury notes, which were outstanding at the end of their 
term, making in all more than thirty-one millions of extraordinary 
means. Recollect, too, that this was during a period when they 
had a tariff of duties on all the principal articles yielding revenue, 
averaging forty per cent. Yet, sir, we who feel bound to vote for 
this loan, are taunted by the adherents of the late Administration, 
by being told that we are running the nation in debt. This re^ 

288 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

proof, if deserved at all, would come with better grace from those 
who could show a better administration of the finances while in 
their charge. The distinguished and able Senator from Pennsyl- 
vania (Mr. Buchanan) , proclaimed in this discussion the 
other day, that a Whig administration, in the short space of thir- 
teen months, was, by this bill, about to consummate a public debt 
of seventeen millions of dollars, in addition to that of five and a 
half millions of dollars, which he admits was contracted by their 
predecessors. Sir, this may be very criminal; but, take it without 
any of the palliation or apology to be found in the deficiency of 
the revenue, and the wants of the public service, did the Senator 
and his friends do better when they had possession of the Govern- 
ment? The very first act of Congress, at the called session under 
Mr. Van Buren, was an act to borrow nine millions of dollars 
which had been given to the States by the bounty of Congress; 
(I say given, because, although in legal form it was but a deposite 
for custody, in substance and intention, at least on the part of 
many, it was a gift) ; and in the act of Congress to which I refer, 
the transfer is merely postponed until the 1st. of January, 1839, 
but a repeal of the gift is avoided. This was the first movement of 
Congress under that Administration, and the second is like unto 
it; that is, an act to borrow ten millions of dollars by the issue of 
Treasury notes. By deductions equally fair with those of the hon- 
orable Senator, it is shown that, not in thirteen months, but in 
seven months after coming into power, the Administration of Mr. 
Van Buren borrowed nineteen millions of dollars. This was 
alleged at the time to be indispensably necessary, because of the 
indulgence given to merchants on duty bonds by an act of that 
session, and the failure of the deposite banks to pay the amounts 
due from them to Government; and that these measures were to 
be merely temporary until those means could be realized. But, 
although the merchants and the banks paid up what they owed, 
yet the fourth instalment was never paid to the States, of whom it 
was borrowed, and Treasury notes were kept afloat by issuing 
and redeeming again and again, leaving five and a half millions 
outstanding when that Administration closed. 

[Mr. Woodbury would remark to the Senator that there was 
yet due $100,000., or $200,000. from the banks of Mississippi, 
and he believed $80,000. from the Bank of the United States. 

Mr. Evans: No, the last has been paid. The Mississippi banks 
are all who have not paid.] 

The Papers of William A. Graham 289 

Mr. Graham resumed. That is too trifling an amount to con- 
stitute the slightest apology for failing to pay the fourth instal- 
ment, and redeem all the Treasury notes issued. It bears no pro- 
portion to the nine millions of the former, and the five and a half 
millions of the latter. It now distinctly appears that the States 
lost the fourth instalment which had been promised them, and 
a permanent debt of five and a half millions was fixed on the 
country, not by reason of the defalcations of "the merchants and 
the banks," which, for some time, were represented as the sources 
of all the ills which befell the Government, but because the ex- 
penditures during the last Administration were raised to an an- 
nual average amount of twenty-eight millions of dollars per year. 
With a revenue admitted to be deficient by their very first acts of 
legislation, and which, by regulation of the compromise act of 
1833, was to decline materially during their continuance in 
authority, a system of expense was pursued, which not only over- 
ran the yearly incomes and exhausted all the earnings of previous 
years, but superadded a national debt besides. A guardian who 
should thus manage the estate of his ward, would find no just 
cause for wonder in his removal from office. 

We are now told however, that, although the average rate of 
expenditure was large, the graduation was downward; and it has 
been repeatedly a matter of boast, that, in the last year of Mr. 
Van Buren, the whole amount expended was but twenty-two and 
a half millions of dollars. And it is vehemently contended, that 
the experience of that year shows that sum to be the amplest 
amount for annual expense; and, indeed, that it should fall below 
it. Sir, I hope it will be found to be enough for the yearly support 
of the Government. If we can avoid war, I hope to see the annual 
expenses reduced to twenty millions. But a very casual examina- 
tion of the legislation of 1839-'40 will show that the reason why 
no more than twenty-two and a half millions was expended in the 
latter year was, that the Administration had no more to expend. 
The seventeen millions which they found in the Treasury were 
gone; the nine millions of debts which they had collected were 
gone, in addition to their current revenues; and a Presidential 
election being on hand, it was not deemed prudent at that mo- 
ment to resort to the taxing power to raise new supplies. The 
perennial fountain of Treasury notes, it is true, was still kept 
open, but for sufficient reasons it was not expedient to swell the 
amount of those in the monthly published statement. What, then, 
was the wise measure of economy and retrenchment which was 

290 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

adopted to bring down expenses to income? Was an useless branch 
of service cut off? Were all the objects which yearly cost the Gov- 
ernment money examined, and those struck off and discontinued 
which were not supposed to be worth what they would cost in 
taxes upon the people? No, sir. A new expedient was devised. 
Appropriations were made as usual in all branches of expendi- 
ture; Congress thereby declaring that the objects of appropriation 
were proper, and were still to receive the patronage of Govern- 
ment. But a proviso was inserted in the appropriation bills, au- 
thorizing the President of the United States "to postpone the ex- 
penditures" in case of a deficiency of revenue; "such postpone- 
ments, in each case, to be merely temporary, or until the close of 
the next session of Congress," manifestly implying that these sub- 
jects of appropriation, though suspended momentarily for the 
want of money, are all, thereafter, to be resumed and finished. 

If, by such resorts as these, the public expenditures were re- 
duced in 1840 to twenty-two and a half millions of dollars, it 
furnishes surely no occasion for the authors of that reduction to 
boast of their economy, nor to accuse their successors of extrava- 
gance in completing the works which they had begun. In the 
military establishment, the expenditure was nearly a million less 
in 1840 than in 1839. Why? Because, under the authority of these 
provisions in the acts of Congress, the President could arrest the 
operations of the mechanic and laborer on the public works with 
his hammer or trowel in hand at midday, and whilst his contract 
was yet unexpired, though the walls of the barracks or quarters 
in which they labored were but half finished, with an assurance, 
however, that the works were not abandoned, but only suspended 
until Congress should provide additional means for carrying 
them on; meanwhile the Presidential election will be over. In 
like manner, seven or eight hundred thousands dollars are saved 
by suspending the works on fortifications, and leaving the half 
finished walls of your fortresses to wind and weather, until the 
Treasury should be replenished. Mr. President, this course of 
temporary reduction, to make a fair showing in the arithmetic of 
expenditure, so far from being economy, was neglect of duty. 
Either the military establishment and the system of fortifica- 
tions—the number of men in the army, and their barracks and 
quarters; the armories, arsenals, forts, etc.,— should have been 
permanently lessened, or adequate revenues should have been 
provided to support and carry them on efficiently. The policy 
which was adopted necessarily exposed the public property to 

The Papers of William A. Graham 291 

dilapidation, expressly intended no permanent reduction in ex- 
pense, and threw over upon the year 1841 many of the pecuniary 
burdens which properly belonged to 1840. 

Mr. President, in tracing the causes of the enormous average 
expenditure of twenty-eight millions per year during the last Ad- 
ministration, I believe it will be found to have been chiefly owing 
to their having had a redundant Treasury, which they had not 
been obliged to provide for themselves— as the heir of fortune is 
generally a prodigal, while the son of industrious poverty, who 
must needs accumulate for himself, is economical from habit and 
necessity. In my humble opinion, the first and prolific source of 
that system of expenditure, as well as of many of the other evils 
under which the country now labors, was in withholding the 
fourth instalment from the States. It deprived the States of a 
boon which they had a just right to expect, under the provisions 
of the act of 1836— a boon which was held out to them as a sure 
resource for more than twelve months; upon the reasonable ex- 
pectation of which, they had commenced public enterprises, and 
incurred debts, and which, though taken from their grasp almost 
at the very moment when they were about to clutch it, was still 
suspended over their heads, like the bow of promise in the heav- 
ens, until the turbid and overflowing waters of public expenditure 
were raised high enough to absorb it. That many of the States 
would have become deeply embarrassed, independently of the 
action of this Government in this particular, I do not doubt; but 
that the embarrassments of many of them have been hastened and 
increased by the loss of the fourth instalment, I believe, is equally 
certain. To them, in their peculiar condition, it was everything; 
to us, I fear, it has been worse than nothing. With it, the last 
Administration expended in their four years, one hundred and 
eleven, or one hundred and twelve millions of dollars. Without 
it, they would still have had one hundred and two, or one hundred 
and three millions, giving for average annual expenses near 
twenty-six millions per year— enough for all reasonable purposes 
—enough, the country will say, nay, has determined, for all the 
good that was accomplished. 

By yielding this to the States, one of two results must have hap- 
pened, either of which would have had a happy effect, in mitigat- 
ing the severity of our present embarrassments— either a material 
reduction of expenditures, to correspond in some degree with the 
rate of income, or a timely provision of means for support, by 
reason of which the sudcjenness of our present difficulties would 

292 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

have been avoided. I listened on yesterday with much pleasure to 
many of the remarks of the Senator from South Carolina (Mr. 
Calhoun) , on the dangers of allowing expenditures to exceed 
income, and the tendency of an overflowing Treasury to produce 
extravagance. And I could but regret, that those maxims, so true 
in themselves, had not been applied in 1837, and the 4th. instal- 
ment allowed to go to the States, instead of being retaken into the 
Treasury of this Government, thereby affording the means for 

[Mr. Calhoun, said the Senator, was not here, and of course 
[we] could not know the reasons which had induced him to vote 
for withholding the 4th. instalment from the States. He was 
opposed to collecting moneys for distribution, and went for dis- 
tributing in the first instance only because there was a surplus on 
hand. When it was needed, he voted to restore it to the Treasury. 
But he had uniformly voted against extravagant appropriations.] 

Mr. Graham said he had not been examining the votes of the 
Senator for purposes of censure, but was calling his attention, 
and that of the Senate, to what I conceive to have been an unfor- 
tunate mistake, in giving to the Government temporary means 
so far to exceed its regular income in its expenditures, and to 
carry them to a height from which the present state of our fi- 
nances would demand so abrupt and hasty a descent. As it is, a 
service now costing you twenty odd millions of dollars per year is 
suddenly let down upon means not exceeding thirteen and a half 
millions; and its weight is accumulated by a public debt of five 
and a half millions, left by the last Administration, bearing an 
annual interest of 330,000. dollars. To meet this deficiency what 
have we? Instead of surplus, we have debt; instead of extraordi- 
nary means falling in, we have a daily increasing charge of interest; 
instead of a tariff of 40 per cent, we have one nearly approaching 
20 per cent, and that upon little more than half the imports. 
What then is to be done? If we propose to borrow money to 
defray the present expenses of Government, we are told that we 
are running the nation in debt. If we propose to levy duties to 
furnish a permanent revenue, we are taxing the people. If we 
suggest retrenchment, and cutting off such parts of the public 
service as are not most needed, we are told there is imminent 
danger of war, and that the most vigorous preparations for it 
should not be omitted. Mr. President, our whole duty in this 
emergency seems to me to be comprehended in three propositions: 

The Papers of William A. Graham 293 

1st. Borrow such sum, upon the best terms you can obtain, as 
will relieve your present necessities, and save the public honor 
from disgrace. 

2nd. Reduce your expenditures to the lowest point which is 
consistent with an efficient public service. 

3rd. Levy such duties upon imports as are necessary for an 
economical administration of the Government, and no more. 

But, sir, our opponents have one panacea for all the difficulties 
of the times. Take back the proceeds of the lands, say they. A di- 
rect proposition to that effect was early introduced by the Senator 
from Missouri, (Mr. Linn). And no matter what may be the 
particular subject under consideration, it is perpetually moved 
by way of amendment. Now, let me ask in all candor, if they are 
resumed into the Treasury, of what avail are they? Last year the 
nett proceeds but little exceeded a million of dollars, and it is 
exceedingly doubtful what they may be in years to come. To say 
nothing of the immense quantities in the hands of speculating 
companies, the very fact that large grants were made to the several 
new States, by the distribution act, embracing in the whole, I 
think, near two millions of acres, with the liberty of selecting 
choice qualities— grants already perfect because made by the stat- 
ute itself, and incapable of repeal, whatever modern democracy 
may urge to the contrary— will make those States our competitors 
in the market, and, apart from the depression of moneyed affairs, 
must diminish the receipts from that source. But, suppose the 
annual proceeds to be three millions of dollars, the maximum that 
has been estimated here, what is this, compared with fourteen 
millions, the amount by which the Secretary of the Treasury in- 
forms us the current revenue of the year will be deficient? With 
or without the lands, therefore, the necessity for a loan is exigent 
and unavoidable. 

But, Mr. President, were it otherwise, I would ponder long 
before I could consent to disappoint the just expectations of the 
States and the people, in regard to these lands. No subject has 
been more discussed or better understood in this country for the 
last ten years, than that of the distribution of their proceeds 
among the States. None ocupied a more prominent place in the 
Presidential canvass of 1840. None was more distinctly or boldly 
put forth as a leading article of his creed of policy, in his letters, 
speeches, and addresses to his fellow-citizens, by the illustrious 
man who was then called on to preside over us. And, whether we 
look to the results of elections, the proceedings of popular as- 

294 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

semblies, or State Legislatures, no measure on which parties in 
our country have divided has, so far as I recollect, so many and 
such unequivocal evidences of public opinion in its favor. 

Sir, to my mind it is clear that the Constitution of the United 
States does not contemplate the public lands as among the means 
for the ordinary support of the Government. When the venerable 
men who framed that Constitution breathed into the nostrils of 
this Government the breath of life, and prescribed the laws by 
which it should live, and move, and have its being, they declared 
upon what element it should subsist. Aware of the vital impor- 
tance of the money power, which not only affords the supplies of 
peace, but the sinews of war, they proclaimed, as the very first of 
the authorities of Congress, the power "to lay and collect taxes, 
duties, imposts, and excises" for the purpose of paying the debts 
and providing for the common defence and general welfare of 
the United States; not such "taxes duties, imposts, and excises" 
as shall be necessary for the purposes expressed, in addition to, 
or after applying the proceeds of the public domain, but an 
absolute power is conferred, limited only by the application to 
constitutional objects. As to the public lands, nothing is said 
of them as a means of supply; they are not mentioned at all in 
the first three articles of the Constitution, which emphatically 
create the Government, by constituting a Legislature, Executive 
and Judiciary, and are brought forward in the latter part of the 
fourth article, not as a source of contribution to the Treasury, 
but a public property, the disposal of which is committed to 
Congress. "Congress shall have power to dispose of, and make 
all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory, or 
other property of the United States." How Congress shall dispose 
of it, whether by sale or gift, whether on one object or another, 
is not defined. The trust is without limitation, in the words of 
the Constitution. And for instruction as to our duty in adminis- 
tering it, we are thrown back upon the directions of the donors 
in the deeds of the ceding States. These declare them a "common 
fund for the use and benefit of such of the States as have become, 
or shall become, members of the confederation, or federal alli- 
ance," etc. And here let me remark, that I recognize no distinc- 
tion between the disposition of the lands ceded by the States, and 
those acquired by treaty. The great man, (Mr. Jefferson) , by 
whose negotiation our first great purchase of public land was 
made, entertained strong doubts as to the power to do so, and 
it was surely a doubtful question. But that difficulty being over- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 295 

come, and the question settled by practice, the lands thus acquired 
became "territory of the United States," to be "disposed of by 
Congress" in like manner with other territory. That that other 
territory was not looked to, in the Constitution, as a resource to 
pay current expenses; and that it was intended for the benefit of 
the States severally, I have endeavored to show. To enter no 
farther into the argument, to me it does appear that the cessions 
of North Carolina and Georgia, made after this present Govern- 
ment was established, and in full operation, granting their ter- 
ritory to the United States, not for revenue, not for the benefit 
and enjoyment of the United States as a political corporation, but 
for the use and benefit of "the United States of America, North 
Carolina and Georgia inclusive, according to their respective and 
usual proportion in the general charge and expenditure," etc., 
(the same in substance with the grants of Virginia and other 
States, which ceded under the old confederation) , afford an early 
exposition, not only of the designs of those States themselves on 
this subject, but of the general understanding of the deeds of 
the other States at that time. 

But, sir, the whole legislation of Congress in regard to these 
lands shows that they have never been considered as standing 
on the basis of the revenues of the nation. The immense grants 
which have been made, from time to time, to States, State cor- 
porations, benevolent institutions, and as charities to meritorious 
foreigners in distress, who have come among us, would never 
have been attempted, or allowed, out of a fund which had been 
raised by taxation, direct or indirect. And for a series of years 
past, the leading statesmen of all parties seem to have concurred 
in the opinion that, within a short period at least, the proceeds 
of the public lands ought no longer to be relied upon as a source 
of revenue; the difference between them being that those with 
whom it is my pride to be associated, adopting the policy of the 
eminent Senator from Kentucky, (Mr. Clay) , who has recently 
retired from this body, were for an equitable distribution of the 
land proceeds among all the States, while our honorable oppon- 
ents, approving the suggestion of General Jackson on this sub- 
ject, were for ceding the lands themselves to the States in which 
they are situated. In his message of December, 1832, the then 
President says: "It is desirable, however, that in convenient time 
this machinery (the land offices) be withdrawn from the States, 
and that the right of soil and the future disposition of it be sur- 
rendered to the States respectively in which it lies." I need not 

296 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

refer you to the report of the experienced Senator from Alabama, 
(Mr. King) , at the head of the land committee of that session, 
and the speeches of other distinguished gentlemen of that political 
school, to show that in both parties there has been a general con- 
currence in the propriety of "looking to the custom-house for 
revenue," and that the real contest upon the subject of the lands 
has been between a general and equitable, and a local and partial 
distribution. The evidences upon this point have been abundantly 
furnished by the Senator from Indiana, (Mr. Smith) , upon a 
recent occasion. I must therefore be pardoned, Mr. President, if 
I cannot yield to the eloquent appeals which are almost daily 
addressed to us against withdrawing the land fund from the ex- 
chequer of this Government, and giving it to the States. But 
yesterday we were told that the lands should be considered 
worthless for revenue; now we are assured from the same quarter, 
that they are as the purse of Fortunatus. You have only to retain 
them in hand, and wish, to obtain whatever treasure you want. 
While without them, you can neither get money, nor credit. 
These appeals, sir, are but the afterthoughts of the advocate, after 
a decision against him upon the points made at the hearing. And 
when the people are persuaded, as they are constantly, that every 
dollar of land proceeds distributed creates a necessity for new 
taxation, they will not fail to remember that those who oppose 
distribution when the Treasury is empty, did it with equal 
earnestness when it was full; they will reflect that this taxation 
will be the same whether the land proceeds are taken from the 
Treasury by the plan of distribution, in which the people of each 
State get their due share, or those other plans of surrender, ces- 
sion, or graduation, by which the whole is given to a few States. 
And, in this connexion, let me remind you that, if there were 
objections to the passage of the distribution bill, there are ob- 
jections to the repeal likewise. As I have shown already, two 
millions of acres of land have been granted to certain States by 
that bill, which are incapable of being recalled. With what pro- 
priety can these grants be allowed to remain, as they must re- 
main, in full force, whilst those States to whom the grant was of 
money only, are to be deprived of its benefits? 

I have said, Mr. President, that the authors of the Constitution 
did not rely upon the public lands as a means for the ordinary 
maintenance of Government, and in my humble opinion, to 
effectuate their design of making this a Government of limited 
powers, confined to comparatively few objects, it ought to be 

The Papers of William A. Graham 297 

restricted to those modes of supply pointed out in the Constitu- 
tion. All history will verify the fact, that those nations have been 
most remarkable for purity and correctness of administration, 
for the strictest accountability of public agents, and have longest 
preserved their liberties, who have kept their ruling powers 
constantly dependant upon the contributions, direct or indirect, 
annually levied upon the people. As a certain writer has remarked, 
"they who would trample on their rights are restrained by the 
want of their money." This general truth applies with tenfold 
force to a Government, like that of the United States, far distant 
from the great mass of the people whom it affects, and so com- 
plicated in its structure and diversified in its operations, that, 
to keep up a minute knowledge of its details of administration, 
federal politics must be made, to a great extent, an exclusive 
profession. That period of our history, when peculation and em- 
bezzlement were most rife, when the responsibility of public 
officers was least rigid, when salaries were unregulated, and the 
gains in many offices were almost what their holders desired, 
and when appropriations were most extravagant, was the period 
which I have reviewed in the first part of these remarks, when 
revenue was not redundant, but grossly deficient, but when there 
were surpluses and extraordinary means in your coffers, which 
the Administration had nothing to do with but to expend. Think 
you, sir, that, in any other state of the Treasury, a district at- 
torney would have been allowed to receive emoluments greater, 
by more than one-half, than the salary of the President of the 
United States— greater, according to his own declaration, when 
about to leave office, than "any citizen of a free republic ought 
to receive:" that marshals, collectors of customs, and postmasters, 
would have been permitted, like Roman pro-consuls, to enrich 
themselves to immense fortunes out of the offices created for the 
public benefit alone, and oftentimes by like instances of official 
abuses— abuses to which no corrective was applied until the 3rd. 
of March, 1841, the very last day of the late Administration, 
when a clause was inserted in the appropriation bill, a kind of 
bequest to pious uses upon the death bed repentance spoken of 
by the Senator from South Carolina, (Mr. Preston) , restraining 
the compensation of these functionaries to six thousand dollars 
per annum for the future. 

Sir, adversity is not without its uses. Lamentable as is the 
present condition of the public fisc, it will compel us to at least 
an earnest endeavor at economy and retrenchment. When the 

298 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

question comes to be determined, as it must now be determined, 
whether any particular office, institution, or department of ser- 
vice, is worth to the public what will be required in taxes for its 
support, I have an assured hope, that sinecures will be abolished, 
a more rigid accountability established, and our system reduced. 
Without any desire on my part, you, sir, have done me the honor 
to place my name on a committee on retrenchment, raised during 
the present session on the motion of my friend from Kentucky, 
(Mr. Morehead) , and I have felt it my duty, in the intervals 
allowed by other and prior engagements of my time, to look some- 
what into the public expenditures, both past and proposed. The 
estimates of the Secretary of the Treasury for the present year, 
amount to twenty-four and a half millions; that is, for the civil 
list, four millions, less, by nearly one million, than have been 
its expenditures for the last six or seven years. By rigorous 
examination I doubt not but that hundreds, thousands, perhaps 
hundreds of thousands more may be saved in this branch of the 
service; but if you wish to save millions, you must go into the 
War and Navy Departments. Wars, it has been long known, cost 
money; and we are learning by experience that rumors of wars 
are also expensive. For many years past, we have been threatened 
with hostilities, and I rejoice that there is now a prospect that 
these difficulties with foreign Powers approach a termination— 
I hope a peaceful termination. In the event of actual war, I shall 
be willing freely to contribute every thing to the national de- 
fence. But if we are to have peace, I am not for maintaining such 
a system of armament as would only befit a great militray empire. 
The estimates of the War Department, including Indian Affairs, 
etc., for this year, amount to about eleven and three-fourths 
millions of dollars— a sum equal to the whole cost of the Govern- 
ment twenty years ago, though less than has been expended in 
that Department for the last few years. Those for the Navy De- 
partment are near eight and three-fourths millions, being two 
and three-fourths or three millions more than has been applied 
to that service annually for several years past. Bating this excess, 
the estimates for this year are less than were the expenditures of 
the boasted fourth year of Mr. Van Buren's Administration. And, 
Sir, with the most sincere desire to see an efficient system of de- 
fences, and without any pretension to professional knowledge in 
such matters, I am unable to approve that rapidity and extent 
of increase contemplated by the Heads of Departments in the re- 
ports at the commencement of this session, unless in open prospect 

The Papers of William A. Graham 299 

of immediate war. We have seen from the repeated declarations 
of the Senator from New Hampshire, (Mr. Woodbury) , as to 
the appropriations of Congress exceeding his estimates, when 
Secretary of the Treasury, that Mars and Neptune prevailed over 
Mammon when the Treasury was full; and we are obliged to 
avoid yielding too much to their influences now that it is reduced. 
But, sir, I weary your patience. I rose but to explain the real 
unhappy condition of our finances and expenditures, the causes 
which led to it, and my conception of the mode of relief; to show 
that the question of the passage or rejection of this bill, is a 
question of affording or withholding the necessary supplies to the 
Government of our country. Such being our condition, I voted 
for it as I did for the issue of Treasury notes under the last 
Administration. I will not stop the action of the Government by 
denying it the means of going on, no matter who may be in power. 

From Tod R. Caldwell. 32 U. 


April 22nd, 1842. 

I take my pen for the purpose of asking the favour of you to 
send me, if you can conveniently do so, some Congressional docu- 
ments. I have, contrary to my own inclinations, consented to be 
one of the Candidates for the next Legislature, and as I have 
heretofore had very little to do with politics and feel that in 
order to give sufficient support to our, the Whig, party it will be 
necessary to devote some of my time to political matters before the 
Campaign commences. You will therefore confer a favour by 
sending me from time to time such documents or speeches de- 
livered in Congress, as you may think will be of advantage to 
me and assist me in defending the Whig policy, since the election 
of our lamented Harrison of course by Whig policy, I do not 
mean Tyler measures. And if it will not be asking too much of 
you I would thank you to mark with your pen or pencil such 
parts as should most particularly require my attention, I am this 

32 Tod Robin Caldwell (1818-1874), of Burke, a graduate of the university, who, 
up to this time, had taken no active part in politics. An intense Whig, he served 
in the commons, 1842-1844, 1848, 1858, in the state senate, 1850, and in the conven- 
tion of 1865. He became a Republican, and was elected the state's first lieutenant 
governor in 1868. After Holden's impeachment, he was acting governor, 1870-1871, 
succeeding him as governor after his conviction, and serving until 1874. 

300 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

particular for the reason that I never have paid much attention 
to politics and because I perceive from signs which I think in- 
dubitable, that there will be a desperate effort made by the locos 
to carry Burke. I do not however apprehend the slightest danger, 
but think that it will not be amiss to be well armed and ready for 
the fight. 

We have had the honour of the Hon'l L. D. Henry's company 
in our district for the last month, he has been to several of our 
Courts, Buncombe, Yancey, Burke & will be at Rutherford week 
after next, he had an appointment to address the people at this 
place on last Wednesday, but failed to do so, altho' he was present; 
his excuse was that he did not feel well enough tho' he rode into 
town 5 miles in the morning and back again in the evening. I 
think that the true cause was that he was advised by his friends 
that his best policy was to keep dark, lest he should arouse the 
people and determine them to go to the polls, and if they did 
they would be sure to vote against him; he left this place today 
for Charlotte, but says that he will again be among us. Gov. 
Morehead is also to be here in June and will sweep every thing 
as he goes. 

I will be pleased to hear from you as soon as your convenience 
will permit. 

From William R. Walker. 33 U. 


April 22nd., 1842. 

Your letter acknowledging the recipt of the money which I 
had collected and forwarded to you, came to hand in due time. 
The invitation therein contained, to correspond with you, is 
most cheerfully accepted. Yet I confess that, in commencing a 
correspondence of this kind, being one exclusively of friendship, 
I experience a difficulty in finding matter with which to interest 
you, that, it is to be hoped, will be removed by our subsequent 
correspondence, if I am to be honored by its continuance. 

As to the complexion of politics in North Carolina, I deem 
it unnecessary to write, since, from your numerous correspondents 
in the State, and your association with our delegation, you are 

Probably William Richmond Walker of Rockingham County. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 301 

doubtless much better acquainted with it than I possibly can be, 
exiled as I am from every other part of the world. 

I have read with very great pleasure the letters of Mr. Clay 
to the respective Committees in answer to theirs, inviting him 
to the Convention recently held in Raleigh. But his valedictory to 
the Senate, although remarkable for eloquence, for benevolence 
to the entire Senate, and pathetic in the extreme, was read with 
sincere regret. Since it announced the separation from that body 
of one who had long reflected honour upon the same. And I 
fear likewise, from the signs of the times, his separation from 
the service of his Country. This withdrawal, however, appears 
to have endeared him more closely to his friends, and to have 
produced with his opponents that feeling which is the natural 
consequence of injuries inflicted when reparation cannot be made. 

I think it probable nevertheless, that his resignation at this 
time (whilst the entire Harrison party (or at least the intelligent 
portion of it, who are seething with rage at the base defection of 
John Tyler) have the utmost confidence in him, and whilst the 
current of popular opinion, which for some time has been turned 
against him, and which now begins to run favourable) may 
afford some hope that he will yet be elevated to the Presidency. 
Especially since the loco focos appear to have lost the charm of 
Jackson popularity, have lost the influence of the patronage of 
the Government, and have no prominent man in their own ranks 
who has any considerable popularity. 

Last week I attended the Superior Court of Stokes, and for 
the first time since I have been at the bar, saw his honour, John 
M. Dick, upon the bench. And "inter nos" I found him a much 
meeker man than I had even anticipated. In his courtesy to the 
bar, and his independence and fairness in meeting cases far sur- 
passed some of the other gentlemen of the bench. 

The practice of the law, or rather, the practice of going to 
Court, has for me as yet few charms, neither does it give me many 
fees. If ever a poor fellow was tired of his apprenticeship, or 
afflicted, deeply afflicted, with melancholy for want of profes- 
sional success, I am he. For the sake of a location at which I 
expected practice I exiled myself from society, and until recently 
had no prospect of that success which, for pecuniary as well as 
professional reputation, I much covet. My prospects in this 
County begin to assume a more promising appearance, and I 
think ultimately, my practice will be entirely respectable. 

302 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

There is a habit here amongst the young men of the bar, of 
acting the demagogue for practice, but, much as I desire success, 
I have as yet been too miserly to pay the price of honour for the 
little pittance which might be picked up in this manner. And 
amongst those who have recently come to the bar, there is not 
one whose intellect should discourage any one who has any respect 
for his own capacity. Had I not commenced my profession late in 
life, or had I an estate which would justify my waiting for the 
moving of the Waters, my want of success would not be a source 
of any uneasiness. But I have now arrived at that period of life 
at which it is proper, if ever, to settle myself. Should I fix my 
affections upon a lady of no property, I have not an income suf- 
ficient for supporting us, if upon one of wealth, I could not bear 
the idea of depending upon the portion which I might receive 
from her to support myself. So that the melancholly of which I 
complain, arises not from any apprehension that I shall not 
eventually succeed, neither from any actual or apparent want of 
means to support myself individually, but from the reflection 
that for a time, at least, I am doomed to single blessedness, and 
to a separation from intelligent society. We have, however, in 
the County, as you know, some quite intelligent and hospitable 
citizens, and of their hospitality I frequently partake. 

Accept my acknowledgements for the public speeches, etc., 
which you forwarded to me. I do not expect to see you at our 
Superior Court, but hope I shall have the pleasure of meeting 
you in Hillsboro' after the adjournment of Congress. 

To Messrs. Gales and Seaton. 3 * U. 

May 2nd., 1842. 

In the Southern Literary Messenger for April, 1842, is "An 
Essay on the Civil Law, by a Lawyer of North Carolina," which 
is creditable to the taste and learning of the author. But on page 
251 of the work, I observe the following note on a certain pas- 
sage in the essay by the editor: 

''Peine forte et dure.— Unless recently amended, this dreadful 
judgment is to this day required by the laws of North Carolina. 

34 Editors of the National Intelligencer, of Washington. The letter was reprinted, 
in the Hillsborough Recorder, May 1 9th, 1842. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 303 

For, if we mistake not, the terrible sentence of peine forte et dure 
was inflicted by one of her Courts only a few years ago. When 
the prisoner was arraigned for trial he stood mute, and refused to 
plead either guilty or not guilty. Whereupon he was laid on his 
back upon the bare floor of the court house, great weights, as 
great, and greater than he could bear,— were placed upon his body, 
and in this condition he was fed with ditch water from a spoon 
till he died. We challenge the universal jurisprudence of modern 
Christendom to out-Herod this. We call upon our correspondent, 
and every other friend to humanity, to use their influence in 
erasing from the statute book of the good old North State this 
disgraceful and barbarous penance." 

Editor Southern Literary Messenger. 

That an editor at the Capital of Virginia, distant not more than 
ten or twelve hours' travel from that of North Carolina, and with 
a copy of the Statutes of the latter State at least as near to him 
as the Executive office in Richmond, should have ventured upon 
a statement so uncalled for, and so unfounded, in a publication 
aspiring to a higher character for candor than the ordinary news- 
paper press— a statement than which Hall, Trollope, Marryat, 
et id omne genus, have put forth no calumny on our country so 
ridiculously extravagant, is certainly a matter to be regretted by 
all the lovers of that literature to which the Messenger professes 
to be devoted. Had the editor deigned to consult the first volume 
of the Revised Statutes of North Carolina, which reduces into but 
little more than 600 pages the whole body of her public statute 
law which is now in force, from Magna Charta of Great Britain 
until the year 1837, he might at least have spared his appeal to 
the "friends of humanity" to use their influence in erasing a 
barbarous provision from her statute-book. He will there neither 
find the peine forte et dure of three centuries ago, nor any thing 
which even a barbarian could mistake for it. But, on the contrary, 
an express provision, that, "if any person arraigned shall stand 
mute, of malice, or will not answer directly to the indictment, 
in every such case it shall and may be lawful for the Court to 
order the proper officer to enter a plea of not guilty, on behalf 
of such person; and the plea so entered shall have the same force 
and effect as if such person had actually pleaded the same." 

The readers of the Messenger who may chance to read this, will 
judge whether the code of North Carolina is wanting in humanity, 

304 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

or the editor of the Messenger in accuracy of information on a 
subject which he volunteers to illustrate. This provision, it is true, 
was inserted in the Revisal of 1836 for the first time. But it was 
not then inserted because the old doctrine of peine forte et dure 
had ever prevailed in the state. Ail such statutes and parts of the 
common law of Great Britain as had been theretofore in force 
and use in the colony, and as were not inconsistent with the new 
form of government, were adopted by act of the General Assembly 
in 1777. But there is no history or tradition of the existence of 
this barbarism, "in force or use," at any time in the colony, and 
it is manifestly inconsistent with certain declarations in the Bill 
of Rights, which forms a part of the Constitution, adopted in 
1776. It therefore never had a foothold in her criminal law. And 
with an acquaintance somewhat familiar with the Reports of 
cases decided in her Courts, which reach back nearly to the period 
of the Revolution, and with a personal acquaintance with, I 
believe, every professional man in the State now living, who has 
been at the bar for as much as five years, I have never read, or 
heard of any incident in the proceedings of those Courts which 
could furnish even a suggestion for the tale of atrocity which is 
told with so much minuteness, and dwelt on with such holy 
horror by the editor of the Messenger, as having been realized 
"in one of the Courts of North Carolina only a few years ago;" 
a tale which, if true, would degrade a North Carolina Judge 
below the level of a Scroggs, 35 or a Jeffries, 36 exhibit her unsur- 
passed system of enlightened jurisprudence as no better than 
that of our English ancestors in the worst times of feudal despo- 
tism, and her free and gallant people as not only patient specta- 
tors, but the ready and willing instruments of a most cruel and 
savage murder. 

So sheer and baseless fabrication is hardly to be found in the 
adventures of Munchausen. Yet the story is told with a precision 
of description which might almost indicate a personal attesta- 
tion, and more in sorrow than in anger. The unlucky culprit 
having been "arraigned, stood mute; whereupon he was laid upon 
his back upon the bare floor, great weights— as great, and greater, 

35 Sir William Scroggs (1623-1683), lord chief justice of England, educated at 
Oxford, noted for his violence and partisanship, particularly in the trial of Catho- 
lics, that he was known as "Mouth," "undoubtedly one of the worst judges that 
ever disgraced the English bench." 

86 George Jeffreys (1648-1689), judge and lord chancellor of England. He was 
utterly corrupt, and is best remembered for his conduct of the "bloody assizes." He 
died in prison. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 305 

than he could bear— were placed upon his body, and in this condi- 
tion he was fed with ditch-water from a spoon till he died." This 
last idea of the ditch-water is, I think, a refinement upon the old 
mode of torture, and I apprehend has no precedent in the year 
books. It was probably suggested to the writer by some of the 
incidents which history records as attending the death of the 
second Edward; and, as he was wholly unrestrained by any facts 
in drawing his picture, it would have been more graphic had 
he adopted the mode of killing by which that ill-fated monarch 
came to an end. As it is, it is altogether doubtful whether the 
modern victim made his exit by the pressure of superincumbent 
weights, or, like Socrates, perished from drink; whereas there 
could have been no mistake in heated iron. 

I am aware, Messrs. Editors, of a habitual disposition in certain 
quarters to disparage the character and institutions of North 
Carolina, and to affect those patronising and ridiculous airs of 
superiority which many upstart foreigners have assumed towards 
our country in general. Whether the editor of the Southern 
Literary Messenger is to be included in this category I know not. 
If he be, there is some consolation in being able to perceive 
from this, his first effort, (so far as I have known,) that, like 
those aforesaid foreigners, his attempt at disparagement is too 
destitute of truth to do much harm among persons of tolerable 
information. I will not "challenge the universal jurisprudence of 
modern Christendom" to a comparison with that of my native 
state, lest, like the editor of the Messenger, I should be found 
arrogating an omniscience which indicated that I knew nothing 
of either. But I will venture to say to the intelligent reader of 
the Messenger, who may disport himself in "the gladsome light 
of jurisprudence," that in no State of this Union will he find a 
Constitution more redolent of genuine, rational, American free- 
dom—a more liberal, well defined, just, and humane code of laws, 
and more benevolence, firmness, and general intellectual ability 
in their administration, than in the State of North Carolina. 

I am, with high respect, your obedient servant, 

From Thomas S. Hoskins. U. 

Edenton, N. C. May 9, 1842. 

I have just had the pleasure of receiving & reading your most 
excellent speech on the "Loan bill," delivered in the Senate on 

306 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

the 13th ult., a copy of which you honored me with. I am greatly 
indebted to you for thus thinking of me occasionally. I have also 
previously, during the present Session of Congress, had the honor 
of receiving from you, other speeches & documents, for which you 
will please accept my grateful thanks. 

Judge Berrien's 37 able Speech on the "Repeal of the Bank- 
rupt Bill," which you or Rayner one sent me some time back, has 
accidentally been mutilated, & as it is such an admirable speech, 
I should be pleased to receive another copy, if any are afloat now. 
For I take great pride in preserving these speeches in pamphlet 
form. By the bye, this man, Berrien, is one of our ablest men, in 
my opinion, from his speeches. 

I have intended writing you before now, but I know you must 
be a good deal bothered with so general a correspondence, as all 
public men are apt to be. 

When I read that great man's farewell speech in the Senate, 
from "Henry Clay of the U. S." (as Mr. Badger says,) , I felt as 
if we had lost him forever. But I hope not. I hope we shall have 
the benefit of his councils in a higher sphere yet. The Old North 
State has, you see, taken the lead. I hope we may be successful. 
But prospects appear gloomy. The elections all go against us. 
And the Old Dominion still continues to disgrace herself. She 
is the meanest State in the Union, except perhaps Mississippi. 
'Tis true however that the Whigs are too much disheartened by 
the conduct of their Cap ting Tyler, are almost prepared to give 
up in dispair, thinking after a long 12 years struggle they fortun- 
ately obtained the ascendancy, that providentially they lost it in 
one short month, & have to struggle for another four years, with 
a somewhat dark prospect ahead. It is too bad;— almost past endur- 

And our old friend Lewis Williams, "the father of the House," 
has gone ! ! I was very much grieved at the event. But we all have 
to go, sooner or later,— the high & the low. 

I was very much pleased at your's and Rayner's notice of the 
sad occurrance. I have understood that Rayner was going to get 
married 2c abandon his seat in Congress. I hope it is not so. Tell 
him it must not be. I see by the papers that the apportionment 
Bill will probably give N. C. the same representation, (13). If 

87 John Macpherson Berrien (1781-1856), of Georgia, a native of New Jersey. 
Educated at Princeton, he settled in Savannah. He was solicitor, judge, captain in 
the War of 1812, state senator, and United States senator, 1825-1829, resigning to 
enter Jackson's cabinet as attorney general. He resigned in 1831. He returned to 
the senate as a Whig, in 1841, and served to 1852. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 307 

so his District will remain the same; & we have no other man to 
depend on. He is our main-stay. If it should so turn up that we 
could add Bertie to our District, & Rayner quits, then we should 
rally under the flag of Cherry, a host within himself. I see Stanly 
& Wise are continually quarreling. They will have to shoot each 
other yet, I expect. 

My respects to Judge Mangum & Rayner. I should be pleased 
to hear from you again. 

To David L. Swain. U. Swain Mss. 

Washington City, 
May 10th, 1842. 

You will perceive by the published list in the papers, that we 
have not succeeded in procuring the appointment of visiter to 
the Military Academy for our friend Professor Phillips. I know 
not on whose recommendation the appointment of Gen'l McRae 
(as published) has been made. No one of the Whigs of our 
delegation, I have satisfied myself, made any recommendation of 
him, or knew that he was an applicant. Mr. Washington, who 
has just returned from New Bern, says that it is not Gen'l McRae, 
but Gen'l A. F. Gaston who has been appointed, there was a letter 
of recommendation in his behalf, sent in I believe by the 
representative from his district. But I do not know that any other 
person joined in it. Or that he did more than send to the depart- 
ment the letter he had received. 

I have so little confidence in the Secretary of War, however, 
that I can conjecture nothing of his motives of action. I have 
never been introduced to him, & know him only as "Secretary 
War," the inscription on his card, according to the style of the 
present Cabinet Ministers. Under such a set, there can be little 
hope of regular or rational action. 

Your Friend Mr. Baring 38 has been here recently on a visit to 
his kinsman Lord Ashburton. I had the honor to dine a few days 
since, with his Lordship, who is entertaining in a magnificent style 
of hospitality. He is exceedingly plain in manners and mind, 
And is certainly very far from being the man to argue questions 
of international Law with Mr. Webster. 

38 Charles Baring (1773-1865), of Charleston, a native of England, a member of 
the famous family of bankers. He had a home at Flat Bock, there in Buncombe 
County where Swain probably met him. 

308 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

There has been a very violent quarrel between Messrs. Stanly 
and Wise, and I doubt whether serious results may not ensue. Of 
this, however, say nothing as coming from me. 

From Priestley H. Mangum. A. 


May 12th, 1842. 

You have to look to your friends to be informed of small mat- 
ters at home, which altho' unimportant are sometimes well 
enough to be known. In the first place, I tender you my acknow- 
ledgements for your several favours, including your valuable 
speech on the Loan Bill; and especially for your spirited and 
timely defence of the Old North State against the ignorant & 
wanton assault of Virginian insolence. This thing will tell! 

You have long since heard all about our State Whig Conven- 
tion. One remark in reference to it. I never saw a finer spirit 
among our friends than that occasion evinced, and what under 
other crises would clearly indicate that victory was to crown our 
efforts in the approaching Summer Elections. I could not as- 
certain, after the most anxious inquiries of delegates from all 
quarters, that there was any known defection from the Whig 
ranks in the State. And yet I confess I have my misgivings as 
to the complexion of our next Legislature; this you may put 
down as the result of those timid apprehensions common to ad- 
vanced years. But I would fain have it believed that I am not 
yet an old man. I fear the result, because the "floating Capital" 
of the Country & perhaps no State has more of that curse than 
this— may likely be carried by the force of the senseless cry of 
our opponents on the score of the promise of better times not being 
redeemed; notwithstanding the least intelligence would see that 
the fault was not with the Whigs; and as little honesty on the 
part of the adversary, would compel an admission of this truth. 
The pecuniary pressure of the day will hurt us more than any 
thing else, and it seems to me, that that argument might be most 
triumphantly and successfully met provided we should bring into 
the field proper speakers, and there was a proper material to be 
acted upon. The more I think of it, the better I am satisfied that 
Jno. Tyler deserves to atone for his unmanly vile treachery, in 
the merciless hands of the hangman. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 309 

Last week at Granville Court, there was rather an embarrass- 
ing "position;" the more to be regretted as one of your friends 
was the prominent actor. Previously to Court week, some spirited 
young men from the "Back side of Tar River." who had been 
delegates to the State Convention & had doubtless gone home 
strongly tinctured with a loathing for every thing like "Tylerism," 
prevailed upon some of their most respectable Whig neighbours 
to join them in a letter to their Senator Johnston, 39 & Com- 
moner R. B. Gilliam, calling upon each for his views upon cer- 
tain Whig measures. Mr. Gilliam is now between wind & water 
upon a U. S. Bank. Mr. Johnston gave a written answer, not 
exactly as we would have had it, but upon the whole pretty good 
& safe. Mr. Gilliam was much perplexed, not exactly certain 
whether this thing, or that thing, was the right thing, but how- 
ever defered giving an answer untill Court Week, on account of 
the pressure of other business. Well, we from Hillsboro' & Raleigh, 
upon reaching Court & hearing of the matter, & learning that 
Mr. Gilliam had made it known to some of his friends that he had 
declined being a Candidate for the Assembly because of his 
pecuniary interests, etc., set ourselves to work to accommodate 
difficulties by suppressing the written correspondence, which was 
designed by the young men to be published; and by inducing the 
young men to believe Mr. Gilliam was a proper good Whig, & by 
trying to prevail upon Gilliam to consent to run. 

On Tuesday was their Whig meeting, got up to nominate 
Candidates. Mr. Gilliam was there to answer the letter in his 
speech, & did so in a manner, I suppose, to suit that Whig atmos- 
phere, but he could not take Mr. Clay's Bank Bill (Jno. Eaton, 
etc., clapping!!) he was not prepared however to say that he was 
against a Bank, prefered E wing's— that perhaps contained objec- 
tionable features—Went for Mr. Clay, if he should be the nominee 
of the Whig party, was opposed to the President's Land distribu- 
tion repeal message, & to Jno. Tyler in every thing, & hoped and 
begged the people would let him off from being a Candidate, etc. 

A committee was raised, including some of the young men 
afores'd, who reported a ticket of Candidates, Mr. Gilliam & 
others, & so the thing went off. Mr. Gilliam talks of backing out 
after awhile. 

In Orange there is some stir. At our Feb. Court, from the vote 
of the Magistrates upon the question of a new Court House, a 

39 William A. Johnson, state senator from Granville, 

310 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

suspicion occurred that Dr. Montgomery was secretly maneuver- 
ing to unite his "peculiar friends" with persons in the East of 
the County. By help of this view, I prevailed upon Sam Holt at 
the State Convention to agree to harmonize with us in regard 
to the "Division Question" You must know that we are anxious 
and determined if possible, to seperate the local question of 
dividing the County from National politicks in our August 
Election; & that our plan is, for the Court at May by an order to 
direct the Shrff. to poll the votes of the people at every Election 
precinct, for & against Division, 8c for the Whig Ticket to pledge 
to carry out the will of the Majority. Lately, as you will see from 
the Recorder, Montgomery and son-in-law had a meeting at High 
Falls, & avowed their determination to go for a Central division, 
& nothing short of it, & carried it in their Meeting over a re- 
spectable minority. The proceedings of that Meeting have lighted 
the torch in all that Country. Those people believe that an at- 
tempt at a Central division would defeat every thing on the sub- 
ject, hence they are holding meetings among themselves, contra; 
& our Whig friends over the River are writing us that every thing 
is going on well there. The prospect now is favourable. It is 
obvious that Dr. Mont. & Gen'l Allison are mutually jealous of 
each other. Mont, may attempt to bring out Candidates from the 
extreme West and East, including himself, & the Allison faction, 
which is the stronger, will probably make a ticket independantly 
of Doct. Mont. One certain good, it may be assumed, is gained, 
viz: The way is opened for seperating the local question from the 
politicks of the County. I doubt not that Doct: Mont is soured 
with his party for their having passed over him so silently in get- 
ting up a Democratic Candidate for Congress last Spring; & 
that his purpose now is, to advance himself upon the question 
of a "Central division," if possible. This may, or may not, benefit 
us. I want you to send documents, etc., to the following persons, 
viz: Tom Holden, 40 Wm. Lipscom, Henderson Parrish (Red 
Mountain) Sc Doctor C. Parrish. I suspect the old Doct is cooing 
in that quarter. 

As to our Candidates, I expect we shall have Giles Mebane, 
H. K. Nash, 41 Doct. Holt, 42 Oldham, & a Stony Creek man or 
H. Parker. 43 Waddell lately is almost in the notion— or keeps dark 

40 Thomas Holden was a man of considerable influence in Orange County. 

41 Henry Kollock Nash (1817-1897), of Hillsboro, graduate of the university, a 
lawyer, who was a member of the commons in 1842, 

42 Dr. Samuel Holt. 

** Commonly known as Hav. Parker, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 311 

on the subject that he may enjoy the flourish of declining a nomi- 
nation. But the Cty. Convention will not nominate him, unless 
he previously indicates a willingness to accept in the event of his 
being nominated. For I myself should be unwilling to throw upon 
Mebane 44 the unpleasant reflection of his being run after Waddell 
shall have declined. I think that much is due the zealous, self 
sacrificing devotion of Mebane to the cause heretofore. 

I have thus gone into details at the hazard of incurring the 
charge of violating good taste. But some of those details may pos- 
sess interest, as you are removed from the scene of action. Yet I 
ought to have remembered that you are unfitted for their enjoy- 
ment by reason of the high matters constantly pressing upon your 

What are you likely to do in furtherance of the great Whig 
principles for which we fought, & bled, & perhaps died, in the 
memorable campaign of '40? Has the mock dignity of President 
Tyler collected around him a formidible show of friends? or 
awed into submissive obedience any stout Whig heart in the 
Senate? or in the House? or is it likely to sway villages or States? or 
to suppress the Suffrage faction in little Rhode Island? Will you 
be able to hold a wholesome rein in the Senate upon his nomina- 
tions? Will the Whigs be able to keep the ascendancy in both 
Houses of Congress? And when will you adjourn? These are sub- 
jects of some moment, & particularly the last, inasmuch as we 
hold that every dollar saved is two made. 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Washington City, 

May 14th, 1842. 

So far as I can hear from N. C. I think our friends are getting 
ready for the contest in August, and are generally well organized. 
But in the New Bern district, we fear, that the Counties may be 
lost by the failure of suitable candidates to offer themselves. 
Could you not, at the Carteret and Jones Courts, do something 
in inspiriting our friends with proper hope, and bring out in- 
fluential men? In Craven also, Washington is fearful that there 
will be difficulty in getting out Candidates. My impression is, 
that we shall lose nothing of consequence in the other districts. 

u Giles Mebane. 

312 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

There is great excitement here, in consequence of the affair 
between Stanly and Wise. Process has been sued out on the affi- 
davit of F. S. Key. 45 Stanly eluded the officers, and is now in 
Maryland. Wise has been arrested, and carried before the Judge 
of the district, and yesterday and today, he and his Va. Colleagues 
are enlightening the Judge on the subject of Parliamentry privi- 
ledge. Wise refuses to enter into recognizance to keep the peace 
out of this district. On the ground that the Judge has not Juris- 
diction beyond the district. The Judge has taken no notice of 
the Assault and battery committed by Wise on Stanly last Satur- 
day, which would give a clear right to bind him for his appearance 
at the next district Court. In the mean time, should he kill or 
injure Stanly, he may be punished with the utmost extent of 
severity for the assault and battery. You need not be surprized 
to hear that they have fought in the course of the next week. I 
can't see any possibility of escape. 

Dr. Jas. Washington and sister were here last night, and went 
on today to Phila. He had a fall into Roanoke River (which 
was likely to cool off his love) but only gave him a shake of the 
ague which kept a day in Richmond. 

I dined a few days since with Lord Ashburton, who is enter- 
taining in a magnificent style of hospitality. He is however, a 
plain, mercantile looking person, and certainly not the man to 
discuss questions of International Law, with Webster. 

tP *ff ?w" *R* *R? 

To Paul C. Cameron. U. Cameron Mss. 

Washington City 
May 20th, 1842. 

My Dear Sir 

I received your kind letter in due time, and regret that I have 
so long delayed a reply. In relation to our friend Waddells be- 
coming a candidate, I think with you that our success in Orange 
will much depend on it. I had written him some time before the 
receipt of your letter to that effect, and may drop him a line 

^Francis Scott Key (1779-1843), a native of Maryland, a graduate of St. Johns 
College, who had been a law partner of Roger B. Taney, and United States attorney 
for the District of Columbia. He is best known, of course, as the author of "The 
Star Spangled Banner." 

The Papers of William A. Graham 313 

again, in a day or two. If however in full view of all his duties 
private as well as public, he cannot give his consent to offer, I 
doubt not it will be for reasons which cannot be complained of 
by our friends, and much as I desire it on every account, I feel 
therefore restrained from urginig him with too much importunity. 

You have no doubt heard of the quarrel between Stanly & Wise, 
the former is still in Maryland, and the impression is, that a fight 
cannot be avoided, but how soon a matter of some doubt. Wise is 
under recognizance in $3,000 to keep the peace, and not to leave 
the district for the purpose of a duel with Stanly, this however it 
is understood will not have effect as to the latter provision. 

We are all agog about the rebellion in Rhode Island. Every mail 
is looked to for news of bloodshed, and outbreak. Dorr the pre- 
tended Governor, has organized a force and is guarded constantly. 
By the last account he has seized some pieces of Artillery, and 
threatened an attack on the Arsenal. The President at first mani- 
fested proper firmness, but I very much apprehend as is his 
nature, he is vacillating, as usual. Had he acted with the energy 
of General Washington, in the case of the Wiskey insurrection, 
by sending a sufficient force at once to put down all insurrection, 
it would have ended without loss of life. But in present circum- 
stances there is imminent danger of collision, and with a large 
portion of the Locofoco party here, encouraging the insurgents, 
the excitement may be greatly extended, especially, as the in- 
surgents profess to be contending for the popular doctrine of the 
right of universal suffrage. Dorr is president of an abolition society, 
and of course goes for the largest liberty. And upon his doctrine 
a majority without regard to color, or condition, have at any time 
a right to overturn the existing Government, and set up their 
will in its stead. 

I fear the session of Congress is to be unusually long, there 
is no mode of preventing it, as there is much business yet neces- 
sary to be done. 

I hope our friends in Orange will make the best selection they 
can of candidates. I have taken some pains in endeavouring to 
spread correct information among them, and think there is no 
cause for despondency in a fair contest. Indeed I have the most 
sanguine belief that we shall carry the state by a decisive major- 

#Jfc J£ Jt, Jt 

tt ^r w ^p 

314 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From Denison Olmsted. U. 

Yale College, May 17th, 1842. 

I thank you for your able Speech on the "Loan Bill," which I 
have read with equal interest and instruction. 

You are aware, perhaps, that teachers as they grow old, are 
always prone to appropriate to themselves a large share of the 
honors acquired by their pupils. 

Whether it be this common frailty or not I do not know, but 
certain I am that nothing affords me more pleasure than to 
witness the advancement of those in whose early education I bore 
even a humble part. 

I beg you to present me very respectfully to such members of 
the North Carolina delegation as may remember me, and be- 
lieve me. 

Very Respectfully & Truly Yrs, 

From James W. Bryan. U. 


May 24th, 1842. 

I wrote an Editorial for the Spectator the last week and nomi- 
nated three Candidates for Craven, all of which seems to take 
very well. At Carteret last week I caused them to call a Whig 
meeting to nominate their Candidates there, and matters seem 
to be getting along very well in the way of politics. 

dfc slfe dfe dfc dfc 

*TC* "«• "A* W "IP 

We are all on the tiptoe of expectation to hear from Stanly & 
Wise. Newbern feels great interest of course, in Stanly, and all 
wish him to come off conqueror in the contest. It is an affair to 
be much regretted by the whole Country. 

"A* Tl* W W *«> 

The Papers of William A. Graham 315 

From Nicholas Lanier Williams** U. 

Panther Creek, 25th. May, 1842. 

By last nights mail I rec'd a letter from Joseph L. Williams 47 
dated the 18th inst. at Raleigh, saying that in a conversation with 
you, a few days before he left Washington, that you expressed 
much solicitude as to the probable fate of the Whig ticket in 

The Whigs of this County nominated their candidates at our 
last Court, Col. R. C. Puryear 48 for the Senate; H. P. Poindexter 
N. Boyden, and Jesse Franklin 49 Esqr. for the Commons. This 
ticket cannot be beaten by any other, which may be brought out 
in oposition to it. I think you may be well assured that Surry is 

We had considerable difficulty in getting Puryear, and Boyden, 
before the people again; they both positively refused at one time, 
and Puryear went off to the South on business and to avoid a 
nomination just before Court. I was prevented by a sick child, 
from going to Court myself, but I wrote to several of my friends 
to have Puryear nominated for the Senate in his absence, that I 
thought it was the only way we could hold him on. Puryear has 
since returned and has consented to run. 

If the other Counties will bring out as strong a ticket, as we 
have done, the Whigs will have a very large majority in the 

46 Nicholas Lanier Williams (1799-1886), of Panther Creek, Surry County, a 
member of the distinguished Williams family, was an able man of high character 
and wide popularity and influence. He was, briefly, a student at the university, and 
long one of its most devoted Trustees. He became a somewhat extensive planter, 
and, while keenly interested as a Whig, in politics, he never sought office, his 
short service on the council of state in 1864 being his only acceptance of any 
appointment. He was a brother of Lewis, Robert, John, and Thomas L., and uncle 
of Joseph Lanier Williams, who made history, not only in North Carolina, but in 
Tennessee, Mississippi, and Louisiana. He is, perhaps, most widely remembered 
today through the fame enjoyed by the products of his distillery. 

4,7 Joseph L. Williams (1807-1865), of Tennessee, above referred to, was educated 
at the university, and at West Point. He was a prominent lawyer, and a Whig 
member of congress, 1837-1843. 

^Richard Clauselle Puryear (1801-1867), of Surry County, a native of Virginia, 
a lawyer, who served in the commons, 1838, 1844-1846, 1852, and in the state senate, 
1840. He was a member of congress, 1853-1857, and of the Confederate provisional 

49 Jesse Franklin (1760-1823), a native of Virginia, who came to North Carolina 
during the Revolution, in which he served, being at King's Mountain and Guilford 
Court House, among other battles. He served in the commons, 1793-1794, 1797-1798, 
in the state senate, 1805-1806, was a member of congress, 1795-1797, of the senate, 
1799-1805, (president pro tern., 1804-1805), 1807-1813, and was governor, 1820-1821. 
He was commissioner to treat with the Chickasaw and Cherokee Indians. 

316 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

I am really sorry that I had not the pleasure of seeing you at 
Washington in my late visit to that place. I called at the Senate 
twice to see you; once you were occupying the Chair, and the 
other time, you were not in the Senate. I requested Mr. James 
Graham to inform you of my disappointment. 

I should be glad to hear from you at all times. 

From Priestley H. Mangum. U. 


May 30th., 1842. 

Don't be alarmed, for I promise you that I am not intent again 
upon inflicting a long letter upon you. 

Our doings of last week being over, I will give you a sketch 
of the results, & the whys and wherefores. Previously to Court, 
I was satisfactorily informed that in the eastern part of the County, 
and particularly within the range of the Round Hill Election, 
there was cause to fear a loss of some twenty-five votes, unless a 
controlling influence from the neighborhod was brought to bear 
upon the Election. That fact led to the proposing Hav. Parker 
to the consideration of our friends early in the week. Cain 
Creek desired a candidate, but was divided between Oldham & 
Wm. Thompson. Again Stoney Creek had its aspirations, Faucett 
& Col. Grahams. Waddell's coming in rendered it indispensable 
to take but one Candidate from those three sections. Hillsboro' 
was against Parker, as he never could go for any thing that was 
not of self; but over the River, part of Cain Creek, and some 
scatteringly all over the County, pointed to Parker as preferable 
for the 4th. Commoner. We had informal meetings on Tuesday 
and Thursday Evenings, to pave the way to a harmonious action. 
On Thursday Evening, to avoid heartburnings on this point, I 
stated our belief of a probable loss from the character of the River 
population, but left it entirely with our friends abroad to decide, 
professing a willingness to take H. Nash as the Eastern Candidate, 
if others should decide not to take Parker. That, I thought, ought 
to satisfy friends with me and mine. Whether it has done it, I 
don't know. The difficulty being over thus far, Waddell was cause 
of a much greater one. Not untill Monday did he say to his 
friends that he would accept of a nomination. Between March 
Ct. and May; our friends over the County, having lost sight of 

The Papers of William A. Graham 317 

Waddell, had been looking to Mebane for the Senate, which led 
to neighbourhoods cherishing with more fondness the expectation 
of more candidates in the Commons than our number would 
admit of selecting with Waddell, viz: Flat River, Cain Creek, over 
the River and Nash, all could have been served. As to Grahams, 
public opinion was well settled against him, 8c pretty well that 
no candidate from Stoney Creek would impart strength to the 
Ticket. But Waddell consents. Mr. Cameron s letter, the Chair- 
man of the Central Committee's letter at Raleigh— all of which 
I suspect you & Willie had a hand in— were to Mr. Waddell 
irresistablel He consents, and we thought that altho' he is 
eternally injuring the cause when not a candidate, he was most 
available & efficient in the heat of a Canvass, & most terrible to 
the Enemy. But great opposition appeared against him from 
our political friends, over the River principally, but a good deal 
over the County. He was much alarmed, & would have burst 
forth, as usual, but for Judge Nash & a few of us. It was ap- 
parent that it could be settled only in the Committee that might 
be raised, two from each Captain's Company, selected by the 
delegates of each Company; to report a Ticket of Candidates. 
John Norwood had zealous friends in opposition to Waddell, as 
had Giles Mebane. Well, we go into Convention, the Committee 
is raised, its members having been selected in the early part of 
the day by the delegates of each Company, with strict reference to 
the Senate principally, and to the fourth Commoner, and after 
the absence of an hour or so, they reported Waddell in the 
Senate, G. Mebane, H. Nash, Doct. Holt, & Hav. Parker in the 
Corn's., & unanimously adopted by the Convention. The can- 
didates accepted. (In the Committee the vote stood 32 for Wad- 
dell, 16 I believe for Mebane, 6 for Nor'd— all this is secret.) 
But unanimity prevailed as far as the public knows. Gov: More- 
head, soon after the Convention closed its business, addressed 
the public from the Porch of the Lodge, and gave us one of the 
very best of popular speeches, which told. All things look well 
in the County. By order of Ct. the vote upon Central division 
is to be taken, & that question will be separated, I think, from 
politicks this summer. 

318 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From Giles Mebane. U. 

White Oak, 

May 30th, 1842. 

More than a month ago I wrote a letter to the Editors of the 
Inteligencer requesting them to change the address of my paper 
so as to direct it to Mason Hall via Raleigh and Hillsborough. 
They have paid no attention to my request and the grievance I 
then laboured under continues unredressed— Which is the tardy 
and irregular receipt of the Inteligencer. It comes to me from 
Greensborough and often two Nos. together. The P. M. in 
Greensborough told me the same paper for subscribers in the 
eastern part of the State came to his office. I have heard com- 
plaints of the same kind about Yanceyville, & I believe Mr. Thorn 
stoped his paper because it came so irregularly. I wrote to the 
Editors because I disliked to trouble a friend with such a matter. 
But I must request you to write a note to the Editor directing 
them to write on the envelope of my paper: Via Hillsborough. I 
believe the paper is regularly Rec'd in Hillsborough & I wish 
mine to come in the same mail. 

At May Court Gov. Morehead came to Hillsborough & spoke 
to a large assembly of people. The Whigs in the County are 
generally stirred up for the Summer campaign. The Governor is 
very sanguine as to the ascendancy of Whig principles in the 
State & the next Legislature. Our County ticket of candidates 
I suppose you have seen in the Recorder. I think with proper 
and usual elections we shall be able to carry it through in 
triumph. A supply of such reports as have been made by and to 
Congress exposing the Van Buren administration would be very 
acceptable to me. I have seen a number in the papers but would 
be pleased to have them in pamphlet for convenience. I would 
be glad to receive any speech or document containing the best 
views on the bank or tariff question so far as Mr. Clay is to be 
vindicated. The State convention having nominated him his name 
will mingle more or less with our election. 

I see the True Whig requests from members of Congress the 
names of their constituents who would like to take that paper. I 
have not seen but one or two Nos. and do not know it's character 
if you think it an efficient auxiliary you may hand in my name 
as a subscriber. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 319 

From J. Kerner. U. 

Scotts Creek, [Haywood Co.,] May 31st, 1842. 

I see from the public prints and the action of the Senate, that 
a Treaty is now pending, or proposed, with the Cherokees East 
the Mississippi. You will pardon me for suggesting the propriety 
of such a treaty. 

Under the provisions of the Treaties of 1817 & 19, many of 
the Cherokees held reservations within the limits of Haywood 
& Macon Counties, that Treaty provided that the Reservee pos- 
sessed only a life Estate in the Reservations— the State has ques- 
tioned that title, by that Treaty the children are to possess the 
fee simple title at the death of the Reservee. Many of the Re- 
servees are dead and the heirs are in the act of commencing suits 
in ejectment against the purchasers under the State, and But for 
the timely interference of Mr W. H. Thomas, the Cherokee 
agent, Suits would have been going on at this time. On enquiry 
you will ascertain that numerous suits have already found their 
way into the Courts of Tennessee. 

I have recently spent some 6 or 7 days in the neighborhood of 
the Cherokees in this County; the best understanding exists 
Between them & the whites. Much anxiety is felt by the Citizens 
in relation to the Legal Estate of the heirs in the various Reserva- 
tions in this vicinity; the value of property Jeopardized Can not 
be less than $20 000. A Treaty of that kind to rest and provide 
for the removal of the Cherokees West in a friendly way at some 
future day as they may desire to go, after the old & infirm are no 
more, w T ould give Satisfaction Generally. 

At a Council held some 8 weeks ago— I was present— and from 
Rumors circulating I was surprised to find that not so many as 
one was found willing to go West; by the next mail I will give 
you such information as can be selected in Relation to the pro- 
posed Treaty. 

320 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Speech On The Districting Clause 


The Apportionment Bill 50 

In The Senate Of The United States,, 

June 3rd., 1842. 

Mr. President: I am aware of the impatience of the Senate 
to vote on this bill, and of the urgency with which the State 
Legislatures, either now in session, or shortly to convene, demand 
speedy action upon it. But, as the provision contained in the 
second section of the bill, requiring members of the House of 
Representatives to be chosen in every State by single districts, 
is about to be established by a law of Congress for the first time, 
and as it has been inveighed against in this debate as an innova- 
tion, not solicited or desired in any quarter, contrary to the faith 
and spirit of the Constitution, and forbidden by its terms, I, 
who give to it my cordial approbation, must claim your indul- 
gence to offer my views in its defence. 

I have listened attentively to the new, bold, and ingenious 
theory of the honorable Senator from Alabama, (Mr. Bagby) 51 
who has just taken his seat, affirming that the election of members 
of the House by general ticket, as it is called, where each and every 
elector votes for as many members as are to be chosen from the 
State, is the only constitutional mode of election; and, by con- 
sequence, that the practice which has prevailed for fifty years in 
four-fifths of the States of the Union is utterly at variance with 
the true meaning of the Constitution. Those who adopt this 
theory, which implies that the contemporaries, and many of the 
framers of the Constitution did not comprehend its true import 
on this important subject of representation, and that the action 
of the Federal Government, as well as that of almost every 
State, for more than half a century, has been erroneous in regard 
to it, will look with some charity upon whatever of novelty 

E0 From a reprint from the National Intelligencer, 1842. 

51 Arthur Pendleton Bagby (1794-1858), of Alabama, a native of Virginia, a 
lawyer, who served in the lower house of the state legislature, 1821-1822, 1824, 
1834-1836, and was speaker, 1822, and 1836. He was state senator in 1825, governor, 
1837-1841, and Democratic United States senator, 1841-1848, resigning to become 
minister to Russia. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 321 

there may be in the uniform system of election by districts, as 
now proposed. Their own idea, that the general ticket system is 
the only constitutional mode of choosing Representatives, is not 
only novel, but fraught, as I conceive, with danger to the Union 
itself; inasmuch as, practically, it would enable four, or at most 
five, of the twenty-six States of the Confederacy (should they be 
so disposed) to control the most important branch of the National 
Legislature. The construction of the Constitution, as I understand 
the argument of the Senator, is derived solely from the direction 
that members of the House of Representatives shall be chosen 
"by the People of the several States;" and he insists that it is 
an abridgement of the right of suffrage not to allow every elector 
to vote for as many members as are to be elected from the State 
of which he is a citizen. The error of this construction I apprehend 
to consist in allowing too much force to mere general words, 
without reference to circumstances which restrain and control 
their generality. The very same sentence of the Constitution 
proceeds to negative the supposition that the whole "People are 
to vote, by requiring the electors to "have the qualifications requi- 
site for electors of the most numerous branch of the State 
Legislature, thus excluding a large portion (perhaps the majority) 
of those who are properly denominated "People" of the State 
from the right of suffrage altogether. The bills of rights in many 
of the State constitutions declare that "all political power is 
vested in, and derived from, the People only;" and that "the 
legislative authority shall be vested in two distinct branches, 
both dependent on the People" But no one has ever inferred 
from these general expressions, that members of the State Legis- 
latures are, each, to be elected by the entire body of the People 
of the State. 

Having reference to public convenience, as well as to the true 
theory of representative government, every State has directed its 
Legislature to be constituted by divisions of the People choosing 
representatives, each for itself, and these, together, forming its 
General Assembly. The impropriety as well as the danger of at- 
taching too much importance to mere general terms, without 
reference to anything else, is most strikingly manifested by advert- 
ing to the very first words of the Constitution. If the expression, 
"we the People of the United States," is to be allowed the same 
liberal interpretation which is sought, for the purposes of this 
argument, to be given to the terms "People of the several States," 
then the confederated character of the Government is gone, and 

322 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

it becomes the Government of the aggregate mass of the People 
of the Union. 

Sir, I will not venture to assert that either of the modes of elec- 
tion now in question is unconstitutional. So far as I can perceive, 
in the discretion of Congress, or, if Congress deem it inexpedient 
to make regulations, in the discretion of the State Legislature, 
either mode may be adopted without running counter to any of 
the literal inhibitions of the Constitution. But, from some exami- 
nation of the history of this subject, made during the progress of 
this discussion, I will undertake to demonstrate that the district 
system of representation was the one contemplated and expected 
by the framers of the Constitution. Although the question is no 
where decided, or distinctly made, between those two systems, 
in the general convention which proposed, or in the State con- 
ventions which adopted, the Constitution, so as to indicate the 
one or the other as the only allowable mode, yet it is manifest 
that the district system was in the mind of every man who thought 
upon the matter of representation, as it was upon the tongue of 
every one who spoke or wrote in relation to it, during that anx- 
ious period when the question of adoption was pending before 
the American People. In the 56th. number of the Federalist, Mr. 
Madison, in treating of the House of Representatives, and in com- 
bating the objection of the opponents of the Constitution, that 
the members of the House would not have sufficient local infor- 
mation to be fit Representatives of the People, employs this lan- 

"Divide the largest State into ten or twelve districts, and it will 
be found that there will be no peculiar local interests in either, 
which will not be within the knowledge of the Representative of 
the district." 

In the succeeding number (57) of that great commentary on 
the Constitution, pursuing the same subject, he asserts, in sub- 
stance, that, were the objections of its opponents read by a person 
who had not seen its provisions relative to representation, he 
could suppose nothing less than that the mode prescribed by the 
State constitutions was, in some respect or other, very grossly de- 
parted from. He then adds: 

"The only difference discoverable between the two cases is, 
that each Representative of the United States will be elected by 
five or six thousand citizens, whilst in the individual States the 
election of a Representative is left to about as many hundreds." 

Again: In discussing the objection that there could not be ade- 

Q O O 

The Papers of William A. Graham 32 

quate representation in the House, after drawing some arguments 
and illustrations from the British House of Commons, he adds: 

"But we need not resort to foreign experience on this subject, 
our own is explicit and decisive. The districts in New Hampshire, 
in which the Senators are chosen immediately by the People, are 
nearly as large as will be necessary for Representatives in Con- 
gress, those of Massachusetts are larger than will be necessary for 
that purpose, and those of New York still more so. In the last 
State the members of Assembly for the cities and counties of New 
York and Albany are elected by nearly as many voters as will be 
entitled to a Representative in Congress, calculating on the num- 
ber of sixty-five Representatives only. It makes no difference that, 
in these senatorial districts and counties, a number of Representa- 
tives are voted for by each elector at the same time. If the same 
electors at the same time are capable of choosing four or five 
Representatives, they cannot be incapable of choosing one. Penn- 
sylvania is an additional example. Some of her counties which 
elect her State Representatives, are almost as large as her districts 
will be by which her Federal Representatives will be elected. The 
city of Philadelphia is supposed to contain between fifty and 
sixty thousand souls, it will therefore form nearly two districts 
for the choice of Federal Representatives." 

Such was the view of the mode of representation in the House 
held by the father of the Constitution, when, almost with the 
wisdom of inspiration, he was urging its adoption upon his jealous 
and doubtful countrymen, as necessary to their tranquility, lib- 
erty and happiness. Not only does he, in express terms, assume 
that the district system of choosing Representatives is to be every- 
where established as the natural one under the Constitution, and 
that cities (Philadelphia being the example) are to be divided for 
that purpose, but he also unequivocally negatives the idea of 
elections by general ticket, by declaring that, unlike the sena- 
torial elections in the State of New York, where four or five 
members were voted for at the same time by each elector, the 
choice of Federal Representatives would be limited to one in 
each district. 

Such, also, was the opinion which seems almost universally to 
have prevailed in the State conventions which deliberated on the 
reception of the Federal Constitution. I will detain you by re- 
ferring to the only notice of the subject which I find in the de- 
bates of the convention of 1788, in North Carolina, which rejected 

324 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

the Constitution. Mr. Galloway, 52 a strenuous opponent of the 
Constitution, stated, by way of objection to it, that all the mem- 
bers of Congress would probably be taken from the seaboard; to 
which Mr. Steele 53 immediately replied, that this objection was 
groundless, as the State would probably be laid off into districts. 
There was no response to this latter allegation, and it would seem 
to have met with general acquiescence. 

But, sir, we have more substantial evidence of the expectation, 
not to say intention, of the founders of the Constitution, than that 
embodied in their contemporaneous speeches and writings. Their 
' 'faith" was shown also by their ' 'works." In Virginia, where lived 
Washington, the President of that illustrious assembly which pro- 
duced the Constitution, and Madison, its chief author, advocate, 
and expounder, in New York, Massachusetts, the Carolinas, every 
where except Georgia and Connecticut, the district mode of elec- 
tions was established with the very beginning of the Government; 
and in nearly all of the original States it remains to this day. To 
question its constitutionality now, is to question the validity of the 
whole body of laws enacted since the first elections to Congress 
in 1789. 

It is said, however, by the Senators from New York and Penn- 
sylvania, (Messrs. Wright 54 and Buchanan,) that the bill pro- 
poses an innovation not desired or solicited from any source. I 
trust that I have already shown, if historical evidence can prove 
anything, that the district system of elections is not, of itself, an 
innovation of which the framers of the Government (were they 
living) would complain, and its toleration for fifty years, almost 
with unanimity in the old States, and its adoption in nearly three- 
fifths of the new, affords somewhat decisive proof that it coincides 
with the general wish of the American People. I have, moreover, 

52 The two Galloways, James and Charles, were delegates from Rockingham County 
to the convention of 1788. The one referred to was undoubtedly James, who had 
been a member of the commons from Guilford, 1783-1784, and from Rockingham, 
1786-1789. He was prominent in the convention. 

63 John Steele (1764-1815), of Rowan, whose only previous public service was as 
a member of the commons in 1787. He was an active and ardent Federalist. He 
served also in the convention of 1789. He was later commissioner to treat with 
the Cherokees, and Chickasaws, boundary commissioner with South Carolina and 
Georgia, member of congress 1790-1793, and comptroller of the treasury, 1796-1802. 
The rising tide of democratic ideas defeated him twice for the United States senate. 
He was a member of the commons, 1811-1813. 

64 Silas Wright (1795-1847), a native of Massachusetts, a graduate of Middlebury 
College, who became a lawyer, and settled in New York. He was Democratic state 
senator, 1824-1827, brigadier general of militia, and was elected to congress, 1829, 
but accepted an appointment as state comptroller, instead of serving. He was 
United States senator, 1833-1844, and governor, 1844-1846. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 325 

some evidence to show that their approval of it has gone beyond 
mere toleration— that, such a favorite has it been in their affec- 
tions, they have repeatedly demanded that it should be estab- 
lished and secured to them by the Constitution itself. The State 
whose servant I am, has been so devotedly attached to the district 
mode of representation, that when her Legislature repealed that 
system of choosing electors of President and Vice President, and 
established the general ticket, though a decisive majority of the 
People, in the parties of that day, were with the Legislature in 
general politics, yet this change produced no little excitement; 
and it could only be excused and the repeal prevented, upon the 
ground that similar changes in other States had rendered it a 
necessary act of self-defense— an argument which our subsequent 
history has shown to have been but too true; since now, in every 
State, the electors are chosen by general ticket, except in one, 
where they are elected, not by the People, but by the Legislature. 
Foreseeing that a like alteration might be generally made in the 
manner of electing members of the House of Representatives, and 
deprecating such an innovation, her servants here, as well as her 
General Assembly, raised their voices at once in favor of the dis- 
trict system; and, to render it permanent as well as uniform, 
throughout the Union, both in the choice of Representatives in 
Congress and presidential electors, they demanded an amendment 
of the Constitution. As early as the session of 1813, Mr. Pickens, 
a highly intelligent and respectable member of our delegation in 
the House, an old associate and friend of the Senator from Ala- 
bama, Mr. King, [Mr. King nodded assent,] offered resolutions 
of amendment to the Constitution to that effect. At the succeed- 
ing session of the Legislature, resolutions on the same subject 
appear to have been passed by both Houses, and transmitted to 
the other States of the Union. Here let me remark to the honor- 
able Senator from Virginia, (Mr. Rives) —from whom I regretted 
to hear that he would vote against this section of the bill, although 
he concurred with us in believing that the district mode of repre- 
sentation was wisest and best, lest its establishment by law now 
might, in the contest of parties, lead to what he greatly dreaded, 
the enactment of the general ticket system hereafter— that, in his 
State, as well as my own, the manifestations of public opinion 
have been strong in the preference of the district system. On the 
18th. of April, 1816, in the House of Representatives, Mr. Pleas- 

326 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

ants, 55 of Virginia, laid before the House a communication from 
the Legislature of that State, reciting that— 

"The Legislature of North Carolina, having proposed the fol- 
lowing as an amendment to the Constitution of the United States: 
That, for the purpose of choosing Representatives in the Congress 
of the United States, each State shall, by its Legislature, be divided 
into a number of districts equal to the number of Representatives 
to which each State may be entitled. 

These districts shall be formed of contiguous territory, and con- 
tain as near as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, entitled 
by the Constitution to be represented. In each district the quali- 
fied voters shall elect one Representative, and no more." 

Then providing for the choice of electors of President by dis- 
tricts, in like manner, and concluding with a resolution declaring 
that it is expedient to adopt the said amendment. 

The Legislature of Massachusetts adopted like resolutions about 
the same time. 

On the 21st. of January, 1817, Mr. Pickens, of North Carolina, 
presented to the House the proceedings of the Legislature of that 
State, referring to the "resolution of the Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts as being the same in principle with that adopted by the 
General Assembly of North Carolina at the last session;* ' then 
repeating the specific amendments of the Constitution desired, 
I believe, in the very words which I have before read in the com- 
munication from the Legislature of Virginia, and ending with 
resolutions in favor of their adoption— the whole being embodied 
in a report signed "R. M. Saunders, Chairman," and certified to 
have passed both the Senate and House of Commons unanimously, 
by John Branch, speaker, and Robert Williams, clerk, of the for- 
mer; and of the latter, James Iredell, speaker, and Pleasant Hen- 
derson, 56 clerk. 

At the session of 1820, the Hon. J. S. Smith, of North Carolina, 
representing the district in which I reside, offered similar resolu- 
tions of amendment to the Constitution, in favor of the district 
system of choosing representatives and electors; and, on the 25th. 

B5 James Pleasants (1769-1836), of Virginia, a graduate of William and Mary, 
lawyer, who was frequently a member of the legislature, was a representative in 
congress, 1811-1819, and senator, 1819-1822, governor, 1822-1825, and a delegate to 
the convention of 1829. 

56 Pleasant Henderson (1756-1842), of Granville, a Revolutionary soldier, who 
studied law under his brother, Richard Henderson, was for many years a legislative 
clerk of one sort or another. He was also for some time, steward of the university. 
As a young man, he pioneered in Tennessee and Kentucky, and a few years before 
his death he moved to Tennessee, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 327 

of January, 1821, the vote of the Representatives of the People 
on the resolutions was, yeas 92, nays 54; so the proposition to 
amend the Constitution failed, for want of a majority of two- 
thirds in its favor; but the recorded vote is a strong indication of 
popular opinion in favor of the districts. 

The subject, however, was not permitted to sleep. At the ses- 
sion of 1823, Mr. McDuffie, of South Carolina, presented resolu- 
tions, I believe, in the very words of those of Mr. Smith, and dur- 
ing that session submitted an elaborate report, in which the 
expediency of the district system of electing both Representatives 
and electors is argued with great ability. I do not perceive that 
the resolutions were pressed to a vote at that session, but the 
argument of this report vindicates the propriety and necessity of 
this mode of election in a masterly manner. 

[Mr. Buchanan said he did not know that he would speak on 
this subject; but, as the Senator appeared in some of his remarks 
to refer to him, he wished to say that the precedents cited, all 
proposed to amend the Constitution so as to establish the district 
system. This bill proposed to do it by a law of Congress, prescrib- 
ing that districts should be laid off by the State Legislatures. He 
desired to hear how Congress obtained that power.] 

Mr. Graham resumed. The Senator has done me the honor to 
attend to my remarks, and hence I may have, in some degree, 
addressed myself to him. I am sensible of the constitutional dif- 
ficulty suggested by that Senator, though it does not appear to me 
insurmountable, and design, before I conclude, to meet it fairly. 
I have referred to these matters in our history thus far, with no 
view to the question of constitutional power, but to show what has 
been public sentiment in and out of Congress, in regard to dis- 
trict representation, and to quiet the apprehensions of those who 
seem to dread popular tumults and collisions between sovereign 
States and the Federal Government, from the establishment of 
that mode of representation which the People from the first ex- 
pected, have so generally exercised, and with such an approach to 
unanimity, have adopted in their own States, and called for 
throughout the Union— a mode of representation which almost 
every Senator who has participated in this discussion admits, in 
his individual opinion, to be the best, but which, from doubt as 
to the power to ordain it in this manner, on the part of some, 
from an apprehension that its adoption now, may be understood 
to spring from motives of party advantage, and that, in a revolu- 
tion of parties, it may be succeeded by the general ticket system, 

328 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

on the part of others, fails to receive that powerful support to 
which the admitted merits of the district system would seem to 
entitle it. Whatever force there may be in these objections, I 
flatter myself that the direful consequences which gentlemen an- 
ticipate from the passage of this law, will never be realized. If it 
be unconstitutional, it yet proposes an object so near to the hearts 
of the People in general, that its constitutionality will be tested 
and decided, in that calm, deliberate and unimpassioned manner 
which is so necessary to the preservation of all our institutions. If 
it be constitutional, then the superiority so generally conceded to 
it will prevent its repeal in any mutations of mere party, much 
less its being superseded by the general ticket system, which finds 
so little favor for its own sake. 

Mr. President, we are told by Mr. Madison, in the Federalist, 
what is indeed sufficiently evident without the authority of his 
great name, that the peculiarity which distinguishes the two 
Houses of Congress is, "that one branch is a representation of 
citizens, the other of States." Here, the People of the States are 
represented as aggregated communities, or political corporations; 
in the House, they are represented as individual members of so- 
ciety—in that capacity in which they are required to contribute 
to the Treasury of the Government, and to furnish blood and 
bone and muscle for its defence in war— in which they enjoy the 
great fundamental rights of life, liberty and property, prosecute 
for violations of their rights in courts of justice, and suffer judg- 
ment for offences against the laws enacted by Congress, as well as 
by their immediate State Legislatures. And the prohibition of the 
Constitution against originating revenue bills in this body was 
designed to secure the individual man against exactions even 
proposed by the Representatives of the State of which he is a 
member, and to give the initiation of the laws on this most vital 
subject to those direct Representatives of the People with whom 
they share a common local interest, the atmosphere of a common 
neighborhood, and whom they must meet face to face at the 
ballot-box; nor does it seem quite to consist with the spirit of this 
regulation, although I have admitted that the letter will allow it, 
that those Representatives should be chosen by all the electors of 
of State, instead of subdivisions or sections of the people. Thus 
chosen, they would seem to be more appropriate Representatives 
of the States, as communities, having derived their authority from 
a vote of the majority of the whole People, than even members of 
the Senate, who are elected by the State Legislatures. No one has 

The Papers of William A. Graham 329 

ever thought of applying the general ticket system in the choice 
of members of the State Legislatures, and yet popular representa- 
tion was not intended to be more complete in any of them than 
it was in the House of Representatives, on the subjects committed 
to the jurisdiction of Congress. The very idea of it implies, at 
least, if we can form any opinion from the usage of mankind, not 
that the people are to determine the choice of Representatives by 
the majority of the State or nation in the aggregate, but by elec- 
tions in divisions of greater or less magnitude; and, accordingly, 
we find in every free nation, with any great extension of country— 
I of course exclude the minor Grecian republics, with territories 
no larger than the county in which I reside— that the representa- 
tive assemblies of the People have been chosen by counties, par- 
ishes, departments, districts, by whatever name called. It ensures 
that personal and intimate acquaintance between the representa- 
tive and constituent which is of the very essence of true represen- 
tation, and makes political promotion depend as much upon the 
personal and virtuous character of the candidate, as upon his tal- 
ents and abilities; whereas, in the great contests of entire States, 
the responsibility of the individual elector being less, there is but 
too much danger that tickets may be made out of those having 
address, or adroitness in party management, without reference to 
private character. Sir, we learn from contemporaneous history, 
that a principal and powerful objection to the adoption of the 
Constitution was, that in the representation under it, from the 
largeness of the electoral bodies, the choice would too often fall on 
those favored by fortune, or, in the language of the objectors, (as 
preserved by those sages who replied to them) on the "wealthy 
and well-born." However erroneous this objection of jealous 
freemen was then shown to be, while districts, as we have seen, 
were alone contemplated, it applies with decisive force to elec- 
tions by general ticket, for a considerable number of members; 
not that wealth has the influence which was then apprehended, 
for it is comparatively seldom in this country that very opulent 
men have been elected to places in the public councils; but com- 
binations may be formed, by the management of party leaders, 
and party allegiance appealed to for their support, by which the 
People, who pursue their daily avocations at home, deprived of 
all choice, are left no alternative but acquiescence, or not to vote 
at all. Thus, he who aspires to a political career, without enjoying 
the favor, perhaps the acquaintance, of the few who control in 
such matters, (and obscure have been the beginnings of many 

330 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

who have attained the highest eminence,) has before him the 
hopeless task of traversing the entire State, to make known his 
qualifications and his principles, and to encounter at every step 
of his progress the combined opposition perhaps of two sets of 
party candidates, and the denunciation of the entire party press. 
Sir, in my opinion, no more effectual mode of preventing the free 
choice of the People, and of excluding from the House of Repre- 
sentatives many of its most shining ornaments at all times— young 
men who, without adventitious aids, but by the mere force of 
mind and character, under the fostering genius of our institutions, 
have worked their way thither— could be devised than the estab- 
lishment of the general ticket system in the larger States of the 
Union. I have already adverted to its disastrous effect on the Gov- 
ernment itself, by throwing the absolute control of the popular 
branch of Congress into the hands of five or six States who already 
possess the power, by the general ticket system which they have 
adopted, of choosing a President of the United States. 

But, Mr. President, much as the district system is recommend- 
ed to us by the considerations of expediency, of its conformity to 
the true theory of representative government, and to expectations 
of the immortal patriots who formed our Government, we cannot 
adopt it by law here, unless we possess the constitutional power. 
The Senator from Pennsylvania (Mr. Buchanan) has already 
intimated that the repeated propositions to amend the Constitu- 
tion in relation to it, indicates that the power to do it by law was 
doubted or denied. Sir, that suggestion is not sustained by any- 
thing which I have observed in the history of these propositions. 
On the contrary, Mr. McDuffie, in his report, to which I have 
alluded already, does not urge the amendment to the Constitution 
upon the ground of a want of authority in Congress to make laws 
for its regulation, but to put it beyond the control of fluctuating 
and temporary legislation— to make the system "permanent," and 
not subject to change, as well as "uniform." [Here Mr. G. read 
several passages of the report, in support of this statement.] So 
far as an opinion is expressed on the question in dispute, it is in 
favor of the power now claimed. 

"It has been seen" (says he) that "the times, places, and man- 
ner" of electing members to this House are now liable to be 
prescribed by the Legislatures of the several States, "subject to 
the controlling and superseding power of Congress/' These latter 
words are in italics, and need no strained interpretation to show 

The Papers of William A. Graham 331 

that the author conceded quite as much power to Congress over 
this subject, as is asserted by the present bill. 

Here, sir, let me also notice certain proceedings in several of 
the State conventions which deliberated on the adoption of the 
Federal Constitution, referred to, and much relied upon in the 
argument of the Senator from New York, (Mr. Wright.) It seems 
that, in seven or eight of the States, North Carolina being one, 
the conventions declared "that Congress shall not alter, modify, 
or interfere in the times, places, or manner of holding elections 
for Senators and Representatives, or either of them, except when 
the Legislature of any State shall neglect, refuse, or be disabled by 
invasion or rebellion, to prescribe the same." And I first supposed 
the Senator to insist that this was a construction of the clause in 
the Constitution regarding elections, and an exposition of the 
sense in which it was understood at the time of ratification. But it 
appears this was an amendment proposed by these conventions, 
predicated on the opinion that the Constitution, as it stood then 
and stands now, did authorize Congress to interfere and make 
regulations at pleasure; and the Senator, as he subsequently ex- 
plained, only referred to these proposed amendments as manifes- 
tations of the wishes of those States; and he thence argued that it 
would be disrespectful and a breach of faith towards them, to pass 
this bill. If we are to be restrained in the enactment of laws under 
the Constitution as it is, by what was proposed by way of amend- 
ment in the various State conventions, we shall soon be stripped 
of our most important and beneficent powers. Take as illustra- 
tions these, which I select at random from twenty six amend- 
ments, besides a bill of rights of twenty articles offered by the 
Convention of North Carolina, "that no navigation law, or law 
regulating commerce, shall be passed without the consent of two- 
thirds of the members present in both Houses;" that no standing 
army or regular troops shall be kept up in time of peace without 
"two-thirds" in like manner. These crude suggestions of the jeal- 
ous spirit of freedom, if the Senator's argument be correct, would 
require a repeal of perhaps half our laws pertaining to commerce 
and navigation, and more than half of those respecting the army. 
Many objections and propositions of amendment were no doubt 
made to the Constitution on its first presentation, which were 
soon afterwards abandoned, even by the authors. At the very 
first session of the first Congress, ten amendments were proposed 
and adopted, which were speedily ratified, and appended to the 
Constitution; and at that very session this identical project of an 

9. a 9 

32 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

amendment to limit the power of Congress over elections, which 
the Senator from New York tells us had received the approbation 
of so many States, was proposed in the House of Representatives 
and rejected— not only failing in a majority of two-thirds, but not 
receiving a numerical majority— ayes 23, noes 28; among the latter 
being James Madison, Jr., and other distinguished members of 
the Convention of 1787. (House Journal, 21st. August, 1789). 
North Carolina, by her second Convention, acceded to the Union 
the November succeeding, well knowing what amendments had 
been approved by Congress and what rejected, (her assent to the 
Constitution being given on one day, and to the ten amendments 
on the next,) without any proposals for additional amendments. 
And, from that day to this, there has been no renewal of the pro- 
posed restraint on the power of Congress over the regulation of 
elections, from any State whatever. So far as these proceedings, 
therefore, have any force as authority, they show an admission of 
the power of Congress; a solicitation of some States, before the 
Government was tried by experience, to take it away; a refusal 
by the Representatives of the People in the first Congress, by a 
decisive majority, even to submit the question to the amending 
tribunals for consideration; and an acquiescence in that deter- 
mination ever since. 

If we examine the words of the Constitution, there really seems 
to me to be little room for cavil on the question of power. They 
are these: "the times, places, and manner of holding elections for 
Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by 
the Legislature thereof; but Congress may, at any time, by law, 
make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing 
Senators." I understand it to be admitted that, by virtue of these 
words, Congress does possess the power to lay off the districts 
itself, but that it has not power to direct them to be laid off by 
the State Legislatures. 

[Several Senators in opposition declared that they did not make 
this admission.] 57 

Mr. Graham said he had so understood the concession, and it 
was, at all events, he conceived, too plain to be controverted. He 
recollected the declarations of some that Congress could not, in 
good faith, interfere, until a State was in default, by failure or 
negligence, in respect to its elections. But the language of the 
Constitution is, that Congress may "make or alter." Now, omit the 

Brackets throughout appear in the original. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 333 

disjunctive power to "alter," and the reading is, "Congress may, 
at any time, make such regulations"— create anew such "regula- 
tions." What regulations? Obviously those of time, place, and 
manner of the elections. I proceed, therefore, to the position as- 
sumed by the Senator from New York, (Mr. Wright,) that, 
although Congress may possess the power to lay off districts 
throughout the United States, by law, you cannot prescribe a sys- 
tem of districts by your law, and call on the State Legislatures to 
carry it into effect. His assertion is, if you touch the subject, you 
take all into your own hands, and must go through with it. Is this 
so? Are time, place, and manner tria juncta in uno, and indi- 
visible? Can you not regulate time without interfering with place, 
and prescribe manner without meddling with either time or 

[Mr. Wright assented.] 

Well, then, how is it that manner is a unit incapable of division, 
and must be completed, in all its details, by the hand which pre- 
scribes its general outlines? Does not the major include the 
minor? If I have a right to go twain, can I not go one mile? If, 
when you designate time or place, without more saying, the State 
Legislatures are still bound to regulate the manner of elections, 
by what discrimination is it that, when you declare the manner 
only, they are not bound to carry that manner into effect as fully 
as they are obliged to appoint time and place? The manner and 
places of choosing presidential electors belong, under the Consti- 
tution, exclusively to the State Legislatures. The time of choosing 
them "Congress may determine." Congress has declared that they 
shall be elected within thirty five days before the first Wednesday 
in December, in every fourth year; and the Legislature of each 
State, without offence to its sovereignty, has fixed for itself the 
day of election. Yet, according to the reasoning of the Senator, 
Congress, having interfered with the time, was bound to appoint 
the precise day in every State. Why may not Congress declare that 
Representatives shall be chosen from such equal districts as the 
State Legislatures shall prescribe, as well as that electors shall be 
chosen on such day, within a month, as those Legislatures shall 
set apart? In the execution of the power contained in the before- 
recited clause of the Constitution, the State Legislatures are un- 
questionably the trustees of the People, in the absence of action 
by Congress; but they are liable to be controlled, or entirely su- 
perseded, whenever Congress does act. And, if I may be allowed 
a still further professional illustration, whatever particle of au- 

334 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

thority Congress does not assume over the subject, inheres in 
them as absolutely as the use and possession of an estate cohere 
in our law, except so far as they may be separated by the inter- 
vention of a power of appointment. And they are bound, as a 
part of their constitutional duty, to supply any defect which may 
be left in the regulations prescribed by Congress in this behalf, 
as fully, to all intents and purposes, as they are required to make 
regulations, out and out, if Congress shall leave the entire subject 
untouched. If there were nothing to confer this power on Con- 
gress but the word ''alter/' it signifies a change only in part; and 
what more literally corresponds with an alteration of the regula- 
tions of a State than declaring that, instead of one or five dis- 
tricts, it shall arrange as many districts as it has Representatives? 

But we are told that we have no power to pass this law, because 
we cannot enforce its execution by penal sanctions; and an urgent 
appeal is made to us by the Senator from New Hampshire, (Mr. 
Woodbury) to know whether an armed force, or a writ of man- 
damus is to be sent to the State Legislatures to compel them to lay 
off the districts. No, sir, neither. No one ever conceived the idea 
of compelling a free Legislative Assembly to do, or not to do, 
any thing by physical force, or the precept of a court of justice. 
The crime of omission or commission in their constitutional 
duty, like that of parenticide among the Athenians, is provided 
with no legal sanction, but left to the oaths and consciences of 
men, to an accountability to make public opinion, and to that 
constituency whose rights have been outraged or neglected. The 
preservation of this Government greatly depends on the faithful 
fulfilment of the duties imposed by the Constitution on the State 
Legislatures. If a majority of them shall fail to elect Senators, 
(as one has done,) —if five or six of those in the largest States shall 
fail to make regulations for choosing electors of President and 
Vice President, in conformity to the laws of Congress, the Union 
would be as effectually dissolved as if we who are sent to the legis- 
lative halls of this Capitol should obstinately refuse to attend in 
our places, and pass the laws annually necessary for the support 
of the Government. It is faith, honor, conscience, and not the 
"hangman's whip," on which, at last, rest the blessings of this 
noblest human institution which has ever been devised for the 
security, the welfare and happiness of man. The duties of the 
States, under our Constitution, are not to be determined by their 
liability to punishment, but by the covenants into which they 
entered by that instrument. If, by the Constitution fairly con- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 335 

strued, they covenanted to yield and conform their legislation to 
that of Congress in the regulation of elections, as I have endeav- 
ored to demonstrate, they are as sacredly bound to keep that 
agreement as if the world in arms stood ready to enforce it. And, 
in reply to the asservation so often repeated, that we cannot issue 
a mandate to the State Legislatures, let me say, once for all, the 
Constitution issued the mandate fifty years ago that the legislation 
of the States in this particular might at any time be superseded by 
that of Congress, either wholly or in part only. Instead of issuing 
an unwarranted mandate to them, we do but pass a law, to which 
our common constituents, the People, speaking through the Con- 
stitution, require that their legislation should conform. But, al- 
though there is no method of compelling a State to action in the 
performance of her duty, yet if, when she has acted, her conduct 
be not conformable to the Constitution, or a law made in pursu- 
ance thereof, the act is simply void, and every tribunal before 
which it comes for adjudication is obliged so to declare it. If, 
therefore, notwithstanding the law, a State should return mem- 
bers according to general ticket, the House of Representatives, as 
judge of the election of its members, would be under the necessity 
of pronouncing the election a nullity. I speak of what would be 
the decision of the House, not only from its obligation to support 
the Constitution and laws, but because it has already decided. 
This bill comes to us with all the weight of authority which can 
be given to it by the approbation of the august assembly which 
is hereafter to expound and enforce it. In view of this, I have 
regretted to hear the intimations of Senators that certain States 
would not conform to it, but would elect by general ticket, and 
raise the question before the House. Much as I should regret to 
see the members of any State bringing up such a controversy in 
the House, so strong are my convictions of the importance of dis- 
trict representation to the country in all coming time, that I can- 
not withhold from it my approbation, from apprehensions of any 
such result. But, sir, when I look to the expectation, the desire, 
and the practice of the fathers of the Constitution in favor of the 
district system— the hold it already has in the minds of a great- 
majority of the people; when I contemplate its beneficent effects 
in protecting the smaller States from possible combinations of the 
great, and the individuals from the oppressions of the mass, and 
remember the patriotism, forbearance, and devotion to the Union 
which characterize our State Legislatures, I cannot anticipate 
controversy in relation to the execution of this law; or, if it shall 

336 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

arise, I doubt not that it will be conducted and determined with 
the quietness, dignity, and mutual toleration so necessary to as- 
certain truth, and so salutary in preserving in their true essence, 
both the Federal and State authorities. In that spirit Congress 
now acts, in merely providing the mode of representation, but 
leaving all the details of interior arrangement to the Legislatures 
of the States, whose local knowledge and personal acquaintance 
will enable them to consult the popular convenience and the 
popular wish in the formation of districts in a far greater degree 
than can possibly be done here. All must at once perceive that 
this mode of interposition is the least exertion of the authority of 
this Government, and leaves the amplest field of power and dis- 
cretion to the State Legislatures which is at all consistent with 
the great end proposed. 

From W. R. Albright. U. 

Sandy Grove, N. C., 3d June, 1842. 

I wish you to send me a copy of Mr. Poindexter's Report on 
the expenditures of the Publick Money, and also please state to 
me when it was, that the Appropriation of $6000 was made to 
furnish the President's House, was it at the Extra Session, or was 
it not at the latter part of the last Session under Mr. Van Burens 
Administration I have lost the time and wish to know it, it will 
be brought against us, as extravagant. 

I also wish to know how much of it has been used, whether all 
or part only, I also wish to know how much was used in the pur- 
chase of Furniture for President Jackson in his 8 years, & how 
much in Mr. Van Burens 4 years, and any other information that 
you may think adviseable. 

I must here be permitted to return you my thanks for the docu- 
ments you have already sent me. Could you not send me another 
of Mr. Simmons 58 Speaches. You sent me one & I loaned it to 
some one & do not know who. 

We will soon commence the Campaign with a greater zeal than 
I had expected. I was at Hillsboro Court last week, when & where 
each party made out Tickets as you have heard, I Expect, & I 
never saw the Whigs more sanguine in Orange. Governor More- 

58 James Fowler Simmons (1795-1864), of Rhode Island, manufacturer, United 
States senator, 1841-1847, 1857-1862. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 337 

head was there & he Addressed the people Effectually I thought; 
he is in fine health & spirits, no doubt of his election. Mr. Henry 
mistook our People he over Shot himself, it is no go. Mr. Henry 
has quit the Field for the moment on accnt. of bad health. 

Mr. Mangum & yourself should use great industry in giving 
your friends in Orange information. Give them such Speakers as 
will furnish them with weapons to fight with, and Orange is safe, 
a desperate effort will be made by the Loco focos to Get a Major- 
ity in the next Legislature to turn you out of the Senate & put 
Mr. Brown back again; he is a Candidate for the Senate from 
Caswell, without opposition. 

It is reported here that our fine Col Rencher has left us is it 
so, or do you know about it, how is his Health, Ort you not Ad- 
journ and come home, these long Sessions of the Whigs & nothing 
done will ruin the Whig Cause. You ort to come home, I know it. 

From Henry K. Nash. U. 

Hillsboro', June 7th, 1842 

I dislike very much troubling you as often as I have done lately, 
about matters in which you take little or no interest. I hope how- 
ever that as the matter now on hand is not entirely uninteresting 
to you, you will pardon me for troubling you again. You have 
seen I suppose that I have been nominated as a Candidate for the 
next Assembly. It is my desire to prepare myself somewhat better 
than I am at present on those points that are likely to be brought 
before the People this Summer. We are resolved, I believe, to 
come out openly and boldly on the subject of a Bank, and to 
advocate it strenuously. That together with the Distribution Act, 
will be vigorously assailed by the Locos. They also intend to 
denounce Mr. Clay, and expect to do it with effect before the 
people. Proscription is also another one of their hobbies. I should 
be glad if you would send me any papers that you may think 
would be of service. I think we shall be able to beat them again 
this Summer. 

From Hugh WaddelL U. 

Hillsboro', June 8, 1842. 

You have no doubt been much surprised at my obdurate silence 
& I am myself ashamed of it, but the truth is that I could not 

338 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

reply to either of yr. very kind letters without saying what I knew 
would be disagreeable to you k which on that account it gave 
me pain to say, viz. that my situation was such as to prevent me 
from again taking the field politically, & this I must have written 
if I wrote at all, up to our County Court, which is just over & 
during which a change of my resolution on this subject was 
brought about by several concurring circumstances, not the least 
of which was the wish you expressed & my confident belief that 
should I be successful it would be of ultimate benefit to you. 
Earnest wishes expressed at home, many letters from abroad, & on 
the very day on which your last arrived I reed, from the Chairman 
of the Central Committee of the State at Raleigh, a mandatory 
epistle which would take no refusal, all combined to overthrow 
my previous determination & when I found on Friday morning 
our friends would take no refusal I yielded, but even then, there 
was a trivial circumstance which had nearly determined me to 
refuse, but I will not trust it to the possibility of publicity by 
mentioning it here, as this may be opened or never reach you, 
but will tell you when we meet. There seems now much enthu- 
siasm & several changes for us, viz, in the Hawfields Paisley Kil- 
patrick, 59 who will I hear go for me for the first time, Abel Griffis 
who is loud mouthed for the whole ticket, old Jas McRae, father 
of Geo. (who was so true before) & others. But the contest must 
be a very severe one & one of the purposes of this hasty line is 
to beg that you will furnish me with all the armour defensive 
& all arms offensive which can be had. 

We shall be liable to assault on many points I fear, not so 
fatally however on the general or national questions, as on those 
of State policy. Many of our friends in the Legislature were in- 
duced I fear to go too far on sundry works of Improvement which 
cannot justify the expenditure in our day. Yet such is the enthu- 
siasm of our people in the great National commotion, that these 
local matters will be soon forgotten & if we can rouse then as you 
did 2 years since we may carry all before us. My own notion is 
that the Whig Party has now no alternative, but to avow that 
Clay & a U. S. Bank, are both indispensible to the salvation of the 
Country; if I am right in this, give me the best argt. & most suc- 
sinct view on the Bank question & I will prepare to maintain this 
"agst. all comers." 

Paisley Kirkpatrick. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 339 

Write me at length at yr. earliest convenience on all matters 
which you deem important in this campaign for to speak truth 
I have so thrown myself, on purpose, out of the way of these 
things for 3 or 4 years past that I know nothing about them. 

We are all gratified at the complimentary manner in which 
both Mangum and yourself are spoken of in the papers & I really 
thought the other day that we were going to be too big for our 
breeches when I saw yr. name with a western gentleman as spoken 
of for the Presidency of the Senate & then saw Mangum actually 
receive it. 

The last Register alluding to our Ticket called "Orange" a 
glorious old County & so she is, to furnish 2 Senators in the U. S. 
& have even a decent modicum of talent left for domestic use. 

tF tF w tP 

From John W. Norwood. U. 


June 13th, 1842. 

Inclosed I send you the names of our Committees of Vigilance, 
arranged not according to the appointment, that is by Cap- 
tain's districts, but according to their Post Offices. We had a full 
& encouraging meeting on Saturday of the Central Committee for 
the County, by whom these Committees have been appointed. 
And an Executive Committee, consisting of Dr. Strudwick, Dr. 
Long, 60 & I, have been charged with preparing and addressing to 
each Committeeman a printed Circular, encouraging them to the 
contest, & briefly stating the principles & measures for which we 
contend. This paper will immediately be issued. It would have 
been well to have consulted you & Judge Mangum on the subject, 
but with Waddell's assistance we must do what we can. 

If we succeed in properly arousing the Whig party, we will 
carry the whole ticket. And the movement, with regard to these 
Committee of Vigilences, is mainly with the view of aiding in this 
purpose. The recent defeats of our party all over the Country 
have greatly elated the Democrats, & discouraged the Whigs, and 
we have hard work to do; but it can be done. We will need, how- 
ever, all the aid which you can give us, and I have by the direc- 
tion of the executive Committee forwarded the names of the 

Dr. Osmond Long (1808-1864) was a well-known Orange County physician. 

340 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Committee men, hoping that our friends in Congress may have 
it in their power to help us by sending then to their proper post 
offices useful papers and information. My own impression is de- 
cidedly that the question of a National Bank can be made the 
most popular subject which has been used in Elections for years 
past. The Country is ripe for it— for the last six months I have 
put it to every Democratic client who has been in my office, & I 
sincerely believe they will not follow their party against that meas- 
ure any longer, if the subject is properly managed. 

The ticket which has been nominated does not give entire 
satisfaction, but the objections to the several individuals com- 
posing it (8c especially Waddell) will be lost sight of long before 
the election. The ticket of the Democrats has given great dissatis- 
faction to the party. 

It would be well for our friend Mangum to remember that if 
he is not particularly attentive to us, we will say he is getting 
above us. 

We think it not presumptuous in us to expect the assistance 
of all our Whig friends in Congress from the State, for the fate 
of the Whigs in Orange is in every event important to us. And it 
is made the principal seat of attack by the other party. 

This letter of course is intended for Judge Mangum as well as 
yourself, but I thought it would be rather formal to give it a 
joint direction. 

We hear the most encouraging tidings from several parts of 
the County, & I think a fine spirit is getting up. ... off this in 
great haste, but hope it will answer the purpose. 


Cannon Bowers, Thos. Brewer jr, Jas Bishop, (White Cross) 
Newman Cates, Goodman Neeils, Shiffy T. Lindsay, Chas. Nevill 

(Chapel Hill) Isaac Holt, Jno. Newlin, Jas: Robinson, Merritt 

Robinson, Oliver Newlin, Brian Carter, Peter Ferist (of Mary) 

(Lindley's Store) 

Jno. Stafford, Solomon Allen, Calvin Johnston, & Joshua Dixon 
(Snow Camp) 

Alex r . Albright, Jerrimiah Piggott, Samuel Coble, W m Eulis, 
Eli. Eulis (Rock Creek) 

Dan: Albright Jno. S. Turrentine, Jno. C. Long, David L. Ray, 
Joseph Holt, D r Ben. A, Sellers, Jas Whitsett, W m Rogers (Al- 
bright P. O.) 

The Papers of William A. Graham 341 

Jno. Freeland. Jno. Hardy, Nicholas Albright W m N Ruffin, 
W m Faust, W m Rogers, (Haw River P. O) 

Abel Griffis, Jas: Johnston, Willis Sellers, Henry Bason, Hen- 
derson Crawford, Stephen White (Trolinger's Bridge) 

Handy Wood, Joseph Albright, Anderson Newson, (McDaniel's 
P O) 

Absalom Harvey, Jas: Moore, Admund Brannock, Jno. W. 
Wilson, Thos: S. Swift (Moores Ville) 

Jas: McCaddins, Stephen Glass, D r . I. A. Craig, Richard Glass, 
Robert Thauson (of Jno) Robt. F. White, Saml. Cain (Haw 

Alex r . KirkPatrick (Haw Fields) Capt. W m Bradsher (Mt 

Alex r . Dixon, Geo Ray, Iv. Barlow, Saml. R. Wood Richard 
Breeze, Felix Wilson, W ra Barlow, Person Nichols (Walnut 

Andrew Murdock, Adam Duglass, Allen Brown, Jno: Walker, 
Jas: Roberts (Hillsborough) 

Elis: Holden, Arch d Cain, Jesse Lewis (Eno Mills) 

Green D. Jordon, Lemuel Mebane, Jno. A. Mebane, Jo. Tate, 
Wilson Watson Thos: McCracken (Major Hale) Hugh Wilson 
(Haw Fields P O) . 

Gabriel B. Lea, Jno Barnwell, Eli Murray, W m Vincent, Saml. 
Hargrave, W m Murray, (Pleasant Grove) 

Chesley F. Faucett, Geo. Hurdle, Jas: Grahams, Thos: Grahams, 
Bennett Hazell, Geo Wallace (Faucett's Store) 

Revd Enoch Crutchfield John Mud Lick. 

From William A. Johnson. U. 

Granville, June 15th, 1842. 

As the time of our State elections is drawing near our demo- 
cratic friends are crowing somewhat loudly and taunting us with 
haveing made charges of extravagance and corruption against the 
State administration, which we either could not, or dare not 
attempt to sustain by authentick proof; and haveing seen in the 
newspapers the report of the committee on publick expenditures 
in House of Representatives, and some notices of the report of 
the commissioners appointed to investigate the affairs of the cus- 
tom house in New York, which go very far towards fastening upon 

342 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

them all the charges made by the Whigs, I have to request that 
you will do me the favour, to procure and send on to me as 
speedily as possible a copy of each of those reports, as well as the 
report of the retrenchment committee appointed by the house 
if it can be obtained. 

On Saturday last at a Battalion Muster in this County Genl. 
McClanahan, backed and supported by his co-labourers, made a 
regular, and I conceive a most reckless onslaught upon the Whigs, 
charging that, instead of the retrenchment and reform which they 
had promised, they had run the government in debt $14,000,000; 
and that $15,000 had been appropriated to defray the expenses 
incured by the Whig committee for electioneering purposes, and 
said he had the proof; this was news to me, and I hope you will be 
so good as to furnish me with some information upon the subject 
in a private communication. 

If it will not be taxing your goodness too much I would be ex- 
ceedingly obliged to you in the same communication to give me 
the names of all the democratic senators who supported the appro- 
piation to Mrs. Harrison and the bankrupt law. 

Be pleased to ask Mr. Mangum if one certain William Russell 6l 
did not solicit his aid in obtaining an office under Harrison's ad- 
ministration, and to state if he pleases the grounds upon which 
the said William based his claims; I should not have troubled you 
or the Judge with this last request but for the fact that the said 
William is a candidate and making much noise in these parts. 

From Jesse Turner. U. 

Van Buren, Ark., 

June 15th, 1842. 

I thank you for the copy of your able and interesting speech on 
the Loan Bill, delivered in the Senate during the present Session 
of Congress, which came to hand a few days ago. The measure 
was doubtless called for by the emergencies of the Country and 
should have rec'd the support of all parties. You seem to have an 
extremely anomalous state of things at Washington, or to use the 
appropriate language of Mr. Clay, "President without a party, 
and a party without a President." 

61 William Russell was elected to the commons at the election which followed. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 343 

This deplorable state of things, the disappointment of our 
fondest hopes, and the bitter reflection that our great triumph of 
1840 has utterly failed thus far in yielding us the fruits which we 
anticipated, through the defection and treachery of our chosen 
Vice President, seems to have had a most paralyzing and unpro- 
pitious effect upon the spirits and energy of our party. A succes- 
sion of disasterous defeats in the State elections has been the con- 
sequence. Whether we can recover from this tremendous paralysis 
by 1844 is questionable. With that great and gallant leader, Henry 
Clay, for our Candidate, I hope we shall be able once more to re- 
instate our party and cause upon the elevated ground which we 
occupied on the 4th. March 1841. I am pleased to see that my 
native State takes the lead in presenting the name of Mr. Clay to 
the nation. The old North State is now appreciated. Several of 
her first men are in the Councils of the Country, and it is under- 
stood that she thinks and acts for herself, uninfluenced by her 
imperious neighbors. But I fear Mr. Stanly, who is a favorite with 
the Whigs through the Country, is not acquitting himself well in 
his affair with Wise. It strikes me that, under the circumstances, 
he should neither have apologized, nor accepted an apology. His 
distinguished Sire could not have acted thus. 

I should be most happy to hear from you often and should you 
see any of my friends when you return to "old Orange" please 
give them my respects. Remember me to my early friend Mr. 
Mangum, and believe me 

Your friend truly 

Jesse Turner 

of Hawfields. 

From Jesse H. Lindsay.® 2 U. 

Greensboro, N. C, 

June 22nd, 1842. 

The Citizens of Greensboro, having met in the Court House, 
on motion of Gen. Jno. M. Logan, 63 Jesse H. Lindsay was called 
to the Chair, who explained the object of the meeting, to take 

62 Jesse Harper Lindsay (1808-1886), a graduate of the university, cashier of the 
Greensboro branch of the Bank of Cape Fear, a member of the commons, 1835-1838, 
of the state senate, 1844. He was a leading citizen of the town, with many business 

63 John McClintock Logan (1797-1853), a native of Ireland, merchant, town 
officer, and major general of militia. 

344 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

into consideration the sudden and unexpected cutting down of 
the mail from Raleigh to Greensboro. On motion of Jno. A. 
Gilmer, 64 Dr. D. P. Weir 65 was appointed Secretary of the meeting. 

Jno. A. Gilmer submitted the following preamble & resolu- 
tions, to wit: 

Whereas the convenience and necessities of the community 
satisfactorily shewn to the Post office department in the year 
1838 induced the head of that department to increase our mail 
facilities by giving us a daily mail from Raleigh to Greensboro, 
with which we were well pleased and much benefited. 

Whereas the route was bid off by gentlemen, then strangers to 
us but who we had well hoped would have conveyed the mail 
thereon with the ordinary regard to the public convenience and 
their own credit and profit. 

Whereas we believe there were other men, had it not been for 
the interference of the present contractory, who would have 
taken the contract on terms essentially as favorable to the de- 
partment and in the discharge of the duties thereof have met the 
wishes of the community and the government. 

Whereas in pain and disappointment we have witnessed the 
gradual diminution of our mail facilities— but the alterations here- 
tofore being to a small extent, altho' not consulted by the con- 
tractors in relation thereto, we had not complained, but having 
with great astonishment learned for the first time that the con- 
tractors have succeeded by their individual representations or 
otherwise, in getting the route cut down to a tri-weekly mail. 

And whereas we learn that the new arrangement will destroy 
all connection with the other mails heretofore in connection at 
our town, and in truth owing to the arrivals at Raleigh give us 
but two Northern mails per week. 

Therefore, it is unanimously resolved by the citizens of Greens- 
boro' that the public convenience requires a daily instead of a 
tri-weekly mail from Raleigh to Greensboro'. 

Resolved further, that the causes and circumstances that in- 
duced the alteration from a tri-weekly to a daily mail remain 
the same. 

Resolved further, that it is the opinion of this meeting that 

61 John Adams Gilmer (1805-1868), lawyer, state senator, 1846-1856, Whig candi- 
date for governor, 1856, member of congress, 1857-1861, where he quickly rose to 
prominence. He declined a seat in Lincoln's cabinet, and was a member of the 
Confederate congress, 1864-1865. He was a delegate to the National Union conven- 
tion, 1866. 

85 D. P. Weir was treasurer of the Greensboro Mutual Life Insurance Company. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 345 

the Hon. Post Master General in giving his sanction to this al- 
teration was either misled by interested individuals for an in- 
dividual purpose, or misinformed as to the wishes and convenience 
of the Community. 

Resolved farther, that in executing mail contracts public con- 
venience should rather be consulted than private interest, and 
that good faith requires the original contract to be fulfilled. 

Resolved further, that a copy of these proceedings, signed by 
the Chairman and Sec'ty be forwarded to the Post Master General 
thro' our Honorable Senators Messrs. Mangum and Graham, 
and our immediate representative the Hon. A. H. Shepperd with 
a request to them to call the attention of the department to 
the importance of our office, not only to us, and the surround- 
ing country, but being a distributing office to all the Western 
and South Western part of the State, and use their influence to 
re-instate this contract— which, on motion, was unanimously 

D. P. Weir, Sec'ry. 

From James T. Little john. m U. 

Oxford, June 23rd, 1842. 

Mr. Johnson (our late Senator & now the Whig Candidate) has 
just left me and at his request I trouble you with this communica- 

Mr. J. I hope will not be hard run. I hope & think he will be 
easily elected. A better Whig never was & it would be much to 
be regretted were he not elected. He has our old friend Elijah 
Hester 67 to contend with, who bye the bye, is not easily to be 
beaten. Johnson says he is in want of some public documents, 
such as the Report of the Committee on Public Expenditures," 
Report of Commissioners (Poindexter's) investig. Custom Ho," 
Report Committee on Retrenchment"— and indeed any docu- 
ments or speeches that you think will be of service to him. Some- 
thing on the 'Restriction of the Veto' would not be amiss. 

I have paid so little attention myself to what has been spoken 
in Congress this session, that I am unable to select matter best 
calculated to aid us in our Canvass. I should however like a 

88 James T. Littlejohn, of Oxford, who was a member of the commons in 1844. 
67 Elijah Hester was a member of the commons, 18,^5, 1838, and of the state senate, 
in 1842. 

346 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Copy of Meriwether's 68 speech, as well as one for Johnson, if to 
be had. 

We have a full ticket on both sides. I think with industry & 
proper management, the whole Whig Ticket can be elected. 
Gilliams quitting I dont think has injured us as much as our 
friends were afraid of. My own opinion is, that we can elect the 
whole ticket as easily without him as with him, if proper exer- 
tions are made, though G's place as a Speaker cannot be supplied 
& his own election was certain, but what we have lost in him 
individually is supplied by the locality of the present ticket. 

Since commencing I have concluded to make this a joint 
letter to you and Mr. Rayner, and will beg the favour of you 
both to send to Mr. Johnson, at Dutchville P. O. Granville Cty 
the desired papers, and such others as you may think he will 
need. I think Mr. J. said he had written to one of you, but de- 
sired I would write to you both. 

I think Morehead will beat Henry about 7,500. 

From Weston R. Gales. A. 

July 1, 1842. 

I have just received your last favor, and merely drop this line 
to say, that you are doing more than all our Members of Congress 
together, to enlighten the public mind, and I so stated to the 
Central Committee yesterday, without committing you to any 
particular act. 

Waddell, who was present, confirmed the statement. By the bye, 
he seems sanguine of success, not only for himself, but the whole 

It is a singular fact, that with the exception of your brother 
James, and yourself, I have not received a line from any Whig 
Member, the present Session. The facts you have disclosed to me, 
particularly the items in regard to the Bankrupt Laws and Fisher's 
Bank Bill, have produced a very favorable effect. The latter I 
shall continue to harp on. I have an article in today's Register, 
with an extract from the Report, which I find in print, but it is 

68 David Meriwether (1800-1893), of Kentucky, a native of Virginia, trader, farmer, 
lawyer. Democratic member of the lower house of the legislature, 1832-1845, 1858- 
1885, (speaker 1859), delegate to convention of 1849, state secretary of state, 1851, 
United States senator, 1852, governor of New Mexico, 1853-1855, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 347 

a little singular that neither the Bill or Report can be found in 
the Archives of State, nor, indeed, can any other document of 
importance, bearing Fisher's impress. 

As Mark Britain would say, it looks ominous. My inability 
to find these papers, delayed a notice of the matter. Waddell has 
been furnished with the Report, Journal, etc., and thinks Santee— 
Ann a case. 

The gentlemen of the Bar from various parts of the State, in 
attendance upon the Supreme Court, give the most encouraging 
accounts of the prospect. The only County from which we really 
hear bad news is Craven, which seems disposed fairly to entitle 
herself to the name. No Whig Candidate is yet out, though John 
H. Bryan says the County is certainly Whig. 

The Central Committee have written to Atmore, but had not 
Mr. Washington better interest himself in the matter. 

We hear that Wadsworth 69 will run, if a full Ticket is started, 
not otherwise. It will be a burning shame to let the Loco Focos 
take a snap judgment against us there. 

Morehead is carrying every thing before him in the West. He 
says, Henry will never meet him again. 

From John F. Poindexter. U. 

German ton, July the 1st, 1842. 

I have for some time been thinking of writing to you, but have 
put it off from time to time hoping to find something that would 
interest and please you; nothing of the kind has yet transpired. 
Our people here are becoming a good deal excited upon the sub- 
ject of the pending elections. Gov. Morehead delivered a speech 
on last Monday in this County, I was not present but am told 
that his speech was a good one and was well received. The Gov. 
has gone West and is to address the people every day or nearly 
every day between this and the election. 

In this County the Whig ticket for the Legislature is not yet 
filled. Dr. Wm. Withers 70 is a candidate for the Senate and Dr. 
William Walker for the Commons— please furnish them with 
such papers as they may use with advantage. 

69 William B. Wadsworth, of New Bern, had been a member of the commons, 
1838-1839, and was again a member, 1848. He was state senator, 1862. 

70 Dr. William Withers, of Stokes, had been a member of the commons in 1840. 

348 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

I think in a few days we shall complete our ticket, but by whom 
I am not yet advised. I have been trying to bring out friend 
Shober, 71 and I think he is somewhat in the notion. Matthews 72 
& Covington 73 were nominated by the Whigs, but decline being 
Candidates, I think Matthews would have yielded to the wishes 
of his friends, but that he had the misfortune two weeks ago to 
lose a brother, who died of fever. Covington, I believe will not 

I do not think that we have lost any thing in this County, but 
believe that if we can manage to get our people excited as here- 
tofore, we will be able to do as well as we have done for the 
last four years. Some of the moderate Whigs have become some- 
what dissatisfied on account of Captain Tyler's treachery, but 
they will still vote with us if they are properly attended to, and 
we will endeavour to have that done. 

It is possible you will hear from me again when we shall have 
completed our ticket. 

Please present my respects to Mr. Shepperd and say to him that 
I will write to him in a few days. 

To Samuel F. Patterson™ U. Lindsay Patterson Mss. 

Washington City, 

July 7th, 1842. 

I owe you an apology for not earlier replying to your letter. 
Mr. Forward requested that I would wait untill the 1st. of July, 
when I first applied to him, and when that time arrived he had 
gone to Philadelphia. I now enclose you his letter; the terms are 
not inviting, and I have concluded not to go into a loan. With the 
wretched, vacillating man at the head of our affairs, there is no 
certainty that any duty bill will pass at this Session, which will 
escape a veto. And if Congress shall adjourn without providing 
means to meet our liabilities, the stock must depreciate much. 
In the state of uncertainty, therefore, which exists, I do not think 

71 Probably Emmanuel Shober, state senator, 1819-1820, 1822, 1824, 1827-1828. 

72 Caleb H. Matthews had been a member of the commons, 1835-1838. 

73 James M. Covington had been a member of the commons, 1836-1840. 

74 Samuel Finley Patterson (1799-1874), of Wilkes, (now Caldwell), a native of 
Virginia, who came to North Carolina in 1814. Long a legislative clerk, he was 
state treasurer, 1835-1837, president of the Bank of the State, president of the 
Raleigh and Gaston Railroad, state senator, 1846-1848, 1864-1865, member of the 
commons, 1854-1855, delegate to the convention of 1865. He was grand master of 
Masons, 1833-1834. He was also a most successful farmer. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 349 

U. S. loans a desirable investment, and would not go into it at 

I would be glad to obtain 20 shares of stock in the Bank of 
the State N. C. if it can be had at par. If you can without incon- 
venience effect such a purchase for me, I will be obliged. 

Congress will sit untill the first of August— possibly longer. 
The vacillating papers which have heretofore supported Mr. 
Tyler, are now denouncing him, and I think it impossible to 
avoid a rupture in his Cabinet. 


From W. Forward. 

Treasury Department, 
July 7th, 1842. 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of 
the 6th inst. 

All the negotiations made by this Department, for Stock under 
the loan act of the 15th of April 1842, have been made at par, 
where the offers were for sums under one million. I am not pre- 
pared to depart from such terms. 

Upon a receipt of a certificate of deposite in the Bank of 
Virginia, at Norfolk, or the Bank of the Metropolis, at Washing- 
ton certificates of stock for a corresponding amount, will be issued 
to the order of your friend. 

I regret that the arrangements of, and requisitions upon this 
Department, will not allow of such deposit in any of the Banks 
of North Carolina, but I trust that in selecting the nearest de- 
positories of the government, such facilities will be afforded, as 
will enable your friend to make the desired investment. 

I am with great respect 
Your obd't serv't 

From J. H. Long U. 

July 7, 1842. 

I have only time (while the mail waits) to observe. That of all 
Measures ever adopted by Congress since the Alien & Sedition 

350 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Law, I firmly believe the Bank-rupt Law is at this time the most 
Odious in the estimation of all classes of Men having any pre- 
tensions to honesty. 

Its not only so hereabouts but as far as my travels or acquain- 
tance has extended. It is doing more to allay the zeal of Whigs 
than every thing else. Tho I believe there is as many Whigs in 
this State as ever and it will be so found if they can be got to 
the polls. 

Can't the Bank-rupt Law be repealed forth-with? 

You have no Idea of its abuse. If suffered to opperate 'till 
another session it will do Incalculable injury to the honest and 
indulgent Creditors throughout the Country. 

From John A. Barnett. A. 


July 8th, 1842. 

I have taken the field against Mr. Williams & I think with a 
tolerable prospect of success If I can obtain a little assistance 
from You; the assistance I need is a few documents relative to 
what has been the course heretofore persued by the Government 
towards Publice officers who have died in the service of the 
Government as the principle charge here against The Whigs is 
the donation to Mrs. Harrison & particularly against You as You 
voted for it; another Charge against You is that You refused to 
refund to Gen'l Jackson by Your vote the thousand dollar fine by 
a New Orleans Judge. 

I tell the people I am perfectly willing for Gen'l Jackson to 
have the money refunded to him & that I believe You are also 
providing the bill refunding it does not censure the Court that 
imposed the fine. Mr. Williams stated that You so cloged the 
bill with amendments that the democrats themselves could not 
vote for it. 

I think Mr. Choate in a Speech he delivered in Congress re- 
fered to several Cases where Congress had made handsome do- 
nations to officers who had died in the Service of the Govern- 
ment & as I Cannot now lay my hand upon it please send it to 
me. If I mistake not there were some democrats who voted for 
the donation to Mrs. Harrison; please give me their names & the 
States they reside in. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 351 

I wish You to write to me informing me what Course You are 
willing to persue relative to the $1000. fine; I would prefer Your 
writing a letter I could publically use; If you think proper to 
send any document or make any Communications to me please 
direct them (under cover) to George A. Smith, Milton N. C. 

Your Compliance with the foregoing request will much Oblige 

Your friend. 

From Giles Mebane. TJ. 

White Oak, July 10th, 1842. 

We have come over the County as far as Turrentine; the 
gathering is there tomorrow. So far there is an increased Whig 
strength & a manifest want of harmony & confidence among 
locos. When rogues fall out, etc. I have no time for the amusing 
incidents. One specimen must suffice. We have drenched them 
with Henry's bitters until confession is had from them that Henry 
is only taken as a choice of evils. The File Leader leads in evil 
& that evil is tied to a dog's tail, as the gallant Henry said he was 
in Hillsborough. 

We are under great obligation to you for doc's. No one com- 
plains of your sending them but the old file Leader he thinks it 
mighty hard that Mr. Graham should furnish the people informa- 
tion when his election comes on next Winter. He is the only one 
that has said He would vote against you & he only to get such a 
good democrat as Bedford. 75 

I think now we shall carry the whole ticket triumphant. I send 
you enclosed one dollar for the True Whig. 

Eli McDaniel, P. M., near your friend Michael Albright, who 
has named his son after you, says Eli will not let him have the 
papers you send him until they have lain in the office weeks. The 
office is of little use I understand & might be abolished. Eli in- 
tends moving this Fall if his creditors will let him. Such a Mis- 
creant ought not to be P. M. 

Can you not pass bank bill after bank bill & revenue bill after 
revenue bill until his accidency shall pile up a mountain of 
Vetoes that will make his throne shake under him? The people 
will surely sustain Congress against a petty tyrant. 

Bedford Brown. 

352 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From Charles L. Hinton. A. 


July 12th, 1842. 

Yours of the 9th. was reed, last evening. I shall write to Gov. 
Morehead by tomorrows mail inclosing your letter to me to- 
geather with a letter from the Sec. of the Treasury which has been 
reed, since he left for the mountains. I think it probable he will 
authorise me to go on; if so I shall have the pleasure of seeing 
you in Washington. 

I send you a letter from the Gov. to his Secretary which will 
give you an idea of his feelings on the election. I dont believe 
any Loco calculates on Henry's success. We have thought the 
Legislature somewhat doubtful but are more sanguine at this 
time, indeed we feel pretty safe. The Whigs are more roused 
than I expected to have seen them. During the present term of the 
Supreme Court, men from every quarter have been here, and 
general determination among the Whigs to do their best, but 
they say some of our Congressmen dont aid them as much as 
they might, particularly Mangum who they suppose has more 
leisure since his late elevation, a letter from a distance has a 
great tendency to spur up, and a document among the Country 
people is read through a neighborhood circle. Your Brother's 
circular is a most excellent document, like all his circulars it is 
peculiarly adapted to the rank and file. 

It is now 5 o'clk, I have just left Rayner— poor fellow he is 
as badly scared as tho' he were to be led to the gallows at 8 o'clk 
which is the appointed hour for him, tho' he says he will try 
and get there. 76 

We shall have a large party; all the old Lady's children have 


Rayner is certainly married, a very large party. Had you not 
better ascertain whether the Treasurer pays off the amt. due the 
States and write me, as it would be unnecessary to go on with- 
out a probability of getting the money. 

76 This was his wedding day. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 35o 

From Frederick J. Hill. U. 


July 13th, 1842. 

Your esteemed favor of the 22nd. ulto. directed to Wilmington 
reached me at this place and I thank you for it as well as for the 
accompanying Doc't. 

I do not know that I can add anything to the intelligence which 
I doubt not you receive from your numerous corrispondents in 
the State; but as I had the pleasure of hearing the Orange candi- 
dates a few days since; I cannot forego the pleasure of stating 
to you the decided advantage they obtain at every point where 
they meet their competitors. Old St'a Ann carrys a consciousness 
of defeat in his cadaverous visage, and sanguine expectations are 
entertained of the success of the whole Whig Ticket. Mebane is 
a most efficient campaigner, quite equal I think to our friend 
Waddell. Squire Stafford and Mr. Isaac Holt heard the candi- 
dates on four seperate days, and concur in the opinion above 

As to the Gov's Election no fears are expressed, no doubt seems 
to exist, but I am not as confident of carrying the Assembly 
ticket, much the most important one in my estimation. North- 
hampton, Craven, Bertie, Stokes and Granville and in the order 
in which they are enumerated are the doubtful counties. I know 
nothing however calculated to excite alarm which is unknown to 
you except perhaps that we have a very weak Ticket in North 
Hampton and the Dem'ts a strong one; of my own prospects I 
can say nothing only that I have been absent since the 10th. 
June and do not expect to be present again before the 1st. August. 
You will perceive too that Mr. Tyler has thrown the weight of 
his name (or rather that which hangs around the office he ac- 
cidentally fills) into the canvass to my prejudice; his letter, how- 
ever, contains a spurious evasion of the statement made by me 
to my constituents, and altho' from an attentive Perusal of the 
same he does not deny my statement yet to a cursory reader it is 
such; and so I must construe and answer it. I stated to the People 
of Brunswick that he, Mr. Tyler, while at the Harrisburg Con- 
vention (not in Convention but in conversation) stated to Gov'r 
Owen and myself that his views on the Bank question had under- 
gone a change and that his constitutional objections he thought 
ought to yield to the various Executive Legislations and In- 

354 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

dividual discussions of the question. I further stated that he was 
a zealous advocate of the claims of Mr. Clay to the nomination of 
the Convention. 

The death of Gov'r Owen deprives me of the strongest Testi- 
mony in the case, altho' I think I have sufficient to establish the 
fact. Among your Congressional acquaintances can you furnish 
any thing bearing upon the matter. 'Tis probable, I think, that 
Mr. Archer 77 was acquainted with the views of Mr. Tyler; please 
make enquiry of him or Mr. Boardman 78 of Connecticut, or any 
other member of Congress who was at the Convention; where I 
am known I doubt not my statement will be fully vindicated, but 
as it is a question of veracity I desire it settled beyond the reach 
of cavil. I have already replied to the letter but as the con- 
troversy may be continued I wish to be fully prepared. 

From Daniel S. Hill. U. 

Louisburg No. C, 

July 14th, 1842. 

It is very important that we should be prepared to meet the 
Loco-focos in Franklin on the Tariff Question & on the enomous 
expenditures of the Present Whig Congress. If you could forward 
me the reports of Committees of Retrenchment made by Sum- 
mers 79 of Va., Stanly, & others, your Speech on the Loan Bill (I 
think it is I thot I had it in the Intelligencer but cant find it) 
two or three copies of yr Bro' Circular on the subject of the ap- 
propriation to Mrs. Harrison. On the Tariff will you do me the 
favor to give me some of yr. views on the subject. The L Focos 
charge the Whigs with Voting to Tax the consumers of the south 
for necessaries & blankets, etc. Please refer me to some speech or 
Document by which we can turn the tables upon them by show- 
ing the similarity between the Tariff the Whigs propose & 

77 William S. Archer of Virginia. 

78 William Whiting Boardman (1794-1871), of Connecticut, a graduate of Yale, 
studied law at Harvard and Litchfield. He was a member and speaker of the lower 
house of the legislature, 1836-1839, 1845, 1849, 1851. He was a Whig member of 
congress, 1840-1843. 

79 George W. Summers (1804-1868), of Virginia, educated at Washington College, 
(now Washington and Lee University) and Ohio University, began the practice of 
law in Charleston. He was a member of the house of delegates, 1830-1832, 1834- 
1836, a Whig member of congress, 1841-1845, a delegate to the convention of 1850, 
and to the peace conference, 1861. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 355 

Woodbury's recommendation While Sec. of Treasury, & the fact 
that V. B. Expended $7,000,000 annually more than his recpts 
while the Tariff was double what is now under the compromise 

Excuse the liberty I have taken in troubling you as well as the 
hurried manner of adressing you; we are trying to run a Whig 
through from Franklin & have no doubt if matters continue as 
they are but that we shall succeed. The Excitement of 1840 will 
be nothing to compare with the enthusiasm that the Mill Boy 
lights up in the hearts of the Whigs of the old North. The Whigs 
are every where in high spirits & determining to do their duty 
on the 4th. Augst.; they are certain of a Whig Legislature Whig 
Governor & Whig Senator. 

I am in hopes you all will come home before August, for I 
believe that the success of Mr. Clay in '44 depends upon the vote 
No. C. gives in Augst. 

From Edwin G. Reade. 80 U. 

Roxboro, July 16th, 1842. 

I am so much pleased myself at the fair prospects we have of 
electing two Whigs from Person that I supposed the news would 
not be altogether uninteresting to you. 

Little John Barnett— as he is generally called— opposes Wil- 
liams 81 in the Senate & although I do not think his election 
certain yet I think it very probable. 

There is not much difference between the Whig & dem. vote 
in the Senate & Williams cannot unite his party. When Williams 
speaks of the apropriation to the widow Harrison Barnett tells 
him of his $10,000 vote to the Wake Forest Institute & this ruins 
him with the Hardshell Baptists. 

Barnett manages the canvass remarkably well. He has hardly 
a personal enemy in the county & some who will not vote for 
him will not vote vs him. Two years ago Williams solicited 

80 Edwin Godwin Reade (1812-1894), of Person County, farmer, lawyer, American 
(Know-Nothing) M. C, 1855-1857, was elected a delegate in 1861 to the convention 

which the people refused to call. He was appointed to the Confederate senate in 
1864 to fill a vacancy. He was a judge of the superior court, 1864-1865, delegate and 
president of the convention of 1865, and associate justice of the state supreme court, 

81 Probably John W. Williams, the incumbent, who served, 1888-1842. He was a 
delegate to the convention of 1835, 

356 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Hester 82 to oppose our sherriff. Hester did so & Williams did not 
vote for him. I understand he thereby loses the Hester influence 
which is considerable. 

There are four democratic candidates in the Commons. Jones, 83 
Chambers, 84 Hiram Saterfield, 85 & John A. Holloway, 86 One 
Whig, James Holman 87 who is decidedly the best informed man 
on politicks in the county. He makes a strong farmer-like speech 
about an hour long which tells remarkably. He knows every thing 
that has been done for a number of years & who did it. If all 
the dem. candidates hold on there is no doubt of his election. 
They have tried very hard to call off two but they have hitherto 
failed. They cannot unite on any two, & if they could I should 
then think Holman's chances very fair. 

If we can elect two Whigs I shall greatly rejoice for more 
reasons than one but chiefly for one. 

James Graham's address is very satisfactory & is of service to us. 

Every body says Morehead will be elected. 

The contest in Granville is doubtful I fear we shall lose our 

Mr. Norwood informed me that they were doing well in 
Orange; probably the whole Whig ticket would succeed Henry 
Nash's election thought to be certain. He seems to take very 

If you have any thing that would help on our candidates please 
forward it to them. 

From Samuel F. Patterson. U. 

Raleigh, July 20th, 1842. 

*y, jt ji. ,*£. jl 

^ TP TP TP w 

Our political contest is waxing pretty warm. In this County 
we have a most beautiful Dog fight between old Sam Whitaker 88 
and J. B. Shepard. They have been quarreling ever since the 

82 Robert H. Hester, who was state senator, 1844-1850, and a member of the 
commons, 1856-1858. 

83 Robert Jones was a member of the commons, 1832-1835, 1838-1840. 

84 Moses Chambers, member of the commons, 1836-1840. 

95 Hiram Satterfield of Person, member of the commons, 1842. 

86 John A. Holloway, member of the commons, 1842. 

87 James Holeman, member of the commons, 1846-1848, 1852-1854, state senator, 
1862-1864, 1865. 

88 Samuel Whitaker, had served in the commons, 1822-1830, and in the state 
senate, 1834-1840, He was not elected in 1842. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 357 

campaign opened and every day I understand it gets worse and 
worse. On Monday one of Whitaker's sons struck Shepard whilst 
he was speaking publicly in consequence of some epithet which 
he applied to his father. 

To day I learn that Mr. W. H. Haywood has gone to Busbee's 

(the place of the tax gathering) with the avowed purpose of 

taking the hide off Shepard, from neck to heel, for some remarks 

which Shepard is said to have made in his public speeches about 

Haywood and also about his father-in law Mr. Graham. 89 

It is understood that Haywood is decidedly opposed to Shepard 
and as decidedly in favour of Whitaker. Hence the cause of Shep- 
ard's attack upon him. 

Our Candidate in the Senate old Natty Warren 90 as they call 
him, glides along very smoothly and avoids as much as possible 
being drawn into a controversy with either of the others, which 
I think is decidedly the best plan. Should both the democrats hold 
on, of which there seems now to be no doubt, Mr Warren will 
certainly be elected, and our Candidate for the Commons (Dr. 
Hicks) 91 is very sanguine of his election also. 

The last accounts from Orange were very favorable. The Whigs 
are in high spirits and seem confident of success. 

I understand that a few days ago at a public gathering while 
Mr. C. Jones was addressing the people and pretending to read 
from some document (one of Gov Morehead's speeches I believe) 
evidence to sustain his position, Mr. G. Mebane detected and 
convicted him of reading it falsely and perverting entirely the 
meaning of the evidence relied on. Mebane exposed the trick 
to the people which I understand had a most powerful effect. 

In some of the Western Counties we hear our friends are 
managing badly. In Wilkes particularly they have out too many 
Whig candidates and consequently two Locos have come out, 
who unless some arrangement can be made to induce a part of 
the Whigs to withdraw, I fear will be elected. I have to day 
written several letters to my friends there to endeavor to produce 
some better understanding among the Whigs, and Mr. Badger 
has also written with the same view. I hope sincerely some ac- 
commodation will be effected before the election comes on. 

89 Edward Graham (1765-1833), a native of New York, a graduate of Princeton, 
who studied law under John Jay, and settled at New Bern. He became a distinguish- 
ed lawyer. He was a borough member of the commons, in 1797. 

90 Warren failed of election. 

01 Dr. Hicks was also defeated. 

358 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

The Governor was at Lincoln ton on Saturday the 16th, was 
to be at Morganton yesterday, and is to be at Statesville tomorrow. 
All accounts from him are of the most cheering character, and 
we have now no doubt of his election by a large majority. 

Henry's letter has dispirited and dissatisfied his party very 
much, and they are now abusing each other for having brought 
out opposition at all. Your brother's circular I think will do great 
good to our Cause. It is indeed a most excellent document just 
at this time, and is the very thing our people wanted. I wish it 
had come out a little earlier; I fear it will not get into circulation 
as extensively as it ought to do. 

I am glad to find that the House has passed the Tariff bill, 
and hope you will be equally successful in the Senate. I believe 
that nothing but reasonable protection to our own manufactorys 
& an old fashioned U S Bank well restricted in its provisions will 
ever bring our matters straight again. 

I did not however sit down to write a letter on politics and 
will therefore conclude. 

by subscribing myself, 
Very respectfully, 
Your obt. Servt. 

From John M. Morehead. U. 

July 24th, 1842. 

I am this far on my way Eastward, canvassing as I go, accord- 
ing to my appointments advertised in the Whig papers. 

I was West as far as Franklin (Macon) but could not visit 
Cherokee & have time to return to Rutherford Court, nor could 
I visit Yancey. 

The politics of the whole West is sound, I think, decidedly im- 
proved from Publicity beyond the mountains. 

I understand that Mr. Calhoun reported at Washington that 
Henry was seen to be elected, & as Mr. Fisher is there now, I sup- 
pose there will be confirmation. 

I profess to be no prophet, but I will hazard this prediction: 
If the vote of the State is as large as in 1840, say 80,000, I will 
beat my opponent at least 10,000; if 60,000 I will beat him 8,- 

The Papers of William A. Graham 359 

I think we shall secure the Legislature, but our friends do 
badly in some parts of the State. I have done every thing I could 
in my part of the State to try to secure the Legislature, but in 
some Counties I could not get things arranged as I wished. 

But we shall secure the Legislature. 

I cannot get ten minutes to write a letter day or night; we are 
as enthusiastic as in 1840. 

I write to thank you in the name of the Whigs of N. C. 8c of 
the U. S. for your very opportune circular; it is reprinted and 
largely circulated. 

It is just what it should be. 

Shew this to your brother, with my respects. I have not time 
to write him— almost broke down— but feel like I shall hold out 
until the election. 

From William H. OivenP U. 

Chapel Hill, 

July 25th., 1842. 
My Dear Friend; 

For, if you will allow me honour, I shall never feel disposed 
to apply a colder epithet to you. The generous recommendation 
which you gave of me to the Trustees of William and Mary has 
impressed me with lasting gratitude. 

The kind exertions of several friends of yourself, in particular, 
had placed success almost beyond doubt, as I inferred from two 
communications from President Dew, and other intelligence which 
I received from William and Mary. My sanguine expectations of 
success were shared by my friends at this place; but when the 
golden prize was almost within my grasp, I felt constrained, both 
by duty and inclination to withdraw my application, in conse- 
quence of the irreconcilable opposition of my Mother and Sisters, 
particularly of the former, who was firmly impressed with the 
belief that the climate of Williamsburg would be fatal to the 
family. Several of my friends, (among them Mr. H. Waddell, & 
Pro. Green) expressed similar apprehensions, and the latter, as 
well as Mr. Hooper, advised me to withdraw my application. On 
consideration of the foregoing motives, I indulge the hope that 

98 William Hayes Owen, a graduate of the university, who served as a tutor, 1835- 
1843. He was a professor thereafter at Wake Forest College. 

360 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

you will attribute my course neither to fickleness, nor to any want 
of a proper appreciation of the kind exertions of my friends. 

Before I conclude, I wish to make a remark personal to your- 
self. I did hope that your public conduct, admirable in all that 
becomes a Senator, would gain for you the approbation of every 
member of the Whig party, at least; but such is not the case. 
I have learned from authentic sources that there is a strong dis- 
position to run Judge B— r against you,— and what do you think is 
the charge against you, why— prudence!! excessive prudence, de- 
generating into selfishness, for fear of compromising yourself. 
I know of but one other instance of Prudence being considered a 
blemish, viz: Gen'l Lee, when rebuked by Gen'l W. for his 
retreat at the battle of Monmouth, replied that he had been 
taught by his Excellency some of that "rascally virtue called Pru- 
dence." But, "Nullum numen ab est, si sit Prudentia." You are 
not at liberty to mention the foregoing information in connection 
with my name— it might compromise me. You see that I, too, have 
learned a little prudence. 

If the hint I have given you shall occasion uneasiness, rather 
than impart desirable information, I shall regret having given 
it, and can only plead friendly concern for your political in- 

There is but little news at this place. The Institution has re- 
sumed its operations, under more favorable auspices than were 
anticipated at the end of the last Session. We have nearly 170 

The President will make a Northern tour in the beginning of 
the fall,— Prof. Roberts retires in October, and the Rev. Mr. 
Deems 93 is to come into the Faculty, with the title of Assistant 
Prof, of Rhetoric. . . . 

The foregoing, printed pages will, I hope sufficiently explain 

I am with sentiments of exalted regard, & warm friendship, 

Your obliged humble Serv't 

83 Charles Force Deems (1820-1893), a native of Baltimore, graduate of Dickinson 
College, a Methodist minister, who came to North Carolina as an agent of the 
American Bible Society. He was a professor in the university, 1842-1848, and at 
Randolph-Macon College, 1850-1851, held pastorates, and taught in several places. 
In 1865 he went to New York, and established and edited The Watchman, a news- 
paper designed to promote reunion, and was pastor of the Church of the Strangers. 
He was a prolific writer. He was instrumental, through his intimacy with Mr. 
Vanderbilt, in the founding of Vanderbilt University. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 361 

[Attached Letter.'] M 

Chapel Hill, 1842. 

Dear Sir, 

I have conceived the plan of opening a Female Boarding School 
in the family of my Mother, and have chosen this method of 
communicating our views, because it allows us to do so with 
greater familiarity than is compatible with a newspaper notice, 
although the latter has the advantage of giving more extensive 
publicity, and also that of being a better vehicle for the circula- 
tion of certificates and references. But in regard to these I will 
at present only remark, that, so far as competency can be estab- 
lished by the testimony of others, I can satisfy the most sceptical 
by reference to many of the first characters and scholars in this 
State, and likewise to some in Virginia. 

The Moral and Religious instruction of the girls will, in a 
great measure, be under the direction of my Mother. Two of my 
sisters, under my superintendance and arrangement, and with my 
frequent assistance, will teach to the extent of their ability; where 
they fail, I will endeavor to supply the deficiency. I have a sister 
who has been resident at Chapel Hill for several years, whom 
I have carried through a pretty extensive course of Latin and 
French. In teaching her the latter language, I have been kindly 
and efficiently assisted by the accomplished Professor of Modern 
Languages in the University. The acknowledged abilities of the 
able assistant in the department of Mathematics, can, and will be 
called into requisition if necessary. 

The part of our plan which I like most, and to which I wish to 
invite your particular attention, is, that we shall have no vacation 
during the two college vacations. The object of this arrangement 
is, to allow me to give my undivided attention to the girls during 
the college vacations, which together amount to three months, 
or one fourth of the whole year. Parents can send for their 
daughters whenever they think proper, and keep them at home 
as long as they deem consistent with propriety and their interests. 

As we shall not be under the necessity of employing teachers, 
since we have them in our own family, we can afford to instruct 
girls on more moderate terms than usual. 

Such, sir, is the outline of our plan. To you who know me, 
it is, I hope, needless to say that it is almost impossible to bring 

M Printed circular. 

362 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

more or weightier influences to bear upon an instructor in the 
discharge o£ his duty than those which will operate upon me; a 
sense of honor, regard for reputation, gratitude for confidence con- 
ferred, delight in the occupation, and that which would be the 
all-prevailing consideration with many, self-interest, all consti- 
tute so many securities for the faithful performance of my part 
of the incumbent duties. 

My friends who know me best can testify that I have long 
manifested a deep anxiety on the subject of Female Education, 
in my humble way, I have both spoken and written in its behalf. 
I regard it as the most extensive and most unoccupied field of 
usefullness that can be presented to the philanthropist. Let it 
be cultivated, let its natural beauties, which have been so long 
left to flourish in wild luxuriance, be nourished and directed by 
the plastic hand of cultivation, and soon they will diffuse a re- 
freshing and vivifying fragrance, the incense of enlightened 
purity, that will pervade the length and breadth of the land, 
under the influence of which presumptuous ignorance, impudent 
venality, and heartless selfishness would be rebuked. Of course 
I have no expectation of being a reformer in this neglected 
field, yet it may be allowed me to throw out the above views, 
as a motive, at least. But enough about our own qualifications. 
I have less hesitation in speaking of the Incidental advantages 
of the place. It is needless to speak of its healthfulness, this is 
well known; its picturesque beauties are equally so. But that 
which renders Chapel Hill unrivalled as a desirable place for 
the education of young ladies, is the intellectual character of 
its social intercourse, and even of its amusements. Long before 
I had ever dreamed that my Mother's family would come here 
to reside, I had thought a thousand times that I would rather a 
sister of mine should be educated here than at any other place 
in the South. In the first place, there is here enough of society 
for rational enjoyment, and the accomplishment of manners, but 
not enough for the introduction of the frivolities of fashionable 
life, and its consequent distractions; in the second, all our ex- 
hibitions are far more frequent, intellectual and improving to 
the young than those of any other village in the State. The 
public addresses, speeches, experiments, and exhibitions which 
take place during the year would, if equally distributed, average, 
perhaps, one for every fortnight. To all of these admission may 
be easily obtained for the young ladies. From the facts just stated, 
it is evident that here a young lady's Practical education 

The Papers of William A. Graham 363 

woud go hand in hand, and keep equal pace with her theoretical 
instruction. She would not be taught as a nun or novice, but 
when she had gone through a course here she would be prepared 
to enter upon the active and efficient duties of her sphere. 

The Superintendant regrets that the compass of a letter does not 
allow him to give so full an exposition of his views as he desires. 
He differs from many in regard to the manner and kind of in- 
struction proper for young ladies; and whilst he will in all cases 
make it a point of conscience to attend most respectfully to the 
particular wishes of parents as to the instruction of their daugh- 
ters, he begs that he may be restricted as little as possible in this 
respect; he is willing that his views should stand or fall, by the 
proficiency or deficiency which may be exhibited in the educa- 
tion of a young lady whom he has carried through a Full course. 
He subscribes to the observation of Addison, that "good manners 
are a perpetual letter of recommendation;" he will therefore give 
as much attention to the Polite branches of education as he may 
think they deserve, but his chief aim will be to impart a Practical,, 
A Useful education; one that may be made available in after 
life, for the instruction of families, or the acquisition of a support 
in a reverse of fortune. He will endeavor to teach principles, as 
well as facts, to discipline the mind, as well as furnish the memory. 
Many, competent to form a judgment on the subject, hold the 
opinion that, in all its essential branches, female education is a 
half century in the rear of male. No justification for this state 
of things can be found in any necessary or inherent incapability 
in the female mind to acquire the Abstruse and Abstract, as well 
as the Polite and Ornamental. The Superintendant thinks he 
has observed, in his limited experience, that under the operation 
of equal motives and equal external advantages, the female intel- 
lect is as apt as the male in the acquisition of those subjects which 
are sometimes considered as appropriate to males only. He does 
not deny that the former may have less Taste for these severe 
studies; he is only speaking of capability. 

Amid the disasters in trade, and failures which for years past 
have spread gloom and despondency over our land, women have 
frequently appeared in new and interesting points of character, 
and exhibited dormant and uncredited energies. Whilst bank- 
rupt husbands have, in too many instances, given themselves up 
to despair, or what is worse, to the accursed bowl, their wives 
have, with a hero's fortitude and an angel's meekness, regulated 
their households in conformity to their altered fortunes, and be- 

364 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

taken themselves to the teaching of youth as a means of support. 
Who, in view of such a contingency, does not wish that the rising 
female generation may be educated for the shade as well as the 
sunshine of life? 

I foresee several obstacles to the realization of my wishes, but 
chiefly these two; first, my being a single man; but I am not a 
very young one, and in one sense I have been the head of a 
family for years. Ever since my Mother and her four daughters 
have been here, I have been the sole male head; besides, it not un- 
frequently happens that the assistant teacher in a female school 
is a much younger man than myself. Secondly, the erroneous im- 
pression that exists in the minds of some in regard to the manners 
of our students; this, I know from long experience, does the 
young gentlemen of the institution great injustice. I am convinced 
that their association with ladies is as delicate and deferential as 
that of the young gentlemen of any other village of the State, with 
the additional recommendation of being more intellectual, as 
their oportunities are greater, and their number larger. Already 
can the influence of the limited female society of our Literary 
Metropolis, be observed in the greater polish and amenity of 
manners of our students. 


For tuition in English, board, and all the necessary expenses 
of lodging, (washing excepted,) $16.00 per month, one half of 
the charges for the year payable in advance. If Latin, French, (or 
Greek) be studied, there will be an extra charge of $1. per month. 
Music, of course, an extra charge. 

Very respectfully, 

Wm. H. Owen. 

From James Martin. A. 


July 26th, 1842. 

I received with no little gratification your speech in pamphlet 
on the apportionment Bill. For although I had read it in the 
Intelligencer I was glad to have it in a less evanescent shape. 
The speech was read by me with the more pleasure because it 
reflects so clearly the grounds taken by the late Governor when 

The Papers of William A. Graham 365 

a Senator from this State, in recommending and being mainly 
instrumental in introducing here the general Tickett in place of 
Districts in the Election of Members of Congress. The represent- 
ation by districts would have been three to two, and the two 
would have represented a majority the population and the Wealth 
of the State. North Alabama however having comparatively few 
slaves has the ascendancy in votes, and hence the voice of the 
South is not heard in Congress. Mr. Bagby is an agreeable man, 
and a fluent ingenius speaker, but his powers of discrimination 
may be fairly judged of by his argument upon the principle 
involved in the Bill. 

The Election for the State Legislature commences here this 
day week each party have their candidates, who divide as well 
on the Currency question as upon Politicks. The Whigs are 
for discontinuing Banking by the State the Democrats for a 
partial discontinuance only. The Whigs think the system is 
inherently wrong. That the management under it is corrupt 
and the plan is corrupting. The others contend that the corrup- 
tion grows not out of the system and of course can be reformed. 

So that it is seen here that Whigs are opposed to State Banking 
and Democrats are in its favour. The covert reason is, that Loco 
Focoism is in the ascendancy in Alabama, and this rotten State 
Bank system tends to continue their misrule. So much for our 
local politicks. 

The Whigs proper interest is on the increase among us and 
I trust will be in the majority in 1844. Another matter, which 
concerns myself chiefly I would invite your attention to. I be- 
lieve I coincide with you entirely in Politicks. Now I should 
like an appointment to be made by the President. It is the 
Judgeship for the Western District of Florida. I would not nor 
would you do any thing derogatory to my principles to obtain 
it. If with this reservation I could obtain that appointment I 
should be gratified by it. The office is now vacant, and I mention 
this to you in confidence. You may use my name or not as you 
may see fit. The Judge resides at Pensacola the most healthy point 
upon the Coast. 

Our Crops are exceedingly fine, never since I have been in the 
Country have I had so good a prospect. 

Please to present my respects to your Brother. His circular is 
just the thing for the time and that Section of Country. 

366 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From Frederick ]. Hill. 95 U. 


July 27th. 1842. 

Your esteemed favor of the 22nd. Inst, has been received and I 
beg leave to tender you my thanks for the interest you manifest in 
the question of veracity between his accidency Mr. Tyler and 
myself. I had thought of having my reply, with the letters of 
Messrs. Miller and Cherry Published in the Intelligencer, but 
really from the coincidence of my statement with the Speech of 
Mr. Matthiot 96 in the Ho. Reps, the charges of Mr. Botts, and 
the declaration of Mr. Stanly and all these too, following so im- 
mediately the incontrovertible Publication of Mr. Ewing have 
placed the miserable matter so low in the estimate of all good 
men that I felt it would not be magnanimous to give further 
publicity to his ignominy; my only desire has been to be placed 
in a proper position before the reading Public and if the op- 
position Papers would have published my reply without garbling 
it, I should have preferred that the matter should never have 
gone beyond the limits of the State. I observe however in the 
Carolinian this morning (the Paper in which Mr. Tyler's letter 
first appeared) what purports to be my reply and published at 
my request, but omitting the most reliable Testimony, the 
letters of Messrs. Miller and Cherry. The Editor of the Standard 
too altho' he has not positively declined the Publication has thus 
far failed to do so and I presume when the Election is over he may 
insert such a mutilated statement as made its appearance in Mr. 
Henry's organ at Fayetteville Under these circumstances some 
of my friends here think it ought to be published in the In- 
telligencer; as to myself I am satisfied that my assertion is fully 
sustained and would prefer the matter to rest where it is. I 
am not willing unnecessarily to add to the National disgrace the 
Country now suffers in its worthless and unprincipled head; 
if however my friends think that it is due to myself that in 

95 Hill was a delegate to the Harrisburg convention, and voted for Tyler. After 
the break with Tyler, Hill, questioned about it by a Whig committee in Smith- 
ville, stated that, sitting in the room occupied by himself and Governor John 
Owen, Tyler had declared that his views on the Bank question had changed, and 
that he believed it indispensable, and no further question of its constitutionality 
should be raised. Tyler replied, June 5, 1842, denying Hill's statement. 

"Joshua Mathiot (1800-1849), of Ohio, a native of Pennsylvania, lawyer, state 
legislator, and a Democratic senator, 1807-1811, and now a representative, had just 
bitterly attacked Tyler. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 367 

self-defence I should proceed further, it must be done. Will you 
then be kind enough to confer with Messrs. Mangum and Rayner 
on the subject; and do in the premises what in your judgment 
ought to be done. 

Tomorrow morning I set out for Brunswick in order to attend 
the Election; all the accts I receive from them speak favorably of 
the result, but you know the disadvantage of two months absence 
immediately preceeding the day the votes are taken. 

I have no additional information to communicate as to the 
final result only that a gentleman from Halifax with whom I 
conversed a few days since speaks favorably of our prospect in 
Bertie and North Hampton. Branch and Fisher may Brag as they 
Please, but I confidently believe Morehead's maj'ty over Henry 
will be larger than it was over Saunders. 

As to the Legislature, I repeat, I am not as Sanguine as some 
of our friends, tho' I think we shall survive, but by a diminished 

If the result is known in the Southwestern Counties before I 
leave there I will drop you a line; in the mean time believe me 
very truly 

and Sincerely 
Your friend 

From Charles Plummer Green 97 U. 

Ridgeway, N. C, 

July 30th, 1842. 

I received by due course of mail your very kind favour of the 
18th. Inst, for which you will please to accept my thanks. The 
suggestions have been of service to our friends in Granville partic- 
ularly in relation to the Tariff question. I am just from that 
County where I heard all the Candidates address the people at 
several different places, & I regret to say that our friends appear 
not to understand, as they ought to do, the question now aggi- 
tating the public mind. I would not be at all surprised if we are 
defeated, at least a part of the tickett, though they all are sanguine. 

97 Charles Plummer Green (1810-1843), a native of Warren County, gold miner 
in Western North Carolina, founder and editor of the Boydton Virginia Expositor 
and Southern Advocate, which he sold in 1836 and began to study law. He was in 
Texas for a time thereafter. 

368 N. C. Department or Archives and History 

I am in hopes of hearing from Governor Morehead to day saying 
that he will be in Oxford on Tuesday or Wednesday, if he is, 
we are safe. 

Is it not possible for you to get to Orange by Thursday 
it may be important to count every vote, besides great good 
would be effected by an address from you giving an account 
of what Congress has done during this "long session," as our 
opponents often say. You might "pair off" with some Loco. 

I hope you will pardon me for troubling you to get me as 
many of the Lithographed prints of Mr. Clay from a Daguerreo- 
type plate now for sale in Washington, as the within will pur- 
chase. I understand they can be had at eight Dollars per dozen. 
You will please to leave them at Ridgeway, where I hope to 
meet you on your way home. 

Give my respects to Judge Mangum. Should there be a print 
of the Judge, I will thank you to get me one. 

From Charles Plummer Green. U. 

Ridgeway, N. C. 

August 2nd, 1842. 

I hope you will pardon me for again trespassing upon your 
time, which I would not now do, did I not think it important 
to put you upon your guard against an intended coalition be- 
tween certain men from the Nag's Head region, and the Locos 
in the next Assembly, this was attempted in part a day or two 
previous to the meeting of the last Legislature but it was no go. 
Now it is very desirable with a few Whigs in the East to send a 
Senator from that section & Wm. B. Sheppard 98 is that man, & 
if not him, Mr. Cherry would like to fill that station. This is 
not all conjecture on my part. I have several reasons for be- 
lieving so. I heard through a prominent Loco Foco a few days 
ago, that the latter gentleman (I think) told him that "you 
would not be a candidate for reelection & if you were that the 
Nag's Head people would not vote for you." I am confident of 
the correctness of the above as the same gentleman on our way to 
the Whig Convention spoke with confidence that you did not 
desire to remain longer in the Senate. I thought at the time his 

* Shepard. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 5G ( J 

desires might influence in a great measure his belief. I would 
not be supprised if some of that clique should try to "soft sawda" 
as Sam Slick would say, Mr. Rayner, thinking that he might be 
induced to lend his aid to defeat your election. Now, my dear 
Sir, let me advise you by no means to suffer a word to drop 
which could by possibility give them any pretext to force you 
to decline a reelection, as your election will be beyond doubt if 
we have a majority of even one in the Legislature. I fear not 
that the great body of our opponents will make such a dis- 
graceful intrigue to elect any other Whig in your stead, as many 
of them I know would go for you in preference to any Whig in 
the State, and it would be treason worse than Capt. Tyler, should 
a portion of our friends go for a Loco to defeat you. There are 
a thousand good reasons why you should not leave the Senate, 
a most prominent one is that Sheppard & Judge Mangum could 
not harmonize together, in fact I had rather have a full blooded 
Loco Foco than to have Sheppard, his course towards you and 
the Judge, (you will recall that he did not vote for you) ," ought 
not to be forgotten, at least it never shall by me. 

If you have no objection read this to the Judge, he will readily 
understand the movement. I would not be surprised if a certain 
ex Judge 100 in Raleigh, of our party would not like to fill your 
shoes. I know your honesty and your good opinion of mankind, 
therefore must again say beware of false friends. 

I should be please to get a line from you. 

I hope for the best from Granville but have fears. I will go 
there to the election, the cars is about to start so I must close, 
with the best wishes of your friend. 

From Richard C. Puryear. U. 

Huntsville, August 5, 1842. 

We have sustained a complete Waterloo defeat in Surry Yes, 
the county which proudly gained the ship has again fallen under 
the dominion of pretended Democracy. 

B9 Shepard, after Graham's election, made a furious speech, amounting to a per- 
sonal attack on Graham, and denouncing the election to the senate of two men 
from Orange County. 

100 This might refer to George E. Badger, or Romulus M. Saunders. The latter 
was an active candidate when the Democrats controlled the legislature, but the 
context would indicate that Badger was meant. 

370 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

I was taken sick about the middle of the campaign and 
Dobson 101 passed over half the county without opposition and 
availed himself of every advantage which my absence afforded 
him. Boyden and Poindexter fought gallantly every day but all 
in vain. The people cried loudly for the promised reform and 
retrenchment and could not be convinced that Congress might 
not have done much in those matters without the aid of Tyler, 
They loudly denounced the bankrupt law and though all the 
Whig candidates except Mr Boyden were opposed to it, they 
charged it upon us as a Whig measure and compelled us to bear 
the responsibility. 

The burial of Genl. Harrison and the appropriation to his 
widow were loudly complained of and considerably diminished 
our vote. In vain did we refer to similar cases from the death of 
Washington through the administration of Jackson & Van Buren 
down to the present time. The predudices of the rabble were 
awakened by the demagogue and your own experience has taught 
you the difficulty of satisfying and allaying such feelings by 
argument and reason. 

I dread to hear from the general result. God grant that it may 
be different from that in our County, and that you may again 
be returned to the Senate. 

Nothing but a desire for the accomplishment of that object 
and the reorganization of Congressional districts could have in- 
duced me to become a candidate. As respects myself I do not re- 
gret the defeat and if we have a majority in the Legislature I am 

P. S. All the Loco Candidates in this County came out strongly 
for a National Bank. 

From Samuel F. Patterson. U. 

Raleigh, August 8th, 1842. 

I have only time to give you the unwelcome intelligence that 
we are beaten beyond all doubt for the Legislature. Our returns 
of course are as yet but partial, but enough is known to make it 
certain that we are beaten. Stokes & Surry have both gone against 
us which makes a difference of 14 Votes at once. We have also 
lost one in Chatham, and rumour says that we have lost Doct 
Hill in Brunswick—these in addition to other losses of which 

101 William P. Dobson, state senator, 1818-1819, 1830-1834, 1836, 1842. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 371 

you have no doubt heard. Wilkes is the only Whig County as 
yet heard from that has maintained her position entire. More- 
head's majority there is 1224 Votes and notwithstanding they 
had two Whigs & one Loco Candidate for the Senate, and five 
Whigs and one Loco for the Commons they have elected all 
Whigs by large Majorities. Our party have managed badly; in 
many of the Counties they had too many candidates and in others 
they split their tickets. The Rail Road question too operated 
greatly against us, to say nothing of Captain Tyler's treachery 
and other questions of general policy. We think there can be no 
doubt of Morehead's election, though his majority will be much 

From Henry K. Nash. U. 

Hillsboro, August 12th, 1842. 

I have to apologize for not having replied to your letter of the 
1st. inst. sooner; I was at Wilkerson's hard at work, when your 
letter arrived; it was taken out of the office by Dr. Strudwick, 
who forgot to give it to me until I was about to set off for Chatham 
Court. I should have written then, but supposed that some of 
our friends had already done so. In fact our defeat was so un- 
expected and astounding, that everyone I suppose was unwilling 
to be the first to communicate it to our absent friends; at least 
such was my case. 

Over-confidence and the most disgraceful apathy on the part 
of our friends, or some of them, was almost the sole cause of this 
result. The question of "Division" or "no division," also in- 
jured us. It was Jones' course on this question which gave him 
the Whig votes he received at this place, and which beat 
Holt & Mebane and elected him. He received about 74 Whig votes 
in this place alone, I mean at this election precinct. 

The conduct of the Whigs here, has had another, and worse ef- 
fect even than that of electing the Democratic ticket. It has 
exasperated our friends in all parts of the County to such an 
extent, that they do not hesitate to say, that they will never again 
support any man who comes from Hillsboro, and also that they 
will do all in their power to divide the County. Indeed I think 
they have abundant cause for offence, the conduct of the Whigs 
here was inexcusable, and bitterly so many of them, now that it 
is too late, repent it. 

372 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

The State is still Whig, though there is no doubt but that 
the Democrats have decided majorities in both branches of the 
Legislature. Morehead is elected, I think, by a majority of be- 
tween 3 and 4000. 

I see that the Revenue Bill has passed the Senate without 
amendment, I suppose the President will Veto it. 

I suppose we may expect Mr. Mangum and yourself home, at 
least by September Court. 

From James Graham 102 U. 

The President, of the United States. 

H. R., 

August 24th, 1842. 

There are about Twelve Hundred Cherokee Indians remaining 
in my district in North Carolina. The appropriation for insti- 
tuting a commission to adjudicate their claims for spoliations, 
and so on, has just been made by Congress. 

I recommend to you as suitable persons for said Commissioners, 
Nicholas Woodfin 103 of Asheville, N. C, and Haywood Guion of 
Lincoln ton, N. C; both are gentlemen of integrity, intelligence, 
and independence of Character, and well qualified to hear, ex- 
amine, and decide questions according to justice, law, and 

I recomend also James Robinson Franklin in Macon County, 
N. C, as a gentleman of strict honesty, and fine business talents, 
and well quallified to to be appointed enrolling Agent to enroll 
and assist in removing the Cherokees now in North Carolina to 
the Country west of Arkansas. Mr James Robinson is not only 
capable, but I believe he has, and deserves the confidence of the 
Indians, and unless they confide in a man, he can do little or 
nothing towards their removal. 

They will not go voluntarily with any man they do not know 
and esteem. 

102 Autograph copy. 

103 Nicholas Washington Woodfin (1810-1876), of Asheville, an able Whig lawyer, 
deeply interested in internal improvements and public education, who was state 
senator, 1844-1852. He was a delegate to the convention of 1861, and, during the 
Civil War, agent of the sjtate at the salt works in Virginia, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 373 

The Indians in N C reside entirely I believe in Cherokee and 
Haywood Counties. 

Your prompt attention to this subject will greatly oblige my 
constituents and their Representative. 

James Graham. 

P S Mr. John Timson, a Cherokee Chief of N. C. is about re- 
moving West. He deserves and I hope will receive every facility 
to enable him to go West. He is an Honest man & a good Citizen. 

J. Graham. 

From James Graham U. 

to The President of the United States. 

H. R., August 29th, 1842. 

You asked me a few days since if the Commissioners to be 
appointed under the Cherokee Treaty of 1835 required the sanc- 
tion of the Senate, or were appointed by the President alone. I 
believe I answered by the President alone; and in that I was mis- 
taken, as I learn from the Indian Bureau that the former Com- 
missioners were appointed by and with the advice and consent of 
the Senate. I would also recommend Harvey Miller of Ruther- 
forton, North Carolina as a young gentleman well quaelified to 
be Secretary to the Board of Commissioners. 

Very Respectfully 
Your obt. St. 

Letter from Committee. 10 * 

Henderson, N. C. 

September 17th., 1842. 

At a meeting of the Whigs of Granville, Warren, and Franklin, 
held here today, the undersigned were appointed a committee to 
tender to you and your colleague, the Hon. Willie P. Man- 
gum, a Barbecue, given by the Whigs of the above named Coun- 
ties, and to request you, in conjunction with Mr. M., to designate 
a day for the same. In tendering to you this mark of the high con- 

104 From the Hillsborough Recorder, October 20th., 1842. 

374 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

sideration of your fellow-citizens, in this section of the State, we 
feel that we are incapable of adequately describing the warm feel- 
ings of attachment, and the sincere sentiments of admiration, with 
which you are regarded by those whom we represent. Your career 
in our National Councils has been short, but it has been marked 
by an ability, integrity, and faithful adherence to pledges, made 
out of office, that have at once placed you among the great states- 
men of the day, and given you new claims to the high regard and 
affection of the citizens of your native state. 

The late session of our National Legislature has been, perhaps, 
the most memorable in the annals of our country, and never was 
the firmness and patriotism of men more thoroughly tried, than 
were those of the Whig members of that assembly. Opposed in 
every measure for the relief of a distressed and suffering country, 
by a party whose only aim was its own ascendancy, and deceived, 
thwarted and warred upon by a weak and treacherous Chief Ex- 
ecutive, the course of the Whig members must have been un- 
usually difficult and embarrassing. Yet, surrounded as they were, 
by so many, and so apparently insuperable obstacles, they have 
been unfaltering in their course, untiring in their zeal for their 
country's weal. A grateful people have watched with deep emo- 
tion, each step in their enlightened, liberal and manly policy, and 
they will, most assuredly mete out to them their proper reward. 
As for the Whigs of the good Old North State, they are ready to 
assemble, by thousands, at the festive board, and do "honor, to 
whom honor is due." 

An early answer is respectfully requested. 

We are, with considerations of the highest regard, your friends 
and fellow-citizens, 

C. H. Wiley, 105 C. P. Green, H. J. Robards, V. Winfree, 

A. E. Henderson, D. S. Hill, John Read, J. B. Littlejohn, 

R. F. Yarborough, R. Bullock, N. R. Tunstall, T. N. F. 

Alston, J. Person, S. G. Ward, H. J. G. Ruffin. 

105 Calvin Henderson Wiley (1819-1887), of Guilford, author, educational leader, 
Presbyterian minister, a graduate of the University. He became a lawyer, was a 
Whig member of the commons, 1850-1852, and in the latter year a Democratic 
legislature created a department of schools, and elected him superintendent. He 
was a passionate advocate of universal, free education, and from then until the 
outbreak of the Civil War, the school system made wonderful progress, and was far 
in advance of the rest of the South, and compared favorably with most of the 
North and West. War interrupted this progress, and reconstruction practically 
closed the schools for many years. Wiley's writings included two novels, Alamance 
and Roanoke, and he also wrote an interesting North Carolina Reader. He founded 
and edited the North Carolina Journal of Education. After the war he was general 
agent of the American Bible Society. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 375 

From Frankfort Whig Committee. U. 

Frankfort, Ky., Sept. 23d, 1842. 

It is the purpose of the Whigs of Franklin to hold a Whig fes- 
tival at or near this place on the 26th of October in honor of the 
Whig members of Congress in order that the friends of the good 
cause may celebrate the noble stand which our party now occupies 
before the world. 

We know Sir that this position has not been attained without 
arduous exertion and much self denial on the part of those who 
as the Representative of popular rights in the Congress of the 
United States have so gallantly contended not only against a 
powerful vigilant and organized political opposition but also 
against the usurpations and follies of an Executive who should 
have been an ally and not a foe. The Congress has adjourned with 
the unbroken confidence of the nation leaving the Executive in 
the undisturbed possession of the Nation's contempt. It is grati- 
fying to hear from all sources that the Whig members of Congress 
are every where received with open arms by their Constituents 
and it is cheering to witness the enthusiasm which attends their 
triumphant return. 

Kentucky has especial reason to be gratified with those demon- 
strations, as she has maintained through good and through evil 
report all those principles that give to the Whig party their dis- 
tinctive character and she observes with pride that her own dis- 
tinguished Statesman is honored equally at home and abroad by 
his admiring countrymen. We expect Sir that most of the distin- 
guished politicians and tried Whigs will be with us on this occa- 
sion and we hope it will suit your convenience to be one of the 

It will give us pleasure to meet you at the festive Board and 
we can promise a welcome in the cordial style of old fashioned 
Kentucky hospitality 

Very Resply., 

Yr. ob. sts. 
Wm Owsley James Davidson 

j. swigert n. c. goodloe 

P. Swigert W. D. Reed 

Lysander Hood Jno. C. Herndon 

Tho. B. Stevenson G W Craddock 

376 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

To Calvin H. Wiley and others. 1 ™ 


September 24, 1842. 

Gentlemen: I have had the honor to receive yours of the 17th. 
instant, tendering to me and my distinguished colleague, Mr. 
Mangum, a Barbecue, proposed to be furnished at Henderson, 
on such day as we may designate, as a testimonial of the regard 
and approbation of the Whigs of Granville, Warren and Franklin. 
I thank you for the too partial and appreciating terms in which 
the personal feelings of many of your Committee have prompted 
you to convey to me the invitation of those you represent; and 
beg you to assure them of my deep regret that my avocations, 
both private and professional (after a long absence from home) 
deny me the leisure necessary for such a meeting at any early day, 
and therefore compel me most unwillingly to decline it. With no 
portion of my constituents would I have more gladly met, at the 
festive board, and freely commune on the present state of our 
public affairs, than with those of Granville, Warren and Franklin. 
Nowhere are there more firm, true-hearted, intelligent and patri- 
otic Whigs, men whose honest and disinterested approval is most 
gratifying to a public servant, as it fortifies his own consciousness 
of adherence to duty in trying circumstances. 

You, gentlemen, have not undervalued the embarrassment and 
difficulties which the majority in the present Congress have been 
forced to contend. Opposed and assailed on every measure, from 
the burial honors of the lamented Harrison, to the highest ques- 
tion of national policy, by a powerful and factious party, who, 
though they left to their successors a public service costing on an 
average 28 millions of dollars per year, (exclusive of the pecula- 
tion and embezzlement so frequent under Mr. Van Buren's Ad- 
ministration) and a revenue system yielding less than 14 millions, 
refuse to raise the means to supply the deficiency— though they 
left a funded debt of 5i/£ millions bearing interest, and Govern- 
ment engagements to the amount of 20 millions more, will not 
provide for their payment. Though they habitually borrowed 
monies for the Government during a period of four years, clam- 
ored most loudly before the people, when loans became necessary 
to fill up the vacuum they had created. Though thus opposed and 

108 From the Hillsborough Recorder, October 20th, 1842. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 377 

assailed, the Whigs, as a party, have carried through both Houses 
of Congress every measure which they proposed for the relief of 
the country. But our opponents have found, in the defection of 
the acting President an ally, making the minority more powerful 
than the majority of Congress. Although as yet the fact is at- 
tempted to be concealed, he has become theirs to every intent and 
purpose, of party benefit and advantage—theirs in sympathy, in 
defamation of the Whig party, in the dispensation of patronage, 
and the use and abuse of his vast powers of appointment and 
removal— theirs in every thing, except for his own honor and 
advancement. He cannot be their candidate for the succession; 
they spurn the very idea. But he will be used to the utmost extent 
of appointments, removals and vetoes, to promote the election of 
their candidate. Had the Republican Whigs of the present Con- 
gress been pursuing the desperate game of party policy of which 
he has accused them, they would have left him in the hands of his 
new allies, to get through a term to which he has accidentally 
succeeded, as he might. But they have felt that their duties to the 
country remained to the extent of their powers, however much 
he has failed in his. They have proceeded to the enactment of 
measures deemed necessary for the public interest, regardless of 
what he might approve or reject. Yet, so freely has his interposi- 
tion been thrust upon their labors, that the chief benefits which 
they are permitted to tender to the country are of a negative kind. 
If during the late long and arduous session, but little has been 
done, as is untruly asserted by those who intend reproach, it may 
be truly affirmed, that much of the extravagance and folly of the 
late administration has been left undone. The contingent expenses 
of Congress have been reduced at least one hundred thousand 
dollars, and principally in the item of public Printing. A new and 
more rigid accountability is introduced into the public depart- 
ments, by what has been heretofore left at discretion as incidental 
expenses. And after all the land has rung with cries of extrava- 
gance, the appropriations of this first regular session of a Whig 
Congress for the service of the year, chargeable on the Treasury, 
are less than twenty and a half millions of dollars— seven millions 
less than the average annual expenditure under Mr. Van Buren, 
and two millions less than even the last year of his administration, 
when such extraordinary efforts were used to appear economical. 
By a discharge which Congress has directed in the course of the 
ensuing year, of more than five thousand men from the standing 
army, there is a prospect of a still lower reduction of the amount 

378 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

required from the people, for the support of Government. But 
as to those measures of positive advantage to the people, by which 
soundness is to be restored to the currency, our commerce revived, 
and our prosperity thoroughly re-established, they must be de- 
layed until a change in the Executive opinion. Meanwhile, a nu- 
merous and lately dominant party applaud all vetoes and usurpa- 
tions of the Executive which tend to thwart the Whig majority, 
and the people are familiarized to the idea that the President is a 
sovereign, whose opinions, not only of constitutional construction, 
but of expediency also, are to set at naught all the wisdom of 
Congress. And that whether this rejection of a bill arise from 
simple imbecility, from vindictiveness or revenge, it is to be jus- 
tified because it disappoints political opponents; thus precedents 
are formed which are to become laws hereafter, and the free con- 
stitution of our fathers degenerates into an elective monarchy. 
It was a remark of a most sagacious man, that where annual elec- 
tions end, tyranny begins. Yet the course of passing events is to 
confirm the doctrine that we have in effect but one election in 
four years, all others being designed to conform the Legislative 
assemblies to the will of the Executive then chosen. 

To correct this downward tendency of the present times, and 
to restore the Government to its healthful and proper action, the 
only sure reliance is on the ballot box, at the next Presidential 
election, accordingly the Whigs of the country from Maine to 
Louisiana, are already aroused for that contest; and I rejoice to 
believe that our prospects of success are most cheering. With one 
only candidate in the field, to whom the proudest in our ranks 
think it no disparagement to defer and give place, and that can- 
didate a man who has illustrated every important period in our 
history for the last thirty-five years, by his eloquence and courage, 
his patriotism and wisdom— a man at the mention of whose name 
in any part of the world an American heart beats quicker and 
prouder— when that candidate is Henry Clay, and the issue is for 
the re-establishment of the just balance of the Constitution, and 
the true prosperity of the people, we need not dread the result. 
The more especially in view of that other controversy, now no 
longer concealable, as to who shall be the candidate of the party 
opposed to us, or whether amid their divisions, that party can 
have any one candidate. We have had our troubles and trials, but 
are at this day as firmly united as ever— theirs are but beginning. 
And it remains to be seen whether they can present the same 
united front in the contest for the succession which they have 

The Papers of William A. Graham 379 

exhibited in opposition to the Whig measures for the relief of 
the country— or whether more than one aspirant to the Chief 
Magistracy will not find himself like the fabled Actaeon, victim- 
ized by those followers whom he vainly flattered himself that he 
was leading to victory, that would inure to his benefit. 

I am, gentlemen, with the highest respect and esteem, your 
friend and servant, 

To Charles P. Green. U. T. J. Green Mss. 


Sept. 24th, 1842. 

I received this afternoon your letter inclosing the invitation of 
a Committee to the Barbecue at Henderson. 

Your note by the Post rider reached me on Thursday evening, 
and I remained at home yesterday, in the hope that I should have 
the pleasure to see you at my house. 

With your letter I have one from Judge Mangum, suggesting 
his views of the propriety of postponing the proposed Barbecue 
for the present; these, he, no doubt, communicated to you 

My professional engagements as well as my private affairs ren- 
der it highly inconvenient for me to be present on such an 
occasion, at any time this fall, but all these I would readily forego 
to meet our good friends of Granville, Franklin, and Warren, in 
the manner proposed, did I not believe it better, in every aspect 
of our affairs, to postpone the meeting at least for the present. 

I have not time to go at large into my reasons for this opinion, 
as I desire to dispatch this by the mornings mail, but these I am 
confident have been, partially at least, suggested to you in the 
conversation of Judge Mangum. Should our Whig friends who 
have so kindly tendered this manifestation of their approval and 
confidence, think proper at a future time (say next Spring after 
the adjournment of Congress) to propose such a meeting, I will 
make any sacrifice to be there. That however is too distant a time 
for an engagement, and must be left to future arrangement, and 
the inclination and convenience of the Whigs of that Section. 

No portion of my Constituents, I feel well assured, is composed 
of more high spirited, patriotic & devoted Whigs. And there are 

380 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

none, whose approbation of my public course, could be more 
gratifying than theirs. 

I must beg therefore of you (whose friendly regard has been so 
often exhibited in acts of kindness towards me) to make all proper 
apologies for the course we are taking in most respectfully de- 
clining the invitation. 

I will forward to you by the next mail, my reply to the Com'tee. 
which will reach Henderson, I trust by Wednesday. 

My present purpose is merely to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter, and my personal obligations for your zeal & kind offices 
in this matter. 

I am very truly, 

Your Friend an Serv't. 

P.S. I will send the invitation with my letter, according to your 

I hope you received the likenesses of Mr. Clay. 

From Charles P. Green. U. 

Ridgeway, N. C, 
October 5th., 1842. 

I received a few days ago yours of the 24th. ult., & also your 
answer to the Committee of invitation, the last I sent on to the 
Register for publication. On yesterday I received a private letter 
from Judge Mangum, informing me that he had been quite 
unwell ever since I left his home, consequently he had not been 
able to reply to our letter. 

I regret not having the pleasure of visiting you, which I fondly 
anticipated when I left home, but failing to find the Judge at 
his home, & not meeting with him at Mr. Cain's, compelled me 
to give up my trip to Hillsborough. 

Notwithstanding I would have been glad to see you both at the 
proposed Barbecue I am pleased that you declined it this fall, as 
I am clearly of the opinion that next spring will be a much better 
time for political effect, Sc is advocated in the meeting at Hen- 
derson. I now give you fair notice to hold yourself in readiness 
to attend there immediately after the adjournment of Congress, 
when we hope to have a great gathering of the people, which must 
be followed up by similar movements in different sections of the 

The Papers of William A. Graham 381 

State. Upon this subject the Judge & myself had a most unre- 
served conversation. 

I beg you will pardon me for alluding to what you may con- 
sider premature, but I do it from the best motives, and for many 
good reasons, which I deem unnecessary to mention at present. 
I already hear the names of several gentlemen from the Eastern 
part of the State spoken of as candidates on the Whig tickett for 
next Governor, Rayner, Manly, Collins, & Sheppard, neither of 
whom, in my opinion, will answer to make "a bruising race." 

Soon after the result was known, that the Legislature was Loco 
Foco, I named to a number of my friends that I thought the Whig 
party ought, by all means, to run you for that station, since then 
I am much gratified to find a great number of your friends agree 
with me. I am aware that, should you consent to be the candidate, 
it will put you to great personal inconvenience, besides a sacrifice 
in a pecuniary manner,— though I think I know you too well to 
count the cost when patriotism calls to duty. 

I hope you will take the subject under consideration, but in no 
wise to throw any impediment in the way of your nomination 
should it be the wish of our party at a proper time to bring you 
before the people. 

I much prefer Collins to either of the others, one of whom I 
never will vote for to fill any office. 

I fear that the Whigs, in their zeal to elect Mr. Clay, will lose 
sight of the right kind of man for Vice President. John Davis is 
too timid, too much under the influence of Webster, too much 
Tariff to suit the South, not enough anti-abolitionism & besides, 
has done nothing that he should be so highly honoured. As to 
Tallmadge, I consider him a poor opponent to Rives, I see that 
his friends, under his guidance, are making strong efforts in New 
York to start a Ball, though I do not think it will roll out of his 
State. North Carolina has a man of the "right stripe," I mean 
your colleague, who could, in my humble opinion, get the nomi- 
nation if he was to do as all other men do who succeed to high 

Mr. Clay is quite an old man, & may not live to the end of his 
term, and it would be bad to make another failure— if it was 
not for a few in our State who never fail to underrate the prom- 
inent men within her limits, together with some who forevei 
act the part of the Dog in the manger, Mangum might get the 
nomination in the National Convention, particularly if some 
State would lead the way. When do you think the Convention 

382 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

ought to take place? I think it ought to be at Baltimore, & the 
Judge says in May, 1844. Who do you think now stands the best 
chance for that office? Is it possible for Mangum to get the nomi- 
nation, etc., etc., etc. Badger has great influence with the Raleigh 
papers, & he is very friendly to Mangum. They could give him a 
start, and a start is all. Will you attend the Court at Oxford before 
going to Washington? I saw Batt Moore of Halifax a short time 
ago, who says that he will "set up" to the Locos upon any impor- 
tant question. It would be well for you to give him, from time to 
time, such information as you think will be of aid to our cause. 

s& 4fe :fe afe 4fe 


From James W. Bryan. A. 


Oct. 25th. 1842. 

We were much pleased to learn by Mr. Henry K. Nash that you 
were all well and also that you had located yourself comfortably 
and delightfully in Mr. Kirkland's house, which he purchased 
from the Rev. Mr. Green. 

4fe Jfe 4fe ^ 4fc 


We have no news here. Our Bankrupt Court terminated it's 
Session on yesterday; a large number were emancipated from the 
Slavery of debt and seem to be in high spirits, etc. This is a law 
for weal or woe. Messrs. Palmer, Nash & Winslow were in attend- 
ance to represent the distant and non resident petitioners. 

I suppose you will figure largely at Raleigh this winter before 
their mighty Locofoco highnesses. North Carolina has disgraced 
herself in this last election, and it will take a series of years and 
of triumphant Whig victories to atone for this shameful and 
disgraceful abandonment on the part of the Whigs of correct and 
manly principles. I shall, I think, eschew politics as being produc- 
tive of nothing but chagrin and bitter disappointment and leave 
them to more ambitious aspirants. 

I had made up my mind to decline a Candidacy for the Solicitor- 
ship of this District, but the Whigs and some of the Locos urge 
me to run & I suppose I must do so and thus add another to the 
many victims that are to be sacrificed by Loco foco misrule, to 
Whig supineness. 

# * * * # 

The Papers of William A. Graham 383 

From Charles L. Hint on. A. 

Nov. 20th, 1842. 

I write on a scrap of paper, the best in reach, to say I think you 
should spend a day or two in our town on your way to Washing- 
ton. You owe it to your old friends from a distance. 

As usual on the Sabbath preceeding the meeting of the Legis- 
lature, all is bustle and confusion. I have seen but few members 
myself but learn there is much caucaussing in squads, a general 
feeling for a general turn out of all Whigs. Genl Marstella 107 has 
been here for two days I presume he will take Manly's 108 place, 
& Busbee, 109 Freeman's; 110 it is uncertain who will take Miller's. 111 
It is understood Dr. Montgomery is a candidate for Sec. of State, 
about a dozen for Comptroller, Dr. Watson 112 and Gov. Branch 
for Treasurer. These are the rumors of the morning and I pre- 
sume correct, about fifty candidates for door keeper. 

Col. Brown 113 and Genl. Sanders 114 are very busy, it is said 
neither will yield. 

The Whigs as far as I have learnt intend having their regular 
Candidate for every appointment, and vote for no other. 

From George C. Mendenhall. A. 

Monday night, 

Nov. 28th, 1842. 

Yours of the 25th. Inst, was reed to-day & I am sorry I had not 
written you sooner, for I frequently thought of it, but supposed 

107 Lewis H. Marsteller, of Wilmington, a native of Virginia, who served in the 
commons, 1832-1834, in the state senate, 1835-1838, and was chief clerk of the 
commons, 1842. He had also been clerk of the court, collector of the port, a major 
general of militia. He was an amateur actor, and was a prominent figure on public 

108 Charles Manly had been clerk of the commons, 1830-1840. Defeated in 1842, he 
again served, 1844-1846. 

109 Perrin Busbee, of Wake, who was clerk of the commons, 1848, 1852. 
110 Edmund B. Freeman (b. 1796), who was clerk of the supreme court for thirty- 
seven years. 
131 Henry W. Miller of Wake. 
^Josiah O. Watson of Craven. 
333 Bedford Brown. 
tt * Saunders. 

384 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

you were likely crowded with letters from this City. The Whigs 
of the Commons had a meeting on Monday the first day of the 
Session at 10 A.M. some 40 odd present where I presided. We 
there left all at will to vote for Door Keepers & Engrossing Clks 
but resolved upon opposition as to the Speaker & Clks of the 
House as you saw by the papers, and in that meeting informally 
agreed to put you in nomination which will Surely be done, when 
ever the Locos bring on the Election. They were twice in Caucus 
& could not agree on Senator, & they are now a third time this 
night in Caucus. Brown out runs Saunders, and Saunders 'tis said 
is violent & cuning, but holds on, much to our special satisfaction, 
he has said if Caucused out he can go out, and if his Party can 
do without him, he can do without them. I now think from what 
I have heard that Brown will prevail tonight. So Busbee their 
Clk. told me, who is a Haywood man. We shortly hear nearly all 
they do, & tomorrow I shall hear the Caucus decision tonight. 

The Whigs all— all stand firm, and I think will; & let them elect 
their own Senator, for they, the Locos say one must be elected, & 
they cannot go home without it. I have since the 9 o'clk bell re- 
turned from Judge Mangum's Room, he thinks in the end, after 
many Ballotings, it would be perhaps best for the Whigs to elect 
Saunders rather than Brown. Only for the reason that more polit- 
ical Capital could be made of it hereafter in 1844. But this I think 
will not be done. Wm. Hill is elected 150 to 13— Strange 149— no 
opposition, Poindexter's 115 Election not reached yet; he is here 
and tolerably certain, if not caucused out tonight. Collins 116 is 
no doubt gone— and Hinton may hold his post, for they can't do 
without both, and have all new hands. Jno. H. Wheeler is here 
for Treasurer— Craige 117 for Solicitor, & Nat. Palmer 118 for Comp- 
troller, all tramping and trampoosing about. Jno. Branch looks 
clean and grey, & makes low Florida Bows, but whether a Seeker 
of health, Office or Religion, is not distinctly set forth of Record; 
he is merely about where loaves are plenty, perhaps in case of a 
Snarl among the dogs. 

I cannot close this till I hear tomorrow from the "Monarch of 
all it surveys" the Caucus of this dark, & cold, to all— and fatal 
night to some. I will try & report the dead and wounded, so far 

116 John F. Poindexter. 

116 William F. Collins, of Nash County, state comptroller, 1836-1861. 

U7 Burton Craige. 

118 Nathaniel J. Palmer was a Whig lawyer, of Orange County. He moved to 
Raleigh, and was a candidate for various offices, and edited several newspapers 
including one at Hillsboro. 

The Papers of William A. 'Graham 385 

as the morning news shall have ascertained. We have done but 
little in the Assembly. Our Table is being piled high, with the 
most indigestible relief laws, ever known this side our great West- 
ern waters. Our safety is in having a tolerably fair Committee on 
the Judiciary. If Batt Moore comes & is added thereto, we shall 
be nearly secure from such unwise, unmeaning, & wreckless in- 

It is growing late. But notwithstanding this democratic rule, 
in these democratic days, please give my warm Respects to our 
friend Hugh Waddell, Esq., for this is not a justifiable cause of 

[P.S.] Mangum is as warm a friend of yours as ever made a track. 
Tuesday— House of Commons. 

R. P. Cardwell 119 moved to bring on the Election for Senator 
this day 2 weeks & nominated one Bedford Brown; agreed to by 
our House— no other nomination as yet. I hear Saunders is in- 
creasing and has improved from 22 to to 27 votes in Caucus. 
Clarke 120 is Caucused out in favor of Rodman 121 for Solicitor, the 
Whigs will vote for Clarke 

I asked Cad Jones if Saunders would be nominated he very 
hesitatingly answered that he did not know. 

Jo. Caldwell 122 introduced a Resolution denouncing repudia- 
tion; a Resolution by Byrd 123 of Yancey to divide out our funds 
and make Loan offices in each County— this is most melodious. 
Tuesday night—/ by authority shall nominate the Hon. Wm. A. 
Graham for the Senate; call at my Room as you pass, and you 
shall know all Whig proceedings. We have 70 or more of the best 
Whigs that ever lived; Dr. Shade P. Allen 124 No. 1. 1 hate— I abhor! 

119 Richard P. Cardwell, of Rockingham County, member of the commons, 1838- 

120 Henry Selby Clark, (1809-1869), of Beaufort County, an unsuccessful candidate 
for solicitor, member of the commons, 1834-1836, of congress, 1845-1847. 

121 William Blount Rodman (1817-1893), of Beaufort County, a graduate of the 
university, studied law under William Gaston, and became an able lawyer. He 
served on the code commission in 1854. He was also a planter. A secessionist 
Democrat, he rose from captain to major in Confederate service, and later, from 
a military judge to colonel. He was a Republican delegate to the convention of 
1868, where he rendered valuable service as a restraining influence. He was one of 
the commission to prepare a code of civil procedure, and served as a justice of the 
supreme court, from 1868 to 1879. 

^Joseph Pearson Caldwell (1808-1853), of Iredell, studied law under his brother, 
David F. Caldwell. He was state senator, 1833-1834, member of the commons, 1838- 
1842, and member of congress, 1849-1853. 

123 Samuel Byrd, of Yancey County, was a member of the commons, 1842. 

131 Dr. Shadrack P. Allen, of Beaufort County, member of the commons, 1840-1842. 

386 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

in my soul— my very soul— to give you up— I will not I till I think 
the Nation Commands. 
12 at night on Tuesday. 

From William C. Preston. U. 

S. Carolina, 

Dec. 4th, 1842. 

#Mg Jfc Jfa Jfc 


It is understood that Mr. Calhoun has designated Barnwell 
Rhett as his successor, and that if it be ascertained, as it probably 
will be, that the State is not prepared for such a degradation, they 
may decline to accept Mr. C's resignation. There are ten candi- 
dates of whom Judge Huger is the strongest. It is doubtful 
whether McDuffie will be able to go on. A bullet in his back keeps 
him sick. 125 

With the highest respect 
I am, Dear Sir 
Yr obt. Servt. 

From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

Late Sunday-night Deer. 4. 1842. 

My dear friend:— 

There is much in your personal appearance, your manner, and 
may be in your presence. Affairs on our part must not go by 
default. You know I slightly insisted upon your staying tomorrow; 
I have doubted since whether I should not have pressed the mat- 
ter more strongly. Your appearance at our Bar of the House 
would fire the already anxious feelings of our friends & make the 
strong, stronger & rouse their Resolutions almost to the tenacity 
of Death. 

We cannot otherwise than expect to sacrifice you at last. And 
would to God it could be upon the Holy Altar of Principle. 

I cannot, I will not insist that you should stay— and then for 
our almost heavenly & certainly Spartan Band, as it were, in your 
face by the uncontrollable force of Circumstances to Vote not 

155 In 1822 George McDuffie fought a duel with William Cumming, of Georgia, 
and was so seriously wounded that he was never again a well man. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 387 

against (for this would be Treason) but not for you, in the bitter 
hour of trial; but I merely suggest whether you had not better 
spend one last, ill-fated political day with us, for expiring lights 
often beam the brightest. 

From Edmund Strudwick. U. 


December 5th, 1842. 

Mrs. Graham begs me to announce to you the birth of another 
son, 126 — this event occurred this morning between the hours of 2 
and 3 o'clock. I am happy to add that under the circumstances 
she is as well, as the phrase goes, as could be expected. Mrs. Gra- 
ham leaves to you the selection of a name for this fifth leader. 

You have carried with you the latest news from our Legisla- 
ture. I can therefore furnish nothing on that subject. The proba- 
bility of your election is becoming stronger every day with your 
friends here; indeed we shall be disappointed if you do not retain 
your seat as our Senator; if you are ousted we have but little 
choice about your successor. 

From James P. Espy. 121 U. 

To The Friends of Science. 

Last summer I announced to my correspondents, and the public 
generally, that a "form for keeping Meteorological journals would 
be prepared and sent to all those in the United States, Bermuda, 
West Indies, Azores, and the Canadas, who should signify a will- 
ingness to co-operate with me in my endeavors to find out all the 
phases of storms which occur within the range of the wide-spread 
simultaneous observations about to be established." 

126 Robert Davidson Graham (1842-1904). He was in later life a graduate of the 
university, Confederate captain, farmer, lawyer, secretary of the U. S. civil service 
commission, and chairman of federal board of pension appeals. 

w James Pollard Espy (1785-1860), "Storm King," a native of Pennsylvania, a 
graduate of Transylvania, a lawyer and teacher, who won wide reputation by his 
theories on weather, and his lectures thereon. He was at different times connected 
with the war and navy departments, and the Smithsonian. He was a member of 
the American Philosophical Society. Arago said, "England had its Newton, France 
its Cuvier, and America its Espy." 

388 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

I have to announce now that the "form" is completed, and ar- 
rangements are made to strike off a sufficient number to supply 
all who shall express a wish to aid in this most important under- 
taking. It is my intention to lay down, on skeleton maps of the 
United States, by appropriate symbols, all the most important 
phases of the great storms which come within the range of our 
simultaneous observations; and thus it is hoped that we will be 
able to determine the shape and size of all storms, whether they 
are round or oblong; and if oblong, whether they move side- 
foremost, or end-foremost, or obliquely; and their velocity of mo- 
tion and the direction which they take in all the different seasons 
of the year; the course that the wind blows, in, and beyond the 
borders of the storm; the fluctuation of the barometer, and 
change of temperature, which generally accompany storms, and 
the extent to which their influence is felt beyond their borders. 

Now, as many of these particulars can be observed as well 
without meteorological instruments as with them, it is manifest 
that all who will send me a faithful account of the winds and 
weather will essentially contribute to the great end in view. Edi- 
tors of papers, too, who notice great storms, may be of much 
service by mentioning the time of greatest violence, and the direc- 
tion of the wind, and time of change, and sending a paper con- 
taining the account to the Surgeon General's Office, Washington 
City, with the word "Meteorology" marked on the corner of the 
envelope. All papers and journals thus directed will come to my 
hands, as I am now attached to that bureau; and, after being 
carefully collated with each other, will be deposited in the 
archives of that office, to aid the future meteorologist in develop- 
ing laws, which the present state of the science may not enable 
us to detect. Let none think their mite too insignificant to be 
thrown into this common treasury. 

I am authorized by the Secretary of State to request all our 
Ministers, Consuls, and other Diplomatic and Commercial Agents 
of the United States in foreign countries, to whom the "form" is 
sent, to transmit to the Department of State the journals which 
they may keep, or procure from others, that they may be imme- 
diately placed in my hands. 

All masters of vessels sailing in the Atlantic, or Gulf of Mexico, 
are requested to send a copy of their "logs" to the Surgeon Gen- 
eral's Office immediately on their landing at any port in the 
United States, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 389 

If the chain of simultaneous observations could thus be kept 
unbroken entirely across the Atlantic, the value of the whole sys- 
tem would be much increased. 

Journals, according to the adopted plan, will be kept at all 
the military stations of the United States; and the Secretary of 
the Navy has given orders for the same to be done at the naval 
stations, and in ships of war on our coast. Forms also will be sent 
to all the light-houses and floating-lights, and many of them will 
at least keep journals of the wind and weather. Governor Reid, 
of Bermuda, has promised to send me journals from that island, 
and I have the promise of various journals from Canada, New- 
foundland, and Nova Scotia. 

There are many of the colleges of the United States from whom 
I have not yet had such promise; but I now appeal to them all, 
with confidence, to unite in their efforts to perfect this most in- 
teresting science. 

There are one hundred and three colleges in these United 
States, and very many high schools; and, as it is known that 
barometric fluctuations accompany storms, it is manifest that the 
direction in which storms move, and their velocity, may be ascer- 
tained by observations made on the barometer alone, at these 
various institutions. 

The number of observations cannot be too great. 

James P. Espy. 
Surgeon General's Office, 


December 6th., 1842. 

From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

Wednesday night, 

Deer. 7th, 1842. 

No doubt you have letters from many friends here every mail, 
tho' Sometimes this is Supposed by too many of us & our friends 
thereby neglected. 

To-day Gen'l Hawkins 128 moved for another voting for Sen- 
ator, which with many noes however carried & is laid on the Table 

148 John Henry Hawkins, of Warren, a graduate of the university, a physician, 
member of the state senate, 1830-1832, of the commons, 1835-1836, 1840-1846. 

390 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

in the Senate and we agreed to the Senate's proposition to vote 
tomorrow at 12. The voting after you left was nearly as before. 
There has been much talk with us here & the Saunders men have 
been so informed, that if they will aid in making fair Senatorial 
Districts in the State, the Whigs will elect Sanders— I have talked 
so several times, but I have taken a second & further view of the 
matter & have recalled my sayings so far as I could, & so informed 
J. T. Morehead & other Whigs, that we could not give such a 
pledge, for the Districts might be made so that we should not 
Complain much, and if we did not then elect Saunders, we should 
be charged and reproached with a breach of plighted faith, and it 
might be that about that time party fury might rage high, & the 
Brown men or some 15 of them rush over uncontrolled to Gra- 
ham, & pray where should we be? The Dems have tried to fix on a 
third man, and cannot agree upon any, but Strange and Ruffin, 129 
& neither will likely accept, & they can agree upon no other. A 
leading Saunders man has been to J. T. Morehead & threatened 
positively to go over to Brown, but I know a platoon or 2 of them 
who will not, & it is fraud. Some doz. Whigs may vote for Saun- 
ders tomorrow. 

Jim Sheppard 130 is going for Collins for Comptroller if 
Rand m does not run, & says there is more honesty among the 
Whigs than Democrats. 

Sheperd's Locoism got him 16 votes for Atto. Gen'L, and Tho. 
Bragg 132 going against Poindexter elected Whitaker 133 over him. 

There is no telling where we shall get to, yet. 

Brown cannot be elected in 1000 years, if the Saunders men 
don't desert him, and I think nothing short of some governing, 
rigid leader of these 2 factions will or can ever bring them to- 
gether—I mean some great ring leader of the Party coming to 
Raleigh and operating in Caucus, if Caucus can be assembled, 

129 Chief Justice Thomas Ruffin. 

130 James B. Shepard. 
™ Nathaniel G. Rand. 

132 Thomas Bragg, Jr. (1810-1872), of Warrenton, educated at the Partridge 
Academy, at Middletown, Connecticut, and at the university, became a lawyer, and 
did not enter public life until his election to this session of the legislature, when 
he was already distinguished in his profession. He was a Democratic elector in 
1844, 1848, and 1852. He was elected governor in 1854, and served two terms, 
defeating Alfred Dockery and John A. Gilmer. He was United States senator, 1859- 
1861. He was Confederate attorney general, 1861-1862. 

133 Spier Whitaker (1798-1869), of Halifax County, attended the university briefly 
and became a lawyer. He was a member of the commons, 1838, and attorney 
general, 1842-1846, He then moved to Iowa. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 391 

which is very doubtful now, for some swear they will never go 
into another. 

A letter from H. Waddell Esqr. today reprobates our going over 
to Saunders in any event. I answered him. 

We have nothing interesting, except a printed card from Mr. 
Badger was publicly handed round by the Door keeper to day to 
every Whig member, inviting us tomorrow at 7, to his house, and 
not one to a Loco here. I fully expect this will produce excite- 
ment on the other side, and in fact I cannot understand it. I 
talked with Judge Battle today, & he could not either; it seems 
about to be a Whig Levee. 

Palmer, Y. Patterson & Gen'l Cowan 134 hold on for Comptroller 
yet, and J. H. Wheeler 135 for Treasurer, and we have a Resolution 
before us to abolish the Comptroller office. Perhaps to erect an 
Auditor's upon its ruins, and avoid proscription. Avery 136 intro- 
duced it. 

From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

Raleigh, Thursday night, 
Deer. 8, 1842. 

Today 2 more votings come off for Senator. Some Whigs voted 
for Saunders, & his vote was 45, yours 55, & Brown 63 twice over. 
The Whigs have no idea of giving over yet, if at all. 

There is a full Loco Caucus tonight to try & reconcile, and 
every Whig member invited to Mr. Badger's & we now go. So it 
seems like a double Caucus— for not a Loco is invited to Badgers. 

134 William James Cowan, of Wilmington, a graduate of the university, member 
of the commons, 1816-1817, 1821. 

135 John Hill Wheeler (1806-1882), a native of Murfreesboro, graduate of Colum- 
bian University, studied law under Chief Justice Taylor, and served in the commons, 
1827-1830. He was secretary of the commission on the French claims, 1831-1834, 
superintendant of the mint at Charlotte, 1837-1841. He moved to Lincoln County, 
and was state treasurer, 1842-1844. He was again in the commons in 1852, and 
Minister to Nicaragua, 1854-1857. He was the author of Historical Sketches of 
North Carolina, and Reminiscences of North Carolina. Both were highly inaccurate, 
but nevertheless valuable. The former, which played up Democrats and minimized 
or ignored Whigs, won a popular title of "The Democratic Stud-Book." 

136 William Waightstill Avery (1816-1864), of Burke, a graduate of the university, 
studied law under Judge Gaston. He was a member of the commons, 1842, 1850- 
1852, and state senator, 1856 (speaker), 1860. He was chairman of the state delega- 
tion in the Democratic national conventions of 1856 and 1860. He was a strong 
secessionist, and was a member of the Confederate provisional congress. He was 
killed by Kirk's raiders in 1864. 

392 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

We shall hear tomorrow most likely & I will write again. 

Doake 137 & McLean 138 Went off to Saunders— not to remain- 
all well. Cad Jones said both B. & S. would be rolled off the track. 
I dont believe it. 

[P.S.] The Jackson $1000. resolution was on to day by Satterfield 
from Person. 

From John A. Young. 1 * 9 U. 

North Carolina. 

December 9th., 1842. 

Gen '1 Patterson informed me that you wanted a Directory, and 
I herewith forward you one. 

Our proceedings of yesterday you have in today's Register, we 
did not vote today for U. S. Senator, but agreed to vote tomorrow 
at 12 o'clock. The postponement was not by Party concert, nor 
is it believed was intended by its movers to affect any Party pur- 
pose. Your Competitors are both still in the field, and so far as 
the Whigs know, will continue to press their claims. 

If it is in my power at any time to inform you of any impor- 
tant move concerning your election, or communicate any thing 
of moment in relation to it, I will do so with much pleasure. 

Mr. James Graham has not yet arrived. 

It would afford me much pleasure to hear from you, or Recieve 
Communications from you at any time. 

From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

Raleigh, Saturday night, 11 P.M., 

Deer. 10, 1842. 

Yours was today reevd. Nothing further has been done on the 
subject of Senator. We heard distinctly the Dems. could not agree 
in their Caucus. I think some Brown voters will go over to L. D. 
Henry next time, tho I do not think Henry will yet be put in 

187 William Doak, of Guilford, member of the commons, 1838-1844. 
JM Joel McLinn, of Guilford, member of the commons, 1842. 
"•John A. Young, of Iredell, a member of the commons, 1840-1842. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 393 

nomination. There seems rather a nagging of the Brown party; he 
himself took sick under the operation & could not be present at 
the Convention Comparing the votes for Gov. but was in his seat 
today & looks badly— I mean badly for him. Things are just in the 
condition about Senator that nobody knows nothing. I glory to 
hear Saunders intends holding on to the bitter end; no Whig has 
gone off from you only temporarily— every one to a man can be 
called back at a word— and the only matter of difficulty now is, 
whether it be possible to get enough actually to go over to Saun- 
ders to elect him— even if it was thought best, and we all tried to 
get them to do so. There is not a Brown Whig here, tis true as I 
wrote you, but how many Saunders Whigs there are upon a full 
& close vote is very doubtful. I think likely upon one more vot- 
ing, we may give Saunders an addition of a few over 45, and then 
call off the dogs and leave the Locos to a true Locofoco fate. I feel 
almost irresistably induced to write you every mail at the present 
crisis of affairs. There seems rather fear & alarm & almost conster- 
nation among both factions. I shall not withdraw your name. 

We had a meeting of the Trustees of the University tonight, 13 
present, & if 20 could be had our late Atto Genl. would go over- 

McDowell County passed the House 3rd time today. 

We have nothing interesting. 

From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

Raleigh, Sunday night 11, 

Deer. 11, 1842. 

Tonight we had Gov. Morehead, Pope, 140 Moore, 141 Barringer, 
Long, Foreman, 142 & McLean, all together. We had letters from 
Washington, assuring that Saunders would be withdrawn on to- 
morrow unless the Whigs went over. We don't believe it, but all 
prefer Saunders to Brown, nor do we believe a further voting 
will be moved for a few days. We know not what to do, but some 

140 Benjamin A. Pope, of Halifax, attended the university briefly, and was a 
member of the commons, 1840-1842. 

141 Bartholomew F. Moore. 

142 John L. Foreman (1808-1844), of Pitt, after two years at the university, became 
a planter. He was a member of the commons, 1833-1835, 1838-1842, state senator, 

394 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

10 more Whigs will vote for Saunders next time, and then we 
will consult again. 

I have now burnt your letter. It is thought by some that to 
elect Saunders that both Brown & Henry are done with Public 
life & Saunders out of the way in past. As to his resigning in a 
year none of us believe that; if we did, he would be elected at 
once. We are, I might say, altogether dispairing of electing you, 
but whether enough of Whigs will go over to Saunders to elect 
him I know not; if required there were enough awhile & may be 
yet, but several will never go for either. We are anxious to dis- 
trict the State right first. 

On the Senators election write cautiously & confidentially & to 
a few only. I cannot tell how we shall act in the end; I much fear 
not satisfactory to ourselves, tho' we are a United Band. The pres- 
ent Whig belief here is, for the benefit of the Whig cause, to run 
Saunders up to Brown's vote and there stop for awhile, and our 
Whigs unwillingly do this, but most are ready to do what they 
are directed to do for the cause. 

I have never seen everybody so much at a loss exactly what to 
do, and those of us— yes, all of us— who give directions for others 
to vote for Saunders— all, every man himself, strongly holds on 
& votes for you himself; letters come thick and strong to us to 
elect Saunders at once. We think we can judge best of this who 
are here, so far as N. C. is concerned. 

There may be an agreement among the 2 factions & all gone at 
once, but we do not think so. We have not yet come to the period 
for final action, nor do we have much idea when or how we can. 

All I fear is that of making a blunder at a wrong time. 

Every sort of game is endeavored to be played off upon us by 
both factions, but we are not yet to be frightened or deceived. 

We are in absolute uncertainty. 


From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

Raleigh, Tuesday night, Deer. 13, 1842 

Another day has passed off & nothing more done about Senator 
& it is said will not be till Thursday & I think then no election, 
for Saunders will get over 50 votes & Brown, I think, cannot gain 

The Papers of William A. Graham 395 

many votes. Nelson 143 of Stokes said Brown would be elected in 
the end. McRae 144 of Cumberland says he will not vote next time 
for Brown but for Henry. 

There seems a strong disposition here among the leading Whigs 
to go over to Saunders after awhile, in fact all is uncertainty yet. 
Shultz 145 of Stokes went over from S. to Brown & is mad with his 
Saunders friends & they at him it is said. 

Caldwell's Resolutions 146 on Repudiation were postponed till 
Monday next, Catawba is a County, and McDowell & Union 
passed the Commons. There is very little here interesting in any 
way. Nelson said Brown would be elected next time, but I have 
no idea of an election for some votings yet myself. We are gen- 
erally well. 

From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

Raleigh, Deer. 14th, night, 1842. 

There is great exertions going on here— and an evident giving 
way of the Saunders party. Tonight is another Caucus tis said by 
adjournment. Therefore I now suppose this was the reason that 
no Election was to come on till Thursday. 

The Standard is out to day strong for Brown as you will see. 
The Carolinian out against both & for Henry, but abusing the 
Locos for having no election. 

The Brown men today seem rather flushed with Success, or 
the prospect of it. I still think the Saunders men will stand one 
more fire, and unless Saunders is well nigh or quite even with 
Brown their Phalanx will give way— not all— but enough to elect 

Letters come here from different parts of the State saying, go 
for Saunders if — Graham cannot be elected. We are in rather a 
staggering condition, for if Brown is to be elected, we wish all that 
voting to vote for you; but again if all drove back now from Saun- 
ders, he will be withdrawn— or rather they will go over & vote 
for Brown & not withdraw him. 

143 Albert F. Nelson, of Stokes, a member of the commons. 

144 Duncan Kirkland McRae (1819-1888), of Cumberland, a member of the com- 
mons, journalist, consul to Paris, Confederate colonel. 

145 Jacob Schultz, of Stokes, a member of the commons. 

146 Joseph P. Caldwell, on November 29th introduced resolutions expressing 
abhorrence of repudiation, by certain states, of their debts. 

396 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Russell anxiously enquired if any of Browns friends had said 
they had rather see Graham elected than Saunders. Barringer & 
myself assured him such was the Report. Wilder told me to day 
he did not know what to do for he had charge of Saunders name 
& he was blamed very much, & he should be compelled against 
his will to give way, Unless he percieved a fair prospect of Saun- 
ders increasing his vote. 

We are not to be deceived by all these statements & intimations 
tho there seems now a stronger prospect of a Union than ever in 
the course of this week. 

We did but little in the House to day. The Committee on 
Finance & Biggs 147 at their head have had a correspondence with 
the Gov., & have adopted a Resolution tho not yet offered, declar- 
ing that the Literary Board have or had not power by law to 
invest the $22 000. in Rail Road Bonds endorsed by the State. 
Brown at the head of Banks moves slow, no doubt waiting the 
final & hoping happy result of the Senators election. 

We have not heard for a few days from Washington except a 
letter from Stanly pressing for Saunders election, if you are hope- 
less. I heard of, but did not see the letter. Biggs and Bowers 148 
work like dray-horses to find some flaw, error, or mistake some- 
where to add to their capital in 1844. 

From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

Raleigh, Deer. 14th, 11 at night, 


Since writing the enclosed, yours of the 12th was recvd, and I 
soon found there was on hand, before I had recvd. it, a general 

Barringer, Batt Moore, & others all conclude tomorrow a num- 
ber of us must vote for Saunders, and nothing else will do. We 
intend thereby, whether Saunders is withdrawn or not, to prevent 
an election, and then postpone all further action and tomorrow 
night go into Caucus and try our strength, for Gee & many others 
are ditch-men, & some are pledged, and I believe Saunders will 

147 Asa Biggs (1811-1878), of Martin County, lawyer, delegate to the convention 
of 1835, member of the commons, 1840-1844, of the state senate, 1844, 1854, Demo- 
cratic member of congress, 1845-1847, United States senator, 1855-1858, Federal 
judge, 1858-1861, delegate to convention of 1861, Confederate judge, 1861-1865. 

"* George Bowers, of Ashe, state senator, 1812-1817, 1848-1854, member of the 
commons, 1842. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 397 

be almost or quite elected shortly, for every Whig is hopeless as 
to your election. 

Moore came here a ditchman & hands off, but he is now strong 
& fully going for Saunders to strengthen the Calhoun party for 
the time being. Next to put down Brown forever also to avoid 
Saunders running for Gov. again, & furthermore to create an un- 
reconciliable difference between Saunders party & the Loco focos 
proper, etc. 

Albright will lead off for Saunders and J. T. Morehead will 
go, & Col. Joyner will on a 2nd voting go over, and even Shad P. 
Allen will likely strike off first in our house. 

So you see the thing is up. 

Your friend 

I hate to write this letter, but the truth is always required of me. 

From Joseph B. Hinton. 149 A. 

Raleigh, N. C, 

Deer. 14th, 1842. 

Mr. Benton's bill for repealing the Bankrupt law is so invidious 
and unjust to those whose cases are still pending in the Courts 
under the law, that I should think it will stand no chance of pass- 
ing either branch of Congress in the form he has presented it, at 
least I hope so. The law has done much good & harm; much good 
to thousands of families hopelessly undone without it, and much 
harm to a just and magnanimous party which enacted and sus- 
tained it, but when the strifes of the present day have past, I can- 
not doubt but the mede of praise will be awarded to its friends, 
and it will be deemed as wise as beneficent and humane— maugre 
all the clamor and slang of the present times. Mr. Badger thinks 
that it is a mistaken idea that it will be good policy in a Whig 
Congress to repeal it. However that may be, of one thing there 
can be no doubt, and that is this: that so invidious and unjust 
a method of repealing it, as Mr. Benton's, ought to find no favor 
any where. If the law is to be repealed now, at least let it die in 
its present form, and the cases now pending in the Courts to be 

"•Joseph B. Hinton, of Beaufort County, who represented his county in the 
state senate, 1829-1830, 1832. 

398 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

placed on the same footing as those already decided under it. If 
the law had been enacted as Mr. Benton proposes now to make 
it, in its last moments, it would have been an utter abortion as to 
all useful purposes. Not one in a thousand who has sought relief 
under the present law, would have gone into Court under Mr. 
Benton's modification of it— not one in No. Ca most certainly 
would have attempted it. One in the million might possibly get 
2/3ds of his creditors to sign consent for the discharge of their 
debter, upon a surrender of all, but in this State, hardly the first 
case would have been found to do it. We go for the stuff, and 
when the stuff is got, then we reluctantly let go our grip of the 
hide and tallow. There are thousands of cases now depending 
under the act in the United States, and in N. C. several hundred; 
and the Judges are hastening proceedings by special Courts, in 
this and the next month, to dispose of all they can, before the 
repeal of the Law, and thereby to relieve as many as they can. 
But if the law be now changed as Mr. Benton proposes, these 
cases are to be decided upon wholly different principles than 
those upon which they commenced— and wholly different from 
those cases already decided under the act. This would be mon- 
strously unjust to all concerned. I am one of those concerned, and 
as such, and in the name of some hundreds of other unfortunates 
in this State, I pray you, and our whole delegation in Congress, 
whether in favor or against the Law itself, to leave us upon the 
same footing as those whose cases have been decided; by leaving 
the law unchanged up to its repeal, at least so as not to affect 
cases now depending and commenced under the law as it now 

I was left a portionless orphan at 3 years of age, & had to be the 
architect of my own fortunes, but my industry and enterprize 
made me master of all of $25,000 worth of property at 40 years 
of age, but then having had to pay the debts of others for whom 
I was unfortunately security to amt. of not far from $20,000 and 
other losses, my affairs became embarrassed & after struggling 
with various success until last Spring, in the hope that Congress 
would pay my claim of $20,000 for French Spoliations & thereby 
again enable me to be independent and comfortable— a Case upon 
the only unjust claim against me for about $200— the object of 
which was to force my wife to sell her separate property & pay 
it, or my friends to do it— drove into a Bankrupt Court upon the 
advice of my friends, & in so doing I surrendered to the Assignee 

The Papers of William A. Graham 399 

not far short of $30,000 worth of property, or what ought to be 
worth it, including my Government claim. But if the law had 
been as Mr. Benton would have it, I certainly would have made 
no such surrender, but struggled on as I could, without any resort 
to a Bankrupt Court. I am very sure I express in this, the senti- 
ments of every other applicant in N. C. & probably 99 out of 
every 100 elsewhere. 

The plot thickens here. The last three days have been busy 
ones in whipping the faithful into the ranks, and it is confidently 
said to day, among the Brownites, that they have accomplished 
their purpose, & on friday they intend to withdraw Genl. Saun- 
ders & elect Mr. Brown, & the fact that the Standard has to day 
pulled down the Generals flag and run up Mr. Brown's, & its 
attempt to frighten the impracticables into the ranks, and the 
fact that Mr. Brown has to day for the first time in a week, looked 
cheerful & at ease, induces me to think there is truth in the state- 
ment. But I know there are some of the Saunders men who still 
swear they will not be driven from his support. If 30 of them, 
or even 25 of them are pluck, on the next trial, Genl. Saunders 
will be the Senator— as in that event the Whigs I am sure would 
give him a majority over Mr. Brown. The zeal of the Standard 
and others to day, is intended to prevent such a result, and secure 
Brown's election at the expense of the sacrifies of the Genl— for 
some of their leaders don't hesitate to say openly, he has ruined 
himself with his party by suffering his name to be run & pushing 
his pretensions, when vetoed by the Caucus. I am a Saunders man 
& if you cannot be reelected, as it is clear the Whigs cannot do 
that at present, I do wish our friends to aid the Genl. in triumph- 
ing over a selfish clan who have used his influence & now kick 
aside the ladder. 

Day before yesterday, Mr. Shepard introduced into the Senate 
a bold measure to be the order of the day on friday next. It is to 
authorize the issue of one million of Treasury notes to be divided 
among the Counties of the State, & by means of loan offices to be 
lent out to the people at Sy 2 percent, reimbursable in 3 years; 
on pledges of real or personal security. Weldon N. Edwards 150 
denounced it at the threshhold as a violation of the Constitution 

^Weldon Nathaniel Edwards (1788-1873), of Warren, a native of Northampton, 
was educated at the Warrenton Academy under Marcus George. He was a member 
of the commons, 1814-1815, member of congress, 1815-1827, state senator, 1833-1846, 
1850-1854, (speaker 1850-1854), delegate to the convention of 1835, president of the 
convention of 1861. He was able, balanced, and effective. A devoted Democrat, he 
had the confidence of the Whigs as well. 

400 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

& monstrous! To day this same Mr. Shepard introduced another 
Bill, "Concerning Banks." It forbids our Banks to pay out any 
other bills than those authorized by our own Legislature— under 
fine and imprisonment— & forbids the Banks to suspend specie 
payment at any time hereafter; if for 30 days they forfeit to the 
State Treasury 3 per cent on all their circulation, if for 3 months, 
they forfeit their Charters 2c go forthwith into a close of all their 
matters. Mr. Brown seemed startled at so bold a measure 2c 
moved its reference to the Judiciary Committee! Unless I am 
mistaken, many of the party won't come up to the scratch when 
the time comes, and will curse Mr. Shepard for his temerity. 

To day the Senatorial Districting Com. reported, and as far as 
I could hear or judge from the reading I am of opinion very few 
political changes are made by it, as very few of the Dists are 
changed. I learn that the probable report on the Congress '1 Dist's 
will be 5 to 4. Mr. Rayner's can't be altered to his disadvantage, 
but Mr. Stanly's will. And yet, with Nash 2c Martin hitched on to 
it, if the Whigs are wise when all the Richmonds of the party 
take the field, they will have the game in their own hands. 

From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

Raleigh, friday night, Deer. 16, 1842. 

To write now is rather to write a blank letter. We had no voting 
to-day & no talk of it. The Lo-co party met in Caucus tonight. I 
wrote you or Mr Rayner the result of our last vote— that the time 
had come as we believed here for action 2c a number more of us 
voted for Saunders, running him up to 56. The Brown party are 
alarmed above measure. 

To-day after Mr. Sheperd on his million Bank or Treasury 
notes, Mr. Bedford Brown held forth some 2 hours most luminous 
in real Brown Style— a Crowded Senate— the house adjourned for 
want of a Quorum— and such real rearing and charging & Bank 
abuse was never heard. Mr. Cooper is next entitled to the floor. 
Brown is agin Sheperds moneyed affair. The Committee on Fi- 
nance and on the Literary fund are thro their Chmn., Biggs, try- 
ing to get into a difficulty with the Gov., but he has many cool 
admirers around him and is willing to be advised. 

We now have a certificate issued by the State in 1783 for 19.2—3 
before the Assembly, barred of course by our act of 1799, and 

The Papers of William A. Graham 401 

perhaps the Genl. Government ought to pay it. We are against 
repudiation, and yet we understand some 20 or 100 thousand 
dollars are still out. 

The original Certificate is produced here 8c is genuine. 

I should like to have some information on this subject— if con- 
venient but not otherwise. Since the death of Lewis Williams I 
do not know who to enquire of. 

To pass repudiating Resolutions and refuse to pay a just and 
unsatisfied Debt, because old, is incongruous. 

A most deadly effort will be made to drive the Saunders men 
from their strongholds. Shultz now votes for Brown & Rea, and 
Dr. Bracken 151 voted for Tho. Ruffin last time. 

The Whigs have no meeting appointed and it is yet uncertain 
whether enough of Whigs will go over to elect Saunders unless 
some Brown men come back. 

I thought there would full enough of Whigs go where neces- 
sary for S., but it is not now so certain. 

If Saunders is withdrawn, every Whig goes back and votes for 
you unless a false march is suspected by us on their part & then 
we vote in part for Saunders to prevent an election. 

We are on doubtful ground, but hold the balance of power. 

From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

Raleigh, Deer. 18, Sunday morning, 1842. 

Last night we the Whigs sat in Convention till i/£ after 11 at 
night— or later— Badger made a long & able speech. Manly & 
Bryan & Clingman also spoke, and we had speech after speech, and 
I never have heard men abused so, as both Brown & Saunders, & 
both by all were placed on equal footing, & each worse than the 
other if possible. 

It was in Convention agreed for me to withdraw your name Mon- 
day or at the coming on of the next voting. If a Committee of 5, 
two of the Senate & 3 of the Commons reported to me that enough 
of Whigs would go for Saunders to insure his election; poor 

151 Julius C. S. Bracken, of Orange, a native of Caswell, member of the commons, 


402 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Col Joyner, and Howard 152 & Jones 153 of Wilkes, & Jefferson, 154 
& Baxter 155 & many others yielded with apparent heartfelt sor- 
row, as did every Whig there, but the time has now come and we 
were compelled to act at once. 

No man upon Earth need desire more warm feelings of friend- 
ship, nor to be spoken of in terms of higher regard for talent, 
ability, dignifying, manly, & high minded honorable course of 
conduct in public Sc private life than yourself. Sir, it was a meet- 
ing of Whigs most solemn! it was like cutting the ligaments of 
regard and Friendship and plighted troth between man and 
wife; for us to conclude to leave our favorite, gallant, and be- 
loved leader, and march over to the succor of an enemy, a com- 
mon enemy. 

We may have done wrong. 

May the Great God of Heaven forgive us. 

No doubt before you could answer this there will be a Senator. 

Your friend 

It is said Dobson & some others are giving or given way from 
Saunders. We had about 60 Whigs together or near it, & the ob- 
ject of the Gommitee was to ascertain whether enough of Saun- 
ders men still remained firm to him, who aided by the Whigs 
could elect him; if not, all Whigs would then vote for Graham, 
but I understand this morning there are 32 Saunders men who 
hold on— it was reported all were gone but 18. I shall know to- 
night before I sleep because the Committee are to report to me. 

152 James W. Howard, of Jones, member of the commons, 1831, 1834-1836, state 
senator, 1842, 1846. 

153 Edmund Walter Jones (1811-1876), of Wilkes, (now Caldwell) County, 
graduate of the university, state senator, 1842, from Caldwell, 1868, (did not 
attend), delegate to conventions of 1861 and 1875, member Council of State, 1866. 

154 Thomas Jefferson, of Rutherford, a native of Virginia, member of the 
commons, 1836, 1840-1842, of the senate, 1844. He was a Whig leader in his 
county. He later moved to Arkansas. 

165 John Baxter (1819-1886), of Rutherford County, member of the commons, 
1842. He moved to Henderson County, and was again in the commons, 1846, 
1852-1865, (speaker, 1852). He moved to Knoxville, where he was a strong and 
active Unionist in 1861, sat in the convention of 1870, and was a judge of the 
United States Circuit Court from 1877 to his death. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 403 

From Hamilton C. Jones. A. 


Decemr. 18th, 1842. 

Several of our profession assembled here to attend the Dist. 
Court of the U. S. have seen with much concern the propositions 
sprung most suddenly upon Congress to repeal the Bankrupt 
Law, and they have requested me to address you on the subject. 
The proposition of Mr. Benton to repeal the law with a saving 
that imposes duties and restrictions not held out by the law, 
would be most hard & unjust. We fully appreciate the motive that 
induced you to propose a continuation of the law as it stood, to 
the 5th. of December but to cut off all from its protection who 
have filed petitions since that day. Now my dear Sir you have no 
idea of the pain and dissatisfaction such a saving would give to 
a large class of unfortunate individuals and their friends. Why 
not let the repeal take effect from its passage with a saving of all 
those who had filed their petitions before that time? Or at least 
why not save all who had filed petitions before they had notice 
that such a measure was contemplated? Many had sworn to their 
petitions and let them lie in the hands of their attornies till they 
could come down to this Court where the necessary orders could 
be obtained: these persons have with great difficulty raised some 
money for the cost and secured from $25 to 50 dollars for fees 
relying on the benefit which was promised them by an existing law 
of their Country: all this they will have to loose if they are not 
brought within the scope of the saving: they clerk and attorney 
will say that it is not their fault that the duty is not performed 
which they engaged to do. So they must pay their fees and lose 
what they have paid if this is not done. Besides this, they have 
laid open their affairs and exposed themselves to be harrassed 
and oppressed for having done what the law invited them to do. 
Fictions of law usually are adopted to forward the purposes of 
justice, but your proposition by relating back to 5th. of Decem- 
ber will work hardship and injustice to such as have come on 
without any intimation of any such thing. If any are to be saved 
why not all. All are upon the same footing as to merit and any 
law that does not save all would be partial and unreasonable. And 
we do not see why it would not be as easy to get through a saving 
for all as for some. 

404 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

We do not say that the law ought not to be repealed. But if 
Congress has done wrong in passing the law it is no reason they 
should do wrong again in repealing it. We humbly concur that 
it would be more manly and that they would stand better even 
with the opponents of the law to take care of that unfortunate 
class of individuals whom their own act had made more helpless 
and wretched. No clamor of the crowds or bitterness of political 
enemies ought to make a party do wrong to save themselves and 
a little wrong ought just as much to be avoided as a great one 
in such a case. We feel persuaded that you can not far differ with 
us in these sentiments and as a part of your constituents and 
from our positions well knowing the cruel disappointment it 
will work we ask you so to enlarge your proposition as to put 
all petitioners on the same footing. 

From S. O. Butler. U. 


(Confidential) December 18th., 1842. 

The known hostility of the Senators from Ohio to the Bankrupt 
Act, prevents my writing them on the subject of the repeal of that 
law, which from present indications, will take place this session. 
I do not suppose that any suggestions from a Whig would find 
favor, either with Mr. Tappan or Mr. Allen. 156 From those reasons 
I have taken the liberty to address you upon the subject, thinking 
(from your notice in the Senate of your intention to offer an 
amendment, so that the repeal shall not effect those who peti- 
tioned before the commencement of the present session) that you 
might take into consideration the propriety, and indeed the 
obvious justice, of the suggestions I now trouble you with. All 
men of proper feeling and sentiment feel a great repugnance to 
availing themselves of this mode of cancelling their debts, and 
evidently the odium which attaches to those who are obliged to 
publish their dishonor to the world in the shape of a petition for 
the benefit of that act! And I would most respectfully suggest to 
you, if gross injustice would not be done to those whose applica- 
tions have thus been made public, if the law should be repealed, 

^William Allen (1803-1879), of Ohio, a native of Edenton, N. C, a lawyer, 
Democratic member of congress, 1833-1835, United States senator, 1837-1849, 
governor, 1874-1876, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 405 

and leave them with all the odium, without extending to them 
the benefit of that act. The law was passed to induce the honest 
and unfortunate debtor to surrender all his property, for the 
benefit of his creditors equally, and those who have made their 
petition since the Session of this Congress, as well as before, 
could not possibly believe that the law was to operate as a snare 
to him, to induce him to suffer the extremest mortification a high 
minded and honorable man is capable, and then to leave him with 
his debts uncancelled and his character stigmatized as an unsuc- 
cessfull applicant for the benefit of a law which was intended for 
the good of all. I am one of those who, had the Bankrupt act 
never been passed, would never have been obliged to resort to 
the act myself, and my case is only one of thousands. My endorse- 
ments for friends have compelled me to this course also, as, 
after the passage of the act preferences could not be given, and 
therefore I had to stand my chance with the other creditors, 
whereas, had the act never been passed, my confidential endorse- 
ments would have been secured, and I should have been safe 
and solvent, and could have met all my own obligations! And 
now, within the last ten days, I have been compelled to make 
public my own inability to meet my engagements promptly, and 
in addition to the mortification, I am also called upon to endure 
the agony of an anticipated repeal of the law, which will cut 
me off from its benefits, because I did not make my application 
a few days earlier. I beg you not to think, my dear Sir, that I 
have explained my individual case, supposing that it would in- 
fluence you, but mainly to shew you the situation, that repeal of 
the law would place thousands in, who did not petition before the 
commencement of this Session. If the people demand the repeal of 
that law, would not they be just as well satisfied to have the appeal 
take effect on the 4th. of March next, when this Congress expires, 
and thereby give all an opportunity to avail themselves of it. 
This course, it does strike me, is the one dictated by a spirit of 
philanthropy and justice, and I would most earnestly, but humbly, 
ask you to give the suggestion some thought, and if your views are 
in accordance therewith, and your sense of duty to your own 
immediate constituents, will permit you to so modify your amend- 
ments as to permit all who have petitioned, to reap the benefit 
of that act, you will receive the heartfelt gratitude of thousands 
of unfortunate debtors, who are now trembling with fear and 
anxiety, expecting its repeal. Not having the honor of a personal 
acquaintance with you, an anonymous signature would no doubt 

406 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

be as satisfactory as my real one, but I venture to solicit your kind 
indulgence for the liberty I have taken, and subscribe my real 
name, and remain, 

Your Obed't Serv't. 

From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

City of Raleigh, Monday night, 
Deer. 18, 1842. 

The Whig Committee consisting of H. G. Spruill, 157 Jones of 
Wilkes, Barringer, Leach, 158 & Halsey 159 at the Meeting of the 
House this morning reported to me that there were Whigs enough 
with the Saunders men who would vote for Saunders to elect him, 
and directed me to withdraw your name. 

Accordingly when the Senate agreed to our message to Vote, 
I rose and with pain to myself and I know to every Whig who 
heard it, withdrew your name. Forthwith Bragg nominated Hay- 
wood, & he got 5 votes, Brown 61, and Saunders 78 votes; another 
message was sent to the Senate to vote immediately, and G. B. 
Jones 16 ° nominated Michael Hoke who is now here, and the 
Senate laid it on their Table. An attempt was made to bring on 
the election of Treasurer to day & the Locos opposed it, and it 
produced much warm debate, but the Senate adjourned & then 
we did, & so the matter stands. Only the Loco party have a meet- 
ing tonight and they will cause a political Earthquake or rally 
their forces altogether. 

There is nothing else new or changed in our City. I think 
Badger's Party went off without complaint, for that night the 
Locofocos were all in Caucus. 

We are generally well, and get on very slow with Business You 
see the Locos now have 3 of their Party— yes 4— all on the track. 
I never saw such confusion and consternation, and such pale 
faces as when your name was withdrawn. Cad Jones & C. Graves 
seemed wholly out of sorts. 

It is thought Brown will be withdrawn tomorrow. I think 
Saunders will be elected. There is much bitterness among our 

157 Hezekiah G. Spruill, of Tyrrell County, member of the commons, 1831, 
delegate to the convention of 1835, state senator, 1836-1842. 

158 Julian E. Leach, of Randolph, member of the commons, 1842. 

159 Joseph Halsey, of Tyrrell, member of the commons, 1842, state senator, 

160 John B. Jones of Currituck, member of the commons, 1831-1833, 1840-1844, 
1854-1856, delegate to the convention of 1835. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 407 

foes. Cardwell charged an unholy alliance today in the house, 
and then withdrew it as to the Saunders men, etc. 
It is most horrid to be placed in our condition. 

From Charles L. Hinton. U. 


Dec. 19th, 1844. [1842]. 

My apology for not answering your letter sooner is the great 
electioneering excitement in which my feelings have been enlisted. 

■A£ A/. Jf. AT, M. 

TV" W TV" W *«• 

We had another balloting for U. S. Senator to day, Sanders 161 
came within two votes of being elected, his own men flying the 
tract, your name being withdrawn, the Register, I suppose, will 
give you the particulars. There will be a Caucus to night to try 
and fix on a third man— Hoke is here and spoken of. 

It is believed if a second balloting could have been had to day, 
that Sanders would have been elected. I now doubt very much 
whether Sanders can rally his forces. 

20th. in the morning. 

I have reason to believe that they fixed on Haywood last night 
in Caucus— Brown and Sanders will both be withdrawn. 

My own election is very doubtful. 

From Henry K. Nash. U. 

Raleigh, December 19th, 1842. 

I have been waiting until some dicisive action should be taken 
by our friends on the subject of the Senatorial election to write 
to you. 

Against the advice and consent of several of our friends (myself 
among the number) it has been determined by our friends— a 
majority of them— that it is the duty of the Whig Party to with- 
draw your name from that contest and unite upon Genl. Saunders. 
I will not unite with them in any such course, and there are several 
others who occupy the same ground. 

161 Saunders. 

408 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

I think our friends will find they have committed an egregious 
error; I hope however it may be for the best. 

I will write to you as soon as the election takes place. 

To James W. Bryan. U. Bryan Mss. 

Washington City, 

Dec. 21st, 1842. 

*J£ jjt 4£ AL 


There has been quite a sensation here for a day or two past, 
in consequence of the hanging at the yard arm of the Brig Somers, 
at Sea, of Midshipman Spencer, 162 a son of the Secretary of War, 
for mutiny. By order of Commander Sledell McKenzie, 163 author 
of "A year in Spain." You will see a detailed account of it in your 
papers. As yet public sentiment justifies the Execution as an act 
of necessity. A Court of Inquiry, however, will investigate the 
whole matter. 

The proceedings of Congress have had little interest thus far, 
and promise not much during the Session. The Bankrupt Law 
will probably be repealed. Benton is making war on the late 
British Treaty in every mode that he can devise, to affect Web- 
ster and Tyler, and through them Calhoun. The latter is in rather 
low spirits, I think. The election of Judge Huger, a Union man, 
as his successor, over Pickens and Rhett, 164 has been discouraging 
to him. And the party here after their successes in so many State 
elections, look generally to Van Buren as their Candidate for the 
Presidency. Calhoun however is disposed to hold off, and advises 
Saunders to take the appointment of Senator from the Whigs, 
if he can get it. I expect to hear tonight that he is elected. 

Cass arrived here yesterday from Paris, and is ready to come out 
upon a little solicitation. Old Col. Johnson is quite willing, and 
Buchanan nothing loth. Benton however will bully them into a 

162 Philip Spencer. 

168 Alexander Slidell MacKenzie. The Navy Register gives the date of his death, 
1848. The case caused much excitement and loud demands for MacKenzie's 
punishment. A court martial was ordered which exonerated him completely. 

104 Robert Barnwell Rhett, (born Smith) (1800-1876), of South Carolina, a 
lawyer, served in the lower house of the legislature in 1826, was elected attorney 
general, 1826, was a Democratic member of congress, 1837-1849, United States 
senator, 1850-1852, delegate to the convention of 1860, and a delegate to the Con- 
federate provisional congress, 1861. He controlled the policies of the influential 
Charleston Mercury for many years, and edited it for some years. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 409 

nomination of Van Buren. And then it is to be seen whether 
Calhoun and Johnson will submit. 

The Whigs have to consent to a National Convention to bring 
out a Candidate, but I think Clay can easily obtain the nomina- 
tion. He is now on a visit to New Orleans and is to be received 
with wonderful demonstrations. 

I have just reed, mail from Raleigh and find that Saunders 
wanted three votes of election, and there was an adjournment, 
and probably Haywood was agreed on in Caucus. 

From Charles L. Hinton. U. 

Deer. 31st, 1842. 

Yours of the 24th. was ree'd last night, I am sorry your proxy 
was not directed to some other person as I am not a stockholder 
and can't act. Monday will be an important day with them, as 
there will be a proposition to surrender the Charter 165 to the 
Legislature, it will be supported by the principal stockholders 
and I expect a resolution will be introduced in the House to day 
directing the individual representing the State stock to vote for 
a surrender, if it passes the house it will certainly pass the Board, 
so you see we are likely to be placed in an awkward position with 
regard to the Banks. The Locos say, and I have no doubt will, 
if the Charter is tendered, accept it, and establish a bank on the 
faith of the State with a Capital of several millions such at least 
is the general feeling at this time. 

The reason assigned on part of the stockholders for surrender- 
ing is, the great abuse by the opposite party, for you will dis- 
cover from the resolutions and speeches that the managers of the 
Bank are treated as a parcel of swindlers, it will disarm them, of 
at least this one strong weapon that has been most effectually used 
against the Whig party. 

Were I a stockholder, I should vote against it as ruinous to the 
Public, we shall not be able again to get Capitalists to invest in 
any Bank in the State, it will force them to seek a foreign in- 

165 The Bank of the State was about to surrender its charter. 

410 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From Susan Washington Graham. U. 


Deer. 31st, 1842. 
My Dear Husband, 

I received by this morning's mail your letter of the 26th. and 
also one of a later date, containing a check for Dr. Webb. I 
gave the envelope of the New World to Will and told him there 
was a letter from Father, the little fellow kept it all the morning 
and was as much pleased as he would have been with the hand- 
somest toy in Washington. He has an affectionate disposition and 
is very fond of little "buddy Wobert" as he calls him, frequently 
comes and asks me to let him see his pretty little blue eyes and 
says "I do lub him I do." He resembles Will more than the 
others and is much the largest of all my infants. The other boys 
try to play with him sometimes but they are most amused in 
listening to Will's speeches to him. He bids fair to be a good deal 
of a Wag. 

I wish you could have the little creatures around your knees 
for a while. They are very fond of you and whenever they object 
to getting their book I merely have to ask them if "I must tell 
Father that they didn't say a lesson today." They have missed 
saying a lesson only three or four days since you left us. Joseph 
learns slowly but remembers pretty well. 

Dear little James has just come to me and I asked him what 
must I tell Father? his little face brightened up and he looked 
around in every direction as if he expected to see you. Whenever 
asked where you are, he points to the door and shakes his head 
and says "gone— gone." 

One page to your boys, which I hope will not be entirely devoid 
of interest for you. 

Mr. Turrentine hired out Barbara and Charity on Thursday 
last, Barbara to Mr. Kerr of Chapel Hill for $25 and Charity to 
Miss or Mrs. Martha Kirkland (Sister of Mr. Hogan) for about 
$19— so Charity said— Isaac is well or nearly so; he went out to the 
plantation Monday Morning. Abram went out there to spend his 
Christmas holiday and I sent Henry and his medicine with the 
directions, by him to Sally. Henry is much better, and in a fort- 
night will probably be entirely well. 

Dick brought in the waggon Thursday morning to haul wood, 
and said that Joe cut his foot so badly on Tuesday that he 

The Papers of William A. Graham 4 1 1 

couldn't walk. Dr. Smith has not yet sent the timber here. 

I have had the chimney from the other lot hauled over. 

Old Mrs. Bryan came to see me in great tribulation about Mr. 
Laws threatening to "throw them out doors." She said Dr. Parks 
had given them a lot of ground and they had sufficient timber 
excepting a few logs to build their house and would be very glad 
to get the logs of the old kitchen that had fallen down. I told 
her you had left directions with Mr. Laws about the house and 
lot and I could not interfere but that she might tell Mr. Laws 
I said she could have the logs if he would let her take them 
away. She afterwards came and got permission in writing for them 
to be hauled away. Upon reflection I thought perhaps I had 
transcended my authority in allowing her to take them, but it 
is not at any rate a matter of much consequence. 

The supply of shocks was finished a fortnight since. I sent to 
Mr. Bishop to know if there were any in the neighborhood for 
sale. He sent in a load by Dick from the plantation and said he 
knew of no one that had any to spare. 

I intend getting some oil cakes for the cows next week. Old 
Suke is so poor that I shall dislike to take the milk from the calf. 
I inquire frequently of Lizzy about feeding them but I know they 
are not as well attended to as if I could see them occasionally. 

I intended writing a long letter, but Robert continues to fret 
so much that I must bid you adieu for the present but will try 
to close my letter in the morning in time for the Mail. 

Sunday Morning— A happy "New Year" to you [page torn] May 
you be spared to enjoy many more. 

flfc «tt» 4fc «M. Jfr 

•«• w "A* w TV* 

I shall spend a lonely New Years but I hope not an unprofitable 
one. Adieu my Beloved one 

May the blessing of God be with you. 

Ever Yours 

From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

City of Raleigh, 

Jany. 12 th, 1843. 

We have had much difficulty about Col. Wheeler giving his 
Bond as Treasurer. We have by a joint Resolution extended the 
time from the 22nd. ult. to the 23rd. Inst, and he has obtained 

412 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

the names of 16 members of Assembly, it is said, and has gone to 
Bertie, etc., this morning with Judge Saunders son for a witness. 
We have been in awkward fix without a Treasurer thus far. The 
2 Speakers approved, & the Gov. disapproved his Bonds, and a 
controversy arose & facts etc., but the Gov. will be sustained. 

The business of legislation goes on slowly. The Congressional 
Districts as reported from Committee have passed the Senate 
& most likely will the House. We still have much before us, & 
not much time. We sit nearly all the time day & night— no time, 
& no room, for Caucus now. You no doubt saw our actions on 
the Bank Resolutions. 1 The Locos are sick of them & I think 
the Banks will in the end rather be sustained, than injured by 
any of our proceedings. The Political Resolutions 2 are a long 
ways behind everything. We don't intend to stir them, but if the 
Locos do, as a Mr. Barnes said here once— there shall be "Speaken 
upon them." The Locos are afraid of the Whigs on all party 
measures where "Speaken" can likely arise, and we have & will 
give notice that no Democratic Resolutions pass without full 
debate. 3 We shall give no relief to the People by Bill or Resolu- 
tion, unless it be by adjournment sine die. , 

We are generally well. We cannot adjourn before the 23rd. Inst. 

From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

Raleigh, Jany. 12, 1843. 

You are no doubt fully aware that it was intended on the part 
of the Whigs to hold a Caucus here not to nominate but to fix 

1 During the session many resolutions were introduced by Democrats into each 
house, providing for investigation of the Bank of the State, and the Bank of 
Cape Fear. Some of them passed one house or the other, but none obtained the 
concurrence of both. In the midst of extended discussions of the subject, the 
Bank of the State offered to surrender its charter. 

2 The political resolutions referred to were introduced in the commons by 
Cadwallader Jones, Jr., and were finally, after much discussion, and Whig op- 
position, passed by both houses. After asserting the right of the legislature to 
instruct the senators, and their duty to obey, they went on to declare opposition 
to taxation designed to promote the interests of particular occupations at general 
expense, condemning the tariff act just passed, as unwise, dangerous, and un- 
constitutional, and also a violation of the Compromise of 1833. They included 
also, sharp condemnation of the bankrupt law, and a demand for its repeal, a 
demand for the refund of General Jackson's New Orleans fine, and an endorse- 
ment of the veto power of the President, and closed with instructions to the 
senators and a request to the representatives to carry them into effect. 

3 This statement is mild, for the Whig minority waged a quite successful war 
of opposition and delay, day after day being spent on proposed amendments, and 
motions to adjourn. Cloture was then undreamed of in North Carolina. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 413 

on some person to be hereafter nominated by a Convention here- 
after to be held, to be run for the Governor of this State. At the 
last Whig meeting in Deer, last, a Resolution was adopted to 
assemble the 2nd of Jany. and it seemed to have been wholly 
forgotten. I attended alone. We still think of having a Meeting 
for that purpose, & to appoint a Committee to invite Mr. Clay 
to this State when it may suit him to come. I have several, yes a 
number of times been determined on writing a private letter to 
you, on the subject of your running for Governor, and asking 
a private answer, but I have from time to time felt a backward- 
ness in approaching you on that subject. 

Col. Barringer has requested & insisted that I should write to 
you and request an early answer, as we expect to adjourn the 
23rd Inst. I think I can say with certainty that it is the general 
belief you are the strongest man who could be placed upon the 
Whig ticket in N. C. for Gov., and there is no prospect of any 
other being fixed upon unless you refuse, 2c then Charles Manly 
would most likely to be the next man. Our friend K. Rayner, I 
think will not now be taken up by the Whigs for Gov. 

I am very unwilling to make any request of you that I ought 
not, but it does seem as if there should be some little conference 
upon this subject, before anything like formal action. 

Should you feel yourself at liberty to give any intimations or 
to decide upon this important matter, please drop us a confiden- 
tial line, and no Eye shall see it but those allowed & specially 
mentioned by yourself, and the letter shall be forthwith burnt. 

From George C. Mendenhall. U. 

City of Raleigh, 

Jan'y. 13th, 1843. 

By the mail last night I wrote you a line— with one enclosed— 
upon the very subject mentioned in yours received this morning. 
I shewed yours to Moore, Barringer & Badger & no others. 

I cannot tell when we can or shall have a Whig meeting here. 
I was pleased with all your suggestions, except that of declining 
a nomination for Gov. We have nobody else but Manly whom 
we can successfully run, & the Locos have none but M. Hoke, & 
I do not think he has folly enough to try it. 

You know the Gov. disapproved and the 2 Speakers approved 
Wheeler's Bonds. 

414 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

The Committee of investigation have taken the Evidence in 
writing of D. W. Stone that the name of Perry Carter had no 
seal, on friday morning the 30th ultimo & he so informed 
Wheeler. Then the evidence of Dr. G. C. Moore that J. H. & 
Sam J. Wheeler came from Murfreesboro to his House at 10 at 
night & shewed the Bonds & then they told G. C. Moore that 
Carter signed at dark at Murfreesboro & they told him he had 
omitted the seal, and that Carter then told those 2 to tell Dr. 
Moore to add the seal & he would be bound by the act, and that 
friday evening the 30th J. H. Wheeler in Raleigh reminded 
Moore, and he then in pursuance of this verbal authority thus 
sent added the seal. 

This Evidence will go to the Commons Tomorrow with a 
Report by Bragg favorable to Wheeler & with leave to withdraw 
his Bonds; he is now gone to Bertie for others. It is said 14 Loco 
Members have signed for him, & Stallings, B. Brown & W. N. 
Edwards among them. Wheeler has lost ground here, by being 
detected in incorrect statements; he will be Treasurer however 
in the end. 

The Bank Resolutions which passed the Commons are amended 
by the Senate & will not pass the Commons as amended, for many 
Democrats are sick of them. 

We get on very slowly indeed. 

We have 50 thousand Dollars of Wilmington Rail Road Bonds 
to pay & to pay now; this is bad for the Whigs. 

We shall have the Interest for the Gaston Road to pay to add 
to our list of Burdens. The Whigs have however a general advan- 
tage throughout this Session. 

To James Webb. U. James Webb Mss. 

Washington City, 

January 14th„ 1843. 

I have rec'd your letter informing that 40 pieces of the Gold 
I left for Mr. Albright were sovereigns, instead of half Eagles. I 
never opened the packages after receiving them at this place, 
except when I delivered them to you, and supposed that it was 
all American Gold. You will, of course, let Mr. A. have the sov- 
ereigns at 4.85, and charge me with the difference between that 
and $5. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 415 

There is nothing new here, I believe, the weather of late, mild 
for the season. The business of Congress does not afford much 
of general interest. The Committee of ways and means has re- 
ported in the House unanimously, against the Exchequer scheme 
of the President, and nothing can be done on the subject of the 
currency at this session. 

The jealousy between the friends of Messrs. Calhoun & Van 
Buren as to the next Presidency, is becoming more and more 
apparent. Gen'l Jackson has lately taken distinct ground in favor 
of the latter, in a letter to a public meeting in Philadelphia, and 
he will doubtless get the nomination of their National Conven- 

The Bankrupt Law will probably be repealed, but it is more 
doubtful than it was, at the beginning of the session. The Locos 
have made political capital by abusing it thus far, and now they 
want its benefits in their private affairs. 

F. S. Tay, an eminent lawyer of this district, died suddenly a 
day or two since, on a visit to Baltimore. 

From John Umstead Kirkland. U. 

Hillsboro', N. C, 

Jany. 16th, 1843. 

# # # # # 

. . . We are getting along here much after the old sort, Whigs 
& Democrats are much disappointed at the doings of the Legisla- 
ture. I have myself never known as much nonsense to emanate 
from a Legislative body within my short experience. I hope their 
constituents will hold them to a rigid account. 

Your Family are all well and indeed so far have enjoyed an 
unusual exemption from the Scarlet Fever which has prevailed to 
great extent & in families with much fatality throughout the 

416 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From Charles L. Hinton. U. 


Jany. 20th, 1843. 

# # # # # 

The resolutions of instruction are still under discussion in the 
house. 4 B. Moore has had the floor for a part of two days and 
occupy it again this morning; he is making an excellent speech 
for Buncombe. 

Col. Wheeler returned last night and I suppose will present 
his bond today. Report says some of his Loco friends will have 
their names taken off, if so another difficulty will probably be 
presented. I think the party are heartily sick of him, indeed they 
are sick of the most of their doings, and would retrace if they 
could, for every act has had the tendency to bring them into 
disrepute. They have disappointed themselves, their friends in the 
Country are disappointed and dissatisfied, every act has had a 
tendency to elevate the Whig cause. 

Tonight the Whigs will have a meeting to make arrangements 
for future operations. 

Yourself and Manly are spoken of for Governor 

From Charles L. Hinton. U. 


Feb. 1st, 1843. 

-M- Jfe AL -SL. ^. 

^ TP TP ^ ^ 

The members have left except some two or three attending the 
Supreme Court, and our town is quiet. The citizens nothing do 
but talk over the incident of the late session and lay schemes for 
the postponement of debts when pressed by creditors which by the 
bye is no small matter, for really I have never seen the embarrass- 
ments of Wake anything like as great before. Our Banks I presume 
will be much more liberal in their discounts which will afford 
some relief. The course pursued by the Democrats in the Legis- 
lature on the Bank resolutions is generally condemned by all 
intelligent members of the party in this and the adjacent counties, 

4 The introduction of resolutions declaring the right of instruction of United 
States senators, brought about a prolonged debate in each house. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 417 

we think they are completely check mated on that subject, and 
given us sufficient capital on all others for the next two years. 

I attended a Whig Caucus, no nomination was made for Gov- 
ernor or any preference expressed in the meeting for any indi- 
vidual. Manly, Bryan, Rayner and yourself were spoken of during 
the session, the general impression was that you were much the 
strongest of the party, and I expect you will be strongly urged 
to accept the nomination. 

Our representative, Col. Massey, 5 has run away (it is thought 
for Texas) leaving his neighbours between five and six thousand 
dollars, minus. 

To Charles P. Green. U. 

T. J. Green Mss. 

Washington City 

Feby. 17th. 1843. 

I have read with great concern your letter to Mr. Mangum 
respecting the unfortunate Texas prisoners lately captured at 
Mier, and immediately afterwards met with Mr. Van Zandt, 6 the 
Texan charge here, from whom I was happy to learn that your 
brother 7 was not anions; them. He informs me that he has been 
written to, by you, and has today replied in such way as I hope 
will relieve your anxiety. The gentleman by the name of Green, 
who has been captured (he tells me) is Thomas Green, a son of 
Judge Green, of Tennessee. He has no middle name as your 
brother has, both being personally known by Mr. Van Z. 

5 Dempsey B. Massey. 

6 Isaac Van Zandt, of Texas, charge d'affaires, and later, minister of Texas to 
the United States, who was active in Texas politics and diplomacy. He was a 
candidate for governor in 1847, but died before the election. 

7 Thomas Jefferson Green (1801-1863), a native of Warren County, who attended, 
for a time, the university and West Point, but did not graduate. He served in 
the legislatures of North Carolina, Florida, Texas, and California, and also in 
the Texas congress. He reached Texas just after the outbreak of the revolution 
against Mexico, and, commissioned a brigadier general, raised a brigade in the 
United States. He led the expedition against Mier, was captured, and later 
escaped. He set the Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas, was the first public 
advocate of a railroad to the Pacific, and before he left the state became a famous 
breeder of racing stock. In California, he was a major general of militia, and, 
in the legislature, drafted and introduced the bill establishing the University of 
California. He returned to North Carolina just before the Civil War, and lived 
at "Esmeralda," his plantation, until his death. 

418 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

Having received this information, I did not call on Almonte, 8 
with whom I have no personal acquaintance, although we have 
exchanged cards. 

I beg you to be assured, that had the fact been as you supposed, 
I would have omitted nothing, within my power, to aid your 
brother in obtaining liberation. A son of Mr. Crittenden 9 was 
taken at Mier, and his friends have procured, without difficulty, 
a letter to Santa Anna, from Gen'l Almonte, asking the inter- 
position of his clemency. Letters were also written to Gen'l 
Thompson, who, I doubt not, will do every thing in his power in 
behalf of the unfortunate persons, now prisoners in Mexico. 

I will make further inquiry, from Mr. Van Zandt, as he receives 
intelligence from his country, and will apprize you of it, should 
it affect your brother. 

I am happy to be able to make you this communication, and 
hurried as it is, I hope you will read it to your venerable Mother, 
as an assurance that her son is not in the custody of the Mexicans. 

I received from you a letter before I left home, which I failed 
to answer, because I hoped to meet you in passing Raleigh on my 
way here. 

We have no news in Washington of any interest. 

Judge Mangum desires me to present his respects, and that you 
shall consider this a joint letter. 

From Robert Hall Morrison. A. 

Cottage Home, 

March 6th., 1843. 

A few weeks since, I received the portrait of Father Graham, 
which you were kind enough to have drawn and forwarded. I 

8 Juan Nepomuceno Almonte (1804-1869), of Mexico, was educated in the 
United States. He was aide to Santa Anna in 1836, was later secretary of state 
of Mexico, and was minister to the United States, 1841-1845, when, upon the 
annexation of Texas he demanded his passport. He was a candidate for President, 
but after defeat, was minister of war, and ambassador to France. He fought with 
distinction in the war with the United States, and was minister to Washington 
in 1853. He supported the establishment of the empire, and in 1864 was appointed 
by Maximilian marshal of the empire. He fled to France at the downfall, and 
died there. 

8 George B. Crittenden (1812-1880), a native of Kentucky, graduate of West 
Point, began the study of law, tired of it, and went to Texas. Captured at Mier, 
he was freed through the efforts of Webster and Waddy Thompson. Re-entering 
the army, he rose to major in the Mexican War, and to lieutenant colonel after- 
wards. He resigned in 1861, and, entering the Confederate army, became a 
brigadier general. He was state librarian of Kentucky, 1867-1874. 

The Papers of William A. Graham 419 

have for some time been looking for an opportunity of sending 
you the money for it; but meeting with no private conveyance 
and feeling that it ought to be paid, I have concluded to enclose 
it by mail. Enclosed you will find $45., which I understood, 
through Bro. John Graham, was the price. If in this I am mistaken, 
please to let me know it, and I will forward the balance, if there 
should be any. 

tF W w "JF "n? 

The pressure of the times is felt as sensibly as it has been. Those 
who are free from debt are very independent; but a large am't 
of property, even in this region so long noted for stability, has 
changed hands, and much more doubtless will do so before better 
prospects are realized. 

Much of the Cotton from this Section of the State has already 
been sold from 4 to 6 cents. Dispair of any relief from measures 
of the Government, during the present administration, seems to 
be general among both parties. 

I have much regretted that among other evils flowing from the 
temporary success of a reckless party, you were called to lost y'r 
Station in the Senate. But there is much consolation in the assur- 
ance, that faithful Services and unbending integrity cannot be ob- 
scured, much less prostrated, by the rage of proscription. Every 
uncompromising adherent to principle, who retires before the 
waves of party violence, carries with him all that is worth having. 

The measures of the last Legislature, if I am mistaken, will do 
more to cure the State of the chills and fevers of democracy than 
any thing that has taken place for the last ten years. 

The Whigs of this District are about to hold a Convention to 
nominate a Candidate for Congress. There is, I understand, some 
excitement, if not division, in th'r ranks. Gen'l Edney rather 
claims the field. Mr. Osborne and Mr. Barringer each have their 
friends, who wish th'r nomination. 

# # # * # 

Dr. Alexander's family are tolerably well now, after a good deal 
of sickness in the fall. Sister Violet has another (Daughter) I 
think it is. 

Uncle Sam'l Wilson died recently. 

420 N. C. Department of Archives and History 

From E. Dyer. U. 

Washington City 
March 16th. 1843. 


TT *7T TP TT w 

Judge Mangum is still here. He has been confined to his room 
for a few days, by cold & fever. He expects to be off, for the good 
old North State, in a day or two. 

Mr. Tallmadge is also confined to his room, and has been 
quite sick. 

It is rumored here now, that the Secretary of State 10 will not 
go to England; but that he will retire to Massachusetts, and be- 
come a Candidate for the Presidency— upon Mr. Cort Johnson's 11 

Whether he will have the countenance and support of the 
Government, the Lord only knows. 

Wishing you good health, with every other blessing. 

From James Graham. U. 

Raleigh, March 26th, 1843. 

#Jfe JL. Jfe JL 

w w w *n" 

I have ordered 100 of my Circulars to be sent to you at Hills- 
boro to be disposed of as you may think proper. 

I left Mangum, Rencher & Stanly at Washington. The two last 
are preparing Circular letters to the people. 

[P.S.] I have a strong suspicion that Tyler will offer Rencher 
some appointment. I seriously fear G. W. Caldwell is to super- 
cede Gaither in the Mint. 


From Joshua Tayloe. 12 U. 

« Washington, N. C, 

March 30th, 1843. 

It is in contemplation by the Whigs of this County to give a 
public Barbacue some time in the month of May in honor of our 

10 Daniel Webster. 

"William Cost Johnson (1806-1860), of Maryland, lawyer, state legislator, 1831- 
1832, Whig member of congress, 1833-1835, 1837-1843, delegate to convention of 

12 Joshua Tayloe, of Beaufort County, for many years collector at Ocracoke, 
state senator, 1844. He was the progenitor of a line of distinguished physicians 
in Washington, N. C, 

The Papers of William A. Graham 421 

late Representative, Edward Stanly, to which entertainment all 
Whigs of this Congressional district are to be invited. 

It is important that we should make the affair as improving as 
possible, to give us a good start in the comeing Canvass, which 
will probably be between Stanly and Arrington. 13 It will there- 
fore be of consequence to have as many of our prominent friends 
with us as can be prevailed on to attend, and more particularly 
the company of yourself and Mr. Mangum is desired. 

The more likely to eff